We have developed a cryopreservation method that uses a single-component super-adiabatic two-fluid de Laval nozzle for the continuous production of solid nitrogen particles with a micro-nano-order particle size. The cell viability results showed that use of the solid nitrogen spray improved cell viability at the time of thawing by more than 20% compared with the conventional liquid nitrogen immersion freezing method. By using the present dynamic spray cooling method that avails of the synergistic effect of impingement heat transfer, convective heat transfer, and evaporation latent heat transfer of solid nitrogen particles, the new vitrification method reduces the cell membrane disruption caused by ice nucleation, crystal growth, and volume expansion.
We present a new network model accounting for multidimensional assortativity. Each node is characterized by a number of features and the probability of a link between two nodes depends on common features. We do not fix a priori the total number of possible features. The bipartite network of the nodes and the features evolves according to a stochastic dynamics that depends on three parameters that respectively regulate the preferential attachment in the transmission of the features to the nodes, the number of new features per node, and the power-law behavior of the total number of observed features. Our model also takes into account a mechanism of triadic closure. We provide theoretical results and statistical estimators for the parameters of the model. We validate our approach by means of simulations and an empirical analysis of a network of scientific collaborations.
We show that every matrix all of whose entries are in a fixed subgroup of the group of units of a commutative ring with identity is equivalent to a standard form. As a consequence, we improve the proof of Theorem 5 in D. Best, H. Kharaghani, H. Ramp [Disc. Math. 313 (2013), 855–864].
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