In developed countries, more than 70% of the people lives in urbanized areas. This causes the fact that low population density urban areas are expanding resulting from promotion of motor vehicle transportation, and hollowing out in centers of cities with more energy consuming structure. These phenomenon increase discharges of carbon dioxide, waste, and other pollutants, thus a new city structure should be explored. Among others, environmentally friendly city has been drawing attention. The concept of environmentally friendly city refers to less environmental load and higher amenity. This article focuses on an environmentally friendly city. From this point, the authors have already developed static computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of Obihiro metropolitan area in Hokkaido prefecture, Japan. However, the environmentally friendly city has a dynamic nature. Therefore this paper aims to extend the authors’ previous models into an intertemporal framework, maximizing the sum of discounted household utility function under a scenario of future decreasing population that reflects the current trend of population growth in Japan. And then the intertemporal economic impacts of promotion of waste recycling are numerically analyzed by applying the new model. Finally cases of decreasing and increasing populations of the study area are compared with showing the economic implication of decreasing population.
Industrial clusters provide an interesting example of local systems of production that are facing global competition. The firms’ processes acquire raw materials, convert them into final products, and deliver final products to retailers. Short and long range transfers of materials and energy are becoming crucial for clusters’ competitiveness. Logistics activities have a particular importance for geographic clusters where production activities and residences are remarkably diffused and this results in high mobility and environmental problems. The coordination of transport demand implies a new integration and organization of logistics not only to reduce costs and enhance management control, but also to reduce their impact on the environment. In the paper, we propose the use of an enterprise input-output model to analyse logistics flows in order to support coordination policy at the level of the whole industrial cluster. First, logistics flows between firms’ processes are modelled aggregating similar processes to create a complete account for logistics flows in the industrial cluster. Successively, considering the disaggregated representation of processes, different coordination policies for logistics flows ranging from hierarchy to market are examined and modelled. The effects of such policies on input-output coefficients of the industrial cluster model and on logistics performance are evaluated. A case study related to an Italian cluster producing leather upholstery is considered and different coordination policies are compared also in terms of impact on productivity and environment.
The traditional input-output table reflects the intermediate flows between industries and allows for the calculation of the main indicators of the System of National Accountig, e.g. the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The study at hand introduces an input-output table for Germany that additionally subdivides each cell by gender. Thus women’s and men’s contribution to produce intermediate products and to satisfy final demand can be given. This in turn allows for an identification of women’s and men’s GDP. In order to derive the gender-specific input-output table, German time use data are combined with the traditional monetary input-output table and its inverse matrix for the year 2000. While the IOT provides information about the industries’ outputs, time use data determine the gender-specific workload. Finally the genders’ level of qualification is taken into account. This, in turn, allows for a more precise identification of the gender-specific quality of work.
This paper aims at analyzing regional impact throughout Asian-Pacific as a result of free trade agreement between Japan and Thailand. To analyze regional impact, Asian International Input-Output Model is constructed basing on 4-data set of Asian international input-output table developed by Institute of Developing Economies (IDE). The model estimates income, price, and substitution elasticities providing insight to behavioral parameters. Moreover, sector prices are modeled taking into account international comparison of purchasing power using data from UNSTAT and Eurostat(1994).
This paper examines which region in China would be suitable as a location for CDM projects using the Multi-Regional Input-Output Table China 2000. The criteria for selection used in this research include such socio-economic effects as output and employment increase induced by CDM projects, spillover effects of technology transferred by CDM projects from advanced countries and such environmental effects as reduction of CO2 and SO2 emissions by CDM projects. As a result of simulation analysis, the ‘South coast’, ‘North municipalities’, and the ‘Central region’ were found to be potential candidates as suitable regions for a site of CDM projects based on comprehensive evaluation of the above-mentioned criteria.
Among orthogonal wavelets, Shannon’s wavelets are very simple but have the demerit that they are not well localized and decay slowly. Meyer’s wavelets, which are obtained by modifying Shannon’s wavelets, decay fast. For the general harmonic wavelets defined in a finite interval of time, an orthogonal system of rapidly decaying harmonic wavelets is constructed, and the wavelet expansion in terms of them is formulated.
It is well known that the linear Green function is symmetric as a two variable function. However it is not known whether the nonlinear Green function is symmetric or not. Moreover it is not known even whether that is quasi-symmetric or not, which means that the symmetric ratio of the nonlinear Green function is bounded or not. In this article we show that, for every tree, there exists a resistance such that the nonlinear Green function is quasi-symmetric; also we show that, for every tree, there exists a resistance such that the nonlinear Green function is not quasi-symmetric.