In this study, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) survey data obtained from 927 female nurses were analyzed through two-group comparisons of high and low stressors, stress response, support, and satisfaction level, and through four-group comparisons of different family structures focusing on the marital and child status. Moreover, covariant structure analyses using the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model was performed. Results revealed that individuals with high stressors had high-stress responses and low support. By contrast, individuals with high levels of satisfaction had low stressors, low-stress responses, and high support. Next, between the four groups based on family structure, significant differences were observed in stressors, such as “low degree of job control” and in stress responses, such as “physical complaints.” In the MIMIC model, the “status of stress” was mainly dominated by stressor factors compared to support factors.
As one of the high-value-added prints, embellished metallic prints via digital on-demand metallic foil printing have been of interest. Due to their eye-catching appearance, they are suitable for commercial prints, such as cosmetic packages and advertisements. Despite an expanding market, color management of the metallic prints still depends on visual judgment and the prescribed index of metallic taste has not yet been defined. Since the absence of an index has decreased productivity of people involved in this market, such an index based on perception has been needed. Thus, we suggest an index calculated from the lightness distribution of the real metallic images. The index possessed a linear correlation with perception and distinguished several appearances of the metallic images. It should be useful for several creative scenes in this market.
Security in almost every field has often been implemented in a haphazard manner because a systematic approach has not yet been developed. To address this problem, we propose a context insensitive definition of security from a phenomenological perspective as well as its mathematical model through which we can understand the essence of security. Formalized syntax on security can be viewed as maintaining smooth operations even in the face of disturbances. Applying information theory to this syntax, we derive a mathematical model applicable to any situation where the term “security” appears and can understand what security is. Syntactic similarity between communication and security allows us to understand the essence of security and also to quantify security. These understandings free security from ad-hoc ways or best practices, limited to a single domain and not well-defined, depending on the Kansei, or intuition of the person in charge.
To construct a salivary cytokine panel that best reflects happiness and arousal levels associated with Touch Massage. The study utilized a cross-over design where forty healthy Japanese women were randomly assigned to receive a standardized Touch Massage (experimental) or no massage (control) initially. Questionnaires were administered at regular intervals to qualitatively assess the happiness and arousal levels during each session and saliva samples obtained concomitantly. The saliva samples were analyzed subsequently with a multiplexed immunoassay. Touch Massage interventions enhanced mood states and the effects were manifested in the varying levels of select salivary cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-9 and IL-17A. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that a combination of the two salivary cytokines showed excellent discriminant capability (area under the curve: 0.916) of positive mood states. The quantifiable relationships between touch sensation, immune mediators and emotional states could be useful for guiding practitioners delivering touch therapy.
Scent and music are acknowledged to generate physiological and psychological changes on people, and the combination of scent and music is exerted in diverse situations. However, effects and utilization of scent and music in confined resting environment have not been examined exhaustively. To investigate the effects of scent and music on people’s moods and stress in confined resting areas, towards a better understanding about the olfactory and auditory environment, we tested six combinations of scent and music. The results indicated that music hardly changed people’s stress evaluation, but had significant effects on moods. On the other hand, scent dramatically affected both moods and stress assessment. Profound comprehension about scent and music will offer further inspiration for the design of olfactory and auditory environment in confined spaces, and new knowledge and perspectives gained through this exploratory study will serve to the thorough and supplementary research in the future.
How do peoples’ educational backgrounds affect peoples’ visual estimations of the physical stability and center of mass of objects? To address this, we tested peoples’ aesthetic and stability evaluations of inclined triangular shapes among those with different educational backgrounds, specifically in engineering and art & design. The results showed that people prefer objects that appear stable; however, art & design students tend to emphasize the beauty of unstable objects. Additionally, participants linearly estimated objects’ stability based on the visual information for its center of mass, with this being affected by one’s educational background as well as any present geometric-optical illusions. Engineering students tended to more severely evaluate the instability of objects, while those with an art & design background demonstrated a more flexible mindset - they evaluated similar trends as the engineering participants for unstable stimuli, but, for apparently stable stimuli, they had similar evaluation trends to those of general students.
The growing maturity of autonomous driving technology has enabled designers to study how to give car owners better driving experience. However, the study of the auditory interaction between the pedestrian and the autonomous car is still not known sufficiently. The goal of this research is to study the user experience, real emotional feedback of the pedestrian for alarm sounds from the autonomous car. The whole research included one online survey and two experiments. There were three samples of sound used in this study: engine sounds, bells, and soft alarms. Experiments were conducted with factors such as sound preferences, the risk of sound, and different road environments analyzed the differences in pedestrian intelligence processing. The results of the user preference showed participants preferred soft sounds and noticeable sounds. However, pedestrians can feel sounds convey degrees of risk, but sound conveys the level of risk that is not affected by the environment.
This study proposes a method of modeling a decision-making process using the decision tree. A simulation experiment was conducted to collect cases of decision making. Then, a modeling method using the decision tree was applied to the experimental results. The obtained decision tree enabled the authors to visually identify the differences in Kansei depending on the person. Finally, the authors compared and examined the differences in the number of nodes in the decision tree according to whether there was a particular attachment to the products. The results confirmed that the differences in Kansei were reflected in the differences in the structure of the decision tree. Using this Kansei decision tree method, it was possible to extract and quantitatively evaluate the factors that influence its structure. This was attained by expressing the Kansei decision-making process using the decision tree and comparing its structure.
Cooperation is motivated through internal impressions of different situations. This paper hypothesized that playing dynamic group games can lead to more positive impressions of group members and, in turn, higher levels of cooperation. A study was conducted with 42 participants, aged 7 to 12 y/o, to perform one of the following group activities: Play an Energetic or a Relaxing Dance Game, or; Perform a Group Conversation. Afterwards, participants evaluated their self and group affective impressions. A Reward-sharing task was conducted to evaluate Group Trust levels and Cooperative Dispositions. Participants in both Game Group conditions significantly perceived their group members as more energetic and displayed higher Group Trust levels than participants in the Group Conversation condition. The more energetic participants perceived their group members, the higher were their group trust levels. Results suggest that, by influencing group energy impressions, group games can immediately motivate cooperation among children.
The spacing and curvature of dots are assumed to be factors determining the roughness sensation of a dot pattern. We investigated the relationship between these two parameters and the roughness sensation. We used a three-dimensional printer to produce samples with different combinations of curvature and spacing, and conducted a sensory evaluation to select combinations presenting the same sense of roughness from among them. Experimental results showed that the contour lines of the same sense of roughness are concave and monotone decreasing on the dot curvature versus dot spacing plane. It was found that the roughness sensation is proportional to the logarithm of dot curvature, adopting a previously obtained result that the roughness sensation is proportional to the logarithmic value of the dot spacing. The experiment also revealed non-negligible differences in contour lines among participants and possibility of sorting them into three groups with different roughness perception.