Skin color has been studied for color rendering since 1950s. The studies contained skin color of photographs and real skin. However, virtual skin color also became important with developing display recently. In this study, animation skin color was dealt with the main theme, although it has never been treated as a subject before. Two-dimensional animation face images, the farthest from real face, were used as stimuli. In experiments, tolerantly-accepted, preferred, more preferred, and the most preferred skin color were investigated by the cascade selection method. In results, the data points of 50% subjects' consistency fitted ellipses for animation skin color. Moreover, representations of skin color appeared different lightness according facial shapes. In addition, preferred skin colors of animation facial images appeared different in properties from real skin colors, portraits and photographic images. Therefore, skin color representation changes depending on the degree of realism with illuminants and shadows.
Painful thermal stimulation is known to inhibit the itch sensation, which is a significant problem for many diseases. We focused on the thermal grill illusion, which is well-known phenomenon that can generate pain or a burning sensation without physical damage; we tried to achieve a similar effect via thermal stimulation at a harmless temperature. We have developed a roller-type itch-relief device. When the device is rolled on the user's skin, the skin is alternately exposed to hot and cold stimuli. In addition, vibration is applied so that a virtual scratching feeling is presented without damaging the skin. This paper evaluates the device by eliciting an itch using a lactic acid solution and then applying the device. Results show that the device is effective in terms of relieving the itch sensation, and the effect continued for 8 minutes.
Techniques for modeling hierarchical and multidimensional human perceptual and affective experiences afford further understanding of the affective values of humans with regard to products and services. In this study, we developed a method for the graphical modeling of texture-related perceptual and affective experiences, which were expressed by adjectives. The method enables the establishment of semantically causal relationships among the adjectives using the results of a standard sensory evaluation task based on adjective rating. The initial model was simplified by covariance selection to enable the definition of the causalities based on the assumption that the perception of the physical aspects of material surfaces produces affective and more personal experiences. For the purpose of validation through an experiment, we applied the developed method to the textures of 46 different flat materials and developed a model that was logically comparable to previously developed models. The proposed graphical modeling method promises to facilitate the design of product surfaces and an analysis of the subjective feelings induced by touching them.
Unintended accelerations (UA) occur in vehicles unexpectedly and uncontrollably. Every year, numerous critical injury and death cases related to UA occur. Recently, researches related to the development of automated driving systems are attracting a lot of attention among researchers and vehicle manufacturers. Additionally, silent vehicles such as electric power and hybrid vehicle are increasing. However, there are negative effects on driver safety. Recognition time (RT) and recognition velocity (RV) are some of the important factors lead to avoiding crashes. Early detections give the drivers more time in decision-making toward the UA hazards. In this study, RT and RV toward UAs under various environments were analysed. The findings highlighted that RTs toward UAs were longer in no engine sound environment. Drivers were unable to respond to UA earlier in silent vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. The findings provide insights that can be useful in developing automation vehicle and silent vehicle.
We examined the effect of mindfulness meditation on self-motion perception (vection). We measured the strength of vection after two conditions: with- and without-meditation. The results showed that vection was significantly weaker in the with-meditation condition than without-meditation condition. We speculated that mindfulness meditation induced lower arousal level in the participants and such modulation in the participants' self-sensation could inhibit vection. We conclude that vection strength can be modulated by our mental states.
Affective designs need to take into account the existence of considerable individual differences in people's emotions. In this study, individual differences in appraisal structure of knowledge emotions were addressed. Participants viewed puzzling and intriguing pictures and rated their unintelligibility and consequential feelings of interest and confusion. Rather large individual differences in the relations between unintelligibility appraisals and ensuing knowledge emotions of interest and confusion were found. These individual differences of appraisals were shown to be related to individual differences in trait curiosities by multi-level analysis. On average people with high trait diversive curiosity have tendency to feel more interest when they found pictures more unintelligible. By contrast people with high trait specific curiosity have tendency to feel more confusion when they found pictures more unintelligible.
Protective frame is a feature of experience in which individuals find a situation as protecting them from negative consequences, and enables them to experience positive rather than negative emotions. We examined whether fictionality of stimuli acts as a protective frame. Participants rated their positive and negative emotions induced by fictional or non-fictional film stimuli including fearful or disgusting content, and completed a questionnaire measuring their mood. Results indicated that disgusting-fictional stimulus induced weaker disgust compared to disgusting-non-fictional stimulus, while fictionality showed no such effect on fearful stimuli. Stronger perceived fictionality was associated with stronger interest in the film and urge to continue watching the film. We suggest that fictionality decreases disgust and increases positive emotion towards negative stimuli.