IEEJ Transactions on Power and Energy
Online ISSN : 1348-8147
Print ISSN : 0385-4213
ISSN-L : 0385-4213
Volume 114 , Issue 7-8
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • Yoshifumi Ohura
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 675
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Akihiko Yokoyama, Kunio Matsuzawa
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 676-679
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Fumio Andow
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 680-683
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Fumio Arakawa
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 684-685
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Mototaka Tubouchi, Masahiro Ito, Hiroshi Takiguchi, Ituo Syutou
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 686-692
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We developed PCM carrier pilot protective equipment for resistance ground neutral system. This protective equipment uses 1.544 Mbps loop transmission lines.
    It fealures are loop-back control on transmission trouble, preference tripping and differential relay with voltage restraint for branch terminals.
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  • Takashi Nagasawa, Kenichi Deno, Masashi Yoshimi, Kanzo Matsunaga, Kenj ...
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 693-700
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a new scheme of protection and fault location in multi-terminal high voltage lines. The new protection scheme is PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) current differential protection using OPGW (Optical Fiber Ground Wire). This scheme can be applied to protection upto 8-terminal transmission lines. This scheme has coped with the miss trip in the cause of CT-saturation. But this way have an opposite result what obstruction of trip during 4-cycle. Then, we propose the index for use of cope with the miss trip for CT-saturation.
    And above system get various information at each terminal (e.g. current data and CB-condition et al). Then, we have devloped fault location scheme using this information. It has two kinds of technique using the synchronized current data of multi-terminal lines. One technique is to measure current diversion ratio with current of each terminal. The other technique is to measure impedance using current of each terminal and voltage. This scheme can automatically choose between the two technique at fault type. The equipment using this scheme has obtained a good result in field.
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  • Eijirou Ibaragi, Masanori Toi
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 701-707
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The networks rely on distant power generation facilities, underground cables and large static capacities. In case of a fault on the lines, this sometimes causes an LC resonance circuit to generate low-frequency harmonics that are approximately twice as high as the fundamental frequency. Such low-frequency harmonics cause the deterioration of distance-measurement accuracy in distance relays. To solve this problem, distance relay based on differential equations are now used as they are affected by the higher harmonics resulting from LC resonance. However, the derivative of current with respect to time (J) is calculated by using a computer, and the accuracy of the computation greatly affects the relay performance. And conventional relays based on differential equations have the limits to detect the corrective impedance, because the term J in differentional equation is poorly computed by harmonics that are higher frequency than the low-frequency harmonics.
    By using the high-speed sampling technology, we improve the performance of distance relays based on differential equations.
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  • Takayuki Matsuda, Ken Yanagihashi, Takafumi Maeda, Kenji Ohgaki, Kanzo ...
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 708-714
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A digital relay is always required its complete operation when fault of electric power system occurs, and not to cause any maloperation when power system is normal. Considering the complex phenomena of power system and easy operation and maintenance, it is needed to improve the performance of digital process, friendliness of human interface, distinction of troubled hardware, and flexibility to constitute the digital relay system.
    In this paper, authors propose to realize them with high reliability that, (1) Human interface using display connects to main and failsafe relay individually, (2) Data exchange between CPU's of multi-cpu system must be message type with check mechanism, (3) Software of each CPU must be based on multi-task system with protective mechanism, (4) Graphic language is very useful to the reliability of software, and (5) Self check can point out the troubled card or input channel.
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  • Takasi Ichinose, Takashi Asami, Takayuki Kimura
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 715-722
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When a grid fails to be supplied with electric power, a photovoltaic generation system connected to the grid may possibly start islanding. Therefore, the photovoltaic generation system needs to have a protective equipment for detecting not only fault of the grid and the system but also islanding of the system. This paper describes the protective equipment that prevents the photovoltaic generation system connected to the grid from starting islanding. It does so by detecting (1) a periodical frequency variation of voltage caused at the connection by output of a reactive power variation of a photovoltaic inverter and (2) a rapid change of harmonic voltage caused by exciting characteristics of a pole transformer.
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  • Mamoru Suzuki, Takayuki Matsuda, Keizou Inagaki, Hiroshi Sasaki, Masaj ...
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 723-731
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Japan, electric power systems are developing with economical growth. Especially, the recent demand of electrical power in mertropolitan area becomes 2.6 times as much as in 1973 when 500kV system was first applied. It is expected that trends of increasing power demands may continue in future. To safisfy this demand, Utilities developed new transmission lines to make networks so substantial and aimed stable and efficient operation of the power system. However, this countermeasure caused extremely large fault currents at the substations where large power sources are concentrated. Problems such as large fault current beyond interrupting capacity of circuit breaker or electromagnetic interference now become very sever. To solve these difficulties, Tokyo Electric Power Company is going to develop 1, 000kV networks. Those increase the capacity of transmitted power and suppresses the fault current level by splitting the 500kV system in several parts. Considering the associated difficulties to 1, 000kV networks such as increasing capacitive current on transmission line, prolonged D. C. time constans due to large diameter of conductors and other electrical characteristics of 1, 000kV networks, we examine the applications of the reliable protection system. The results are summarized as follows. 1) To adopt multiple phase autoreclosing with high speed grounding switches to suppress secondary arcing on faulted phases 2) To adopt air core type CT for 1, 000kV busbar protection as a countermeasure against CT saturation 3) To adopt the current comparison scheme to realize sensitive protection for paralleled transformer bank. New protection system would be tested in field from 1995.
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  • Chihiro Okado, Kenichi Kimoto, Hirofumi Shinohara, Takashi Ichinose
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 732-738
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is very difficult to detect an islanding condition of a power distribution line with conventional voltage or frequency relays, while the output power and the load power of utility interactive PV inverter units are in nearly balanced state in both active power and reactive power, because a big enough voltage or frequency change can not be expected at such a balanced state.
    Many studies have been reported to complement dead bands in combination of active and passive methods to prevent the islanding so far, but none of them have been succesful. This paper presents the principle of a new active method called as slip mode frequency shift (SMS). With this method the reactive power between the inverter and the load is made unbalanced intentionaly to cause the frequency to shift as if it slips down a slide. The Performance that the dead bands are eliminated effectively in the range of practical use has been examined through simulation and experiments.
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  • Masayuki Abe, Nobuo Otsuzuki, Tokuo Emura, Masayasu Takeuchi
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 739-746
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Conventional fault location systems which use one-terminal ac voltages and currents are difficult to apply to multi-terminal systems. This paper discusses new fault location systems for multi-terminal two parallel transmission lines and single transmission lines. The feature of fault location methods in the paper is to convert the original multi-terminal system by progressively conversion to a system with one fewer terminals to arrive at a 3-terminal or a 2-terminal system containing the fault, then to apply the fault locating operation to this 2 or 3-terminal system. Asynchronous sampling at each terminal is preferred in order to simplify the communication equipment and the methods using asynchronous sampling data is presented.
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  • Kouichi Tsuji, Hikoni Yanagida, Shigeru Abe, Hiroshi Sasaki
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 747-752
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents fault characterization equipment (FCAREC) which detects fault resistances in a time sequence, in addition to the conventional determination of fault location. The objective of FCAREC is to offer improved functions to estimate causes of system faults. The equipment works by solving a circuit equation, using voltage and current data and line constants at each end of a partic-ular line. To reduce the effects of data measurement errors, a high-presition calculation based on the least squares method is used.
    Since December 1989, the prototype FCAREC equipment has been used in feasibility tests on 154kV paralled double transmission lines. During the tests, eighteen power system faults were experienced and satisfactory results were obtained in all cases.
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  • Minoru Yamamoto, Atushi Ifukube, Yoshikazu Murata, Makoto Hashimoto
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 753-758
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We are developing fault section detect system for 33kv un-grouned power line. Fault section is obtained from relation of two point zero phase current on power line. This Fault detector is composed of optical current sensors and processing unit and solar battery system. The optical current sensor consists of a Faraday cell and a porcelain bushing. Zero phase current on processing unit is get through three phase composer with auto gain control and residual current eliminater.
    This fault detector have a ability of 0.15A zero phase current detection in factory test. And in field test this fault detector detect earth fault in twice.
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  • Ken Yanagihashi, Takafumi Maeda, Toshiaki Fujimoto
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 759-768
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, dispersed-generator such as co-generation facilities or solar battery and the like become increasingly popular. From the viewpoint of energy effective and electric power demand for stable secure, the dump power from the system interconnection is expected to use positively. But in case of interconnecting dispersed-generator to the commercial system of the electric company, two problems will occur when operating in isolation with the other general consumers. One is of the power quality for the general consumers. And the other one is of the security problem caused by charging a part of commercial system line that has to be no voltage.
    For the reason above, the transfer tripping system is necessary for preventing from the islanding in case of interconnecting dispersed-generator, comparatively large co-generation system (2, 000kW or more) and the like, to high-voltage system. However, the transfer tripping system that there are some switches in the transmisson line needs many equipments and comunication lines to collect switches' information, because it detects the islanding from the “on-off” information of all switches.
    Therefor, we develop new system that the voltage difference between the commercial system side and dispersed-generator side detects isolated operating without switches' information.
    For the realization of this system, we study the operating principle of the digital relay that detects accuracy the differential phase angle and the differntial frequency between two power sources of the different frequency after cutting off the interconnection.
    In addition we present the example of the application to 66kV loop service system.
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  • Takayuki Matsuda, Kazuyoshi Yoshida, Takafumi Maeda, Takayuki Yokoyama ...
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 769-776
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Microprocessor-based protection relay has been developed in 1980. It is widely applied to both HV and EHV system by means of an improvement on electronic components and data transmission system pro-vided with higher capacity and reliability.
    Improved relaying system for the next generation is expected to have higher performance for the discrimination of the fault, functions for multi-purpose use of acquired data, easy operation and maintenance, and also have friendly man-machine interface. From these prospects, we developed ad-vanced digital protection relay for the next generation.
    This paper describes the improvements in operability and maitainability of the developed relay. Also, the configuration of human-machine interface and its advantages by applying a flat display panel with touch sensor for easy operation are explained.
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  • Takayuki Matsuda, Ken Yanagibashi, Takafumi Maeda, Tomio Chiba, Mitsuy ...
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 777-784
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Power system control and protection equipment has required higher sensitibity and operational reliability than conventional one.
    Studies of digital signal processing suitable for electric power systems fullfil this objection using fast sampling and digital filtering by a 32-bit DSP (Digital Signal Processor).
    The fast sampling rate of 4.8kHz is carefully selected a point of view of A-D conversion time, operational ability of DSP for digital filter, the size of analog filter and the power spectrums of the A-D conversion output errors. The new analog input unit using a 16-bit A-D converter equipped with a recursive-type digital filter achieved high resolution of 14-bit conversion.
    This paper describes the design concept and high-precision techniques of analog input unit for advanced digital protection relays. In addition, measured total A-D conversion errors filtered by the digital filters are described along with new analog filter characteristics.
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  • Hideyuki Kameda, Gen'ichiro Yuzawa, Yoshinori Ichikawa
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 785-791
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The response analysis program of various protective relay systems has been developed, which program is able to analyze relay systems' responses against power system faults with high accuracy and also to check the setting values and coordination among relay systems.
    Various relay systems are simulated by arbitrarily assembling six kinds of elements( relay, logic, timer, etc.). Relay elements are newly classified into 28 kinds of functions by concerning their principles and characteristics, which are able to cover relay systems installed for 66kV and above transmission system.
    Voltage and current distribution on power system are calculated using method of symmetrical coordinates which are expanded from the fault calculation part of the power system dynamic analysis program (developed by CRIEPI).
    It is confirmed that this program is useful for operation and has enough accuracy for analysis of relay systems through simulations of real power systems at various complex faults.
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  • Nobuo Fujita, Ryozo Ichie, Shigeaki Ogawa, Hiroyuki Kudo, Chihiro Fuku ...
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 792-799
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper introduces a protective relay setting system capable of handling a large network upto 10000 buses. The remarkable features are the useful functions such as network analysis (fault analysis, load flow calculation, zero-sequence current calculation, etc.), relay operation simulation, and automated setting coordination tasks. Fault currents in the maximum and the minimum operation networks are calculated to examine the setting values. The protection zones are automatically searched along the network connection. Protection coordination tasks among the primary and the backup relays composed of different types of relays can be performed by the relay operation simulation.
    The system is built on an engineering work station, which works in cooperation with other network operation support systems. Its graphical user interface helps every engineer to examine the relay setting using a variety of databases.
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  • Ken Yanagihashi, Takafumi Maeda, Tokuo Emura, Tatsuya Ikada, Toyoshi H ...
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 800-806
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The power capacitor and the AC filter are used for the reliable supply of electric power. For the protection of the power capacitor system, the over-load relay must be very accurate, because the operating voltage in power system is nearly the limited level of the power capacitor. For the protection of the AC filter system, the effective value must be detected from the filtercurrent which is mixed of fundamental and harmonics. So, we developed and produced the relay systems using new algorithms, high rate sampling, digital filter, R.M. S. calculation. On this paper, we report the characteristic of the protections and the algorithms.
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  • Takeshi Nagata, Hiroshi Sasaki, Minoru Kitagawa, Hiroaki Sugihara
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 807-813
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Power system apparatuses are often deenergized for maintenance, followed by reenergization. Switching operations to change the network configuration are performed according to a predetermined switching sequence list. So far, a dispatcher in the power system control center manually makes up a switching sequence list in consideration of network conditions and security. In recent years, knowledge based approaches have been proposed and implemented in real systems. However, this sort of approaches tends to be expensive in real implementation. One of main causes of high implementation cost lies in the requirement of high performance computers.
    In this research, we have developed an economical knowledge based system for supporting the power system operation procedure which can be implemented on personal computers. This expert system has the following characteristics:
    (1) It can automatically make up a valid switching sequence list for any network configuration, and verify switching sequence lists by simulating the switching operations on the graphic monitor.
    (2) It can also verify the knowledge base by dynamic verification technique.
    (3) Two personal computers are linked by serial interface to simulate a control center. The display scrolling and the voice annoucement are also implemented on the system.
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  • Yuuichi Wada, Suenobu Hamano, Teijirou Mori
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 814-820
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A sodium current limiter, which has been developed and applied for low voltage use, is not a current limiting fuse but a new type of reusable current limiting device which utilizes metallic sodium as a fusible element. The excellent current limiting performance and the quick self-rehealing properties of the sodium limiter allowed highly reliable electric power systems to be obtained economically and compactly.
    In this paper we experimentally examine the rehealing properties of the sodium limiter after current limiting operation and discuss the over current coordination of the sodium limiter for a low voltage distribution system. The results are summarized below. (1) The resistance of the sodium limiter, being between about one thousand and several thousand times its normal resistance ro at room temperature during a current limiting operation of short circuit fault currents, changes abruptly to 30 to 40 times its ro value just after the disappearance of the fault current and falls steadily to r_??_.
    (2) The sodium limiter can recover current carrying capability for a over load current even imme-diately after a current limiting operation and maintain its capability for the following normal load current. The upper limit of the recovery of the sodium limiter is given by its over current against the time characteristics under the normal condition.
    (3) The self-rehealing characteristics of the sodium limiter presented here give the ability to design a low voltage motor control center using the sodium limiter which maintains maximum service continuity up to high fault currents.
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  • Yasuhiro SATO, Shohei TAKEDA, Hiroshi YOSHIMOTO, Kunikazu INOUE
    1994 Volume 114 Issue 7-8 Pages 821-829
    Published: July 20, 1994
    Released: December 19, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A capacitor bank system for pulsed power use of high current is described. According to a development plan for screw pinch plasma, a medium sized plasma experimental machine TPE-2 was constructed. The specific characteristics for bank system are as follows; the coil current is 1.5_??_4 MA, the pulse duration is 1 ms, the rising time of current is _??_3μ s and the inductance for bank system is the minimized value of a few nH. To realize the required mission for bank system, several components such as a high energy density capacitor, a high voltage co-axial cable, a high current contact were developed. A start gap switch of high performance (fitter time<20 ns at operating voltage=25-80 kV), which was the most important component for realizing the bank system, was developed after the three stages of manufacturing for trial. The machine has been operated for over ten years and the total number of operation becomes 18000, which was near the designed life time of bank system. The start switches have been kept constant in switching characteristics, and the bank system has been stably operated by the assistance of a switch monitoring system.
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