International Journal of Japan Association for Management Systems
Online ISSN : 2188-2460
Print ISSN : 1884-2089
ISSN-L : 1884-2089
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Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Tomohiro MAEKAWA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This was the first study to analyze changes in Open Innovation (hereinafter “OI”) tactics caused by deteriorating business environment objectively and quantitatively for one enterprise or group of enterprises. In this study, changes in OI tactics caused by deteriorating business environment were revealed with quantitatively analyzing patent applications of Toray group. Firstly, R&D areas was analyzed. In the analysis, the ratio of inventors other than Toray was used. Secondly, R&D focusing activities was analyzed. In the analysis, the ratio of patent applications / R&D investment amount was calculated. The analysis result revealed that production of core technology output was strengthening in Toray's OI tactics after Lehman shock.
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  • Mina KOGURE, Shigemitsu MOROKAMI
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 7-12
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Posting negative comments on viral websites can be regarded as a kind of complaint behavior, that adequate responses to those negative e-WOMs from supplier may cure customer's dissatisfaction and are effective to their repurchasing decision making. In our previous study, we have examined the effect of replies and found that responding to negative review had positive effect. Also, the effect of empathetic response differed depending on customer's motivation for posting negative e-WOMs. However, some factors relating customers' attributes or purchasing contexts are not well discussed. Based on these backgrounds, we have examined how the customers' gender and the attributes of merchandize may figure in, with respect to the psychological effect that supplier's empathetic response may have on customers who write negative reviews. 881 participants were surveyed by web-based questionnaire to measure the psychological effect of reply itself and the empathy expressed in it. The results showed that gender of the contributor and controllability of the problem are both significantly affecting the evaluation of supplier's responses. While in case of “low controllable” problem, the results agree well with earlier studies, in case of “high controllable” problem, empathetic comments worked negatively. This study implicates that the type of response expected for negative reviews is qualitatively different from what is expected in the case of a ‘complaint' which requires certain response from the supplier.
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  • Mamoru UEHARA, Masanobu MATSUMARU
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 13-23
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Numerous multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) methods have been proposed to support decision making: the evaluation and selection of alternatives based on multiple criteria. This study proposes a new three-factor fuzzy information channel model by expanding a two-factor fuzzy information channel model for MCDM problems. The two-factor fuzzy information channel model estimates criteria selection ratios for two selection criteria: one quantitative crisp criterion and one qualitative fuzzy criterion. We propose a three-factor fuzzy information channel model (model 1, weightless) to handle three criteria by increasing the number of qualitative fuzzy criteria to two. Next, we propose a weighted fuzzy information channel model (model 2, weighted) that considers the subjective weights of decision makers (DMs) for criteria. The proposed models resolve MCDM problems based on randomness–fuzziness entropy using both entropy for randomness and entropy for fuzziness, and can estimate the selection ratios of criteria based on a simple model. We study the performance of the proposed models by comparing them with the fuzzy multiobjective linear model, which is another MCDM method, using a practical supplier selection example.
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  • Hiroaki ISHII
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 25-28
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Several researchers have been interested in inventory control for a perishable product. Here we introduce a combinatorial sale in order to reduce the outdating quantities. Here we consider the following problem: (1) Single perishable product with two life time period. That is, for a period, an amount of old one (remaining life time period is 1) in the stock is given as 𝑥 and under this condition we should determine an ordering quantity 𝑥of the fresh one (remaining life time period is 2 (2) Ordering takes a place at the start of the period. The unit purchasing cost of the product is 𝑐. (3) Issuing policy is LIFO, that is, customer buys fresh one first and if fresh one is sold out, only some percent of customers overflowed from purchase of the fresh one buy the old one. This percentage is at most 100𝑞. Unit selling price of the fresh one is 𝑟 and that of old one is 𝑟 satisfying 𝑟〓𝑟〓𝑐 (4)Prominent feature of our model is a combination sale, that is, we sell a set of products consisting of the fresh and old ones at the discount unit price 𝑟 satisfying 𝑟〓𝑐〓𝑟〓𝑟〓𝑟, At most 100𝑝 percent of the customers purchasing the fresh one accept the promotion set, that is, buy the old one with the fresh one at the same time but 𝑝〓𝑞. (5)The old one that is not purchased by the customer and remained outdates and is discarded at the unit cost 𝜃. The fresh one not purchased by the customer is stocked at the unit cost and we assume that unit shortage costs is 𝐿 fuzzy number. (6)The demand 𝐷 of the customer: nonnegative random variable. Its cumulative distribution function and density function: 𝐹〓𝐷〓,𝑓〓𝐷〓〓. We introduce 𝐿 fuzzy order and we seek some non-dominated ordering quantities considering pessimistic case, most possible case and optimistic case of shortage cost.
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  • Takumi KATO
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 29-34
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Customers are exposed to large quantities of advertisements daily and often struggle to process them. As a result, customers tend to avoid them entirely. The popularization of digital video recorders, which allow television advertisements to be skipped entirely, has made this even easier. Hence, some scholars argue that television advertisements are less influential than in the past. However, companies think that television advertisements may still be effective in expanding awareness of new products, so they have not been able to lower the cost of television advertising. In fact, the scale of television advertisements in Japan has remained almost constant over the last 10 years. This study examined the effective contact frequency of television advertisements for attracting customers to the website of Japanese automobile manufacturers, particularly whether the frequency was inferior to the “three-hit theory.” As it is difficult for respondents to accurately report contact frequency, television viewing and Web browsing data (smartphone, PC), which were linked via ID numbers, were used. The study findings showed that the three-hit theory held, although the effective frequency differed somewhat depending on the presence/absence of celebrities, the advertisement length, and the broadcasting time zone. With many companies concerned about the decline in business performance and lack of efficiency in television advertisements, this study offers companies the means to refine their marketing promotion plans.
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  • Shuichiro YAMAMOTO, Shuji MORISAKI
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 35-40
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Assurance case is widely recognized as the fundamental document to certify safety critical systems. Several assurance case review methods are proposed to validate correctness of syntax rules, and traceability among artifacts and assurance cases. However, it is not established to review assurance cases from the point of target configuration information to be assured. In this paper, an assurance case review approach is proposed based on system theory. The proposed approach uses a system diagram to represent configuration information such as artifact models, quality attributes, and risk definitions. The primary contribution of this paper is a framework for reviewing assurance cases based on sytem theoretic information extracted from target assurance cases to satisfy description rules.
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  • Keisuke SHINAGAWA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 41-48
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Despite scientific innovation draws in the natural sciences, the scientific innovation literature does not address the way underlying path dependency in scientific community makes possible or impossible new product technologies that lead to the development of new products. This paper focuses on the uncertainty in the technology innovation environment caused by scientific progress by examining the competitive research between two areas of research: extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL) ; both research streams aim to develop nanometer-scale pattern technologies for LSIs fabrication. Using data from a bibliometric survey and interviews with researchers and experts, the study found that path dependency is affected by the nature of scientific progress and continuous, cumulative growth. Paying little attention to other research areas also strengthens path dependency. High-tech firms tend to choose a class with high expectations of success while ignoring other classes. Uncertainty in the technology innovation environment could be prompted when one class succeeds, and the others are exhausted. Therefore, this paper suggests that high-tech firms should diversify R&D portfolios to introduce more than one class of science.
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  • Sunhee KWON, Takaaki KAWANAKA, Hiroshi YAMASHITA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 49-54
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: January 01, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study focuses on consumers' emotional states (both positive and negative) and analyzes the effect that consumers' emotional states have on their menu selection behavior, along with the impact that this has on how messages (fuzzy messages) are received. To achieve this, we first test subjects by evoking certain feelings through the application of different stimuli. For positive feedback, we play music to test the subjects; for negative feedback, we expose the subjects to a noise source. Next, we conduct a questionnaire on the attractiveness of a restaurant menu using the menu profile designed by the L8(27) type orthogonal array of the experimental design method, and analyze the collected data.
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  • Yusuke MIYOSHI, Haruhiko TSUZUKI, Hiroaki ITAKURA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 55-59
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper analyzes how to suppress the incentive for management to carry out illegal acts through both the number of shareholdings and the compensation agreement. Specifically, if management owns shares beyond the optimal shareholding ratio, corporate scandals can be kept to a minimum. In other words, it is possible to minimize corporate scandals by allocating shares to management. However, in a situation where management owns a lot of shares, it is not possible to maximize the corporate value the owner desires. Thus, in the case where a person with a low shareholding is appointed as top manager, it is better to transfer shares to the top management by stock options etc. than by managers' salaries to discourage illegal acts.
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  • Akira NAGAMATSU, Yuji TOU
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 61-66
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chinese dairy firms have grown rapidly in recent years. However, they often face issues related to the quality of their products. Assuming that Chinese dairy companies do not effectively use quality information, the present study elucidates the factors that hold back companies in their use of quality information. The study hypothesizes that (1) Chinese dairy firms are inefficient in evaluating the execution level of business process rules, and (2) these companies are unable to improve their business process for lack of effective utilization of quality information. The results are verified using the Nikkei database and through interviews with executives of Chinese dairy firms. The result of the first hypothesis revealed quality issues faced by a large Chinese dairy company. Similarly, the verification results of hypothesis (2) confirmed that the efforts of large companies were insufficient. Based on these study results, it was presumed that Chinese dairy firms are not mature enough to be able to effectively utilize quality information and that the factors hindering this maturity are that Chinese dairy firms are inefficient in evaluating the level of execution of business process rules and that these companies are unable to improve their business process for lack of effective utilization of quality information.
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  • A Comparative Study of the Handwritten POP Effect
    Yuji TOU, Akira NAGAMATSU, Shunsuke SHIIGI
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 67-72
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The point-of-purchase (POP) display is an effective tool used to increase the customer's desire to purchase. Well-designed POP displays can impel more sales. Moreover, creating a high-quality POP display requires the clear sense and experience of its generator and there is a high demand for standardization to stably create quality POP displays that match consumers' sensitivities. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the requirements of creating POP displays that are alluring to the consumer's mind and to standardize stably-generating, high-quality POP displays by reducing factors that are dependent on individual skills in POP creation in order to meet market expectations. Experimental designs using handmade POPs were displayed with the cooperation of a supermarket to examine their effect on customer behavior and the effectiveness of the POP-creation template provided. The results indicate that such displays have a positive effect and likewise demonstrate the effectiveness of our templates.
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  • Kei TAKAHASHI
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 73-80
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper derives the exact necessary and sufficient constraints on the dissimilarity coefficients in the Generalized Nested Logit (GNL) model. Previous studies have assumed the Nested Logit (NL) model’s dis similarity coefficients lie within the unit interval, consistent with random utility maximization. However,those previous studies relaxed constraints on dissimilarity coefficients only for the NL model. We derived constraints on the dissimilarity coefficients for the GNL model. We tested the consistency by deriving the constraints of the NL model from those of the GNL model. Then, we proposed the parameter estimation method under derived constraints. We performed the parameter estimation using POS data from supermarkets. As a result, we obtained higher likelihoods and catching rates compared with the previous conditions.
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  • Market Orientation and Informational Resources
    Yoshito MATSUDAIRA, Takashi NATORI
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 81-89
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1074K)
  • Using A Matrix with the Three Axes of Target Employee, Life Cycle Stage, and HRM Policy Choices
    Yusuke SATO, Nobuyuki KOBAYASHI, Seiko SHIRASAKA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 91-101
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study aims to derive challenges by reviewing the papers which refer to the relation among HRM Policy Choices, HR Outcomes, and Feedback Process to HRM Policy Choices from HR Outcomes for revealing areas that have been studied and those that have not. As a result, there was only one piece of research into the construction and operation of a HR System which combined the Harvard Model with Systems Engineering. Many papers verify HR Outcome, however, they used not HR Outcomes defined in Harvard Model but items set by themselves. In addition, most papers refer to only the verification of outcomes. There was a little paper suggesting such a process to give feedback to the HR system and to improve it. Therefore, we created a new matrix using the three axes of target employee, life cycle stage, and HRM Policy Choices. The novelty of this paper is to adopt the axis of Human Resource Choices instead of Human Resource Flow. The matrix reveals areas of research that have been studied and ones that have not. we discovered the methodological novelty that this paper has potential to identify issues and change HR system based on feedback process. In addition to helping existing organizations improve their HR systems, new companies may be able to shorten the lead time to build an appropriate HR system as they build new organizations. This paper will contribute to the management system because it finds areas to strengthen the HR System utilizing the result of deriving challenges by reviewing the above papers.
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  • A Case Study of Malaysian Public Hospitals
    Fatin Aminah HASSAN, Nobuaki MINATO
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 103-110
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study elucidates system structure modelling of how the growing number of patients impacts healthcare service utilization. A dynamic causal loop diagram (CLD) as a qualitative aspect of system dynamics model is employed to provide a holistic view of feedback relationships between patient pathways to the hospital and the supply of healthcare,including factors such as healthcare financing, physicians, and hospital beds. On the basis of knowledge drawn from existing studies, it is hypothesized that morbidity and disease prevalence and budget allocation as indicators of medical need and expected medical demand, respectively, are assumed to positively influence citizens' hospital visits. Healthcare funds allocated to hospitals to improve healthcare facilities and increase the number of staff have triggered positive expectations from Malaysians regarding the utilization of public healthcare facilities. Supplying an adequate medical workforce and hospital capacity via funds spent on this service are indicators of improved service quality. The causal model constructed is the initial phase of a system dynamics model for the development of a quantitative simulation model in the future.
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  • Taiki OTSUKA, Eishi CHIBA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 111-124
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper analyses collision probability in a production line. Collision probability is the probability of a collision occurring between jobs in a production line. One element that determines collision probability is the time interval between materials which are being fed into a production line. When the time interval is shortened, the probability of a collision occurring increases. However, in order to reduce production completion time, this time interval should be as short as possible. When determining the appropriate time interval, evaluating collision probability for a given time interval is important. Methods to compute collision probability in an in-line and a parallel machines model already exist. Moreover, in an in-line machines model, an approximate formula of collision probability has also been presented. In a parallel machines model, there are no results on analysis of collision probability. This paper shows a theoretical formula of collision probability in a parallel machines model when the number of jobs is constrained. Further, when the processing time follows an Erlang distribution, we show that this theoretical formula of collision probability can be described as a closed form. In addition, when the processing time follows an exponential distribution,we show a concrete closed form of collision probability. Finally, from computational experimentation, we compare the results obtained from the closed form presented with a known simulation method.
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  • Eishi CHIBA, Taiki OTSUKA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 125-131
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we consider collision probability in a manufacturing line model. Collision probability is the probability of jobs colliding in a manufacturing line and is a comparatively new evaluation item in systems in an unsteady state, having real-world applications in, for example, flat panel display and semiconductor manufacturing systems. Previous work in this area includes efficient methods to compute collision probability in an in-line machines model, a parallel machines model, and a generalized in-line machines model with consideration of delivery time and buffers. Two optimization problems with collision probability also exist for the generalized in-line machines model which address the minimization of tact time and total number of buffers. In an in-line machines model, when the processing time on a particular machine is longer than on others, this machine becomes a bottleneck in the production process and may lengthen the total production completion time. However, if two such machines are placed in parallel, then a reduction in the total production completion time is expected. In this paper, we generalize the in-line machines model to a series-parallel machines model and present a method which efficiently computes collision probability using computer simulation. The key idea regarding efficiency is the use of a heap data structure when searching for an idle machine among parallel machines. We also implement the method presented and show the findings obtained from computational experimentation.
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  • Yaeko MITSUMORI
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 133-138
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Indian government amended its patent act in 2005 and introduced product patents to comply with the TRIPS Agreement. Nevertheless, due to a special provision, they refused a patent for Novartis' Gleevec and issued a compulsory license for a cancer drug by Bayer to a domestic generic drug manufacturer, thus leaving developed countries with the impression that intellectual property may not necessarily be well-protected in India. Meanwhile, the number of patent applications began to increase, as did the number of intellectual property lawsuits; however, due to the aforementioned cases, the general impression is that, often, their courts rule against foreign-affiliated companies, which tend to have many patents. In a recent paper, however, an Indian lawyer indicated that the courts do not always necessarily rule against patent holders. The aim of this study is to examine the present state of intellectual property rights infringement lawsuits in India. In India, not all of the detailed data of lawsuits are made public and thus, it cannot be known whether the number of rulings that favor patent holders is actually increasing, although it has been confirmed that the High Court of Delhi has given at least several rulings in favor of patent holders in recent years.
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  • Nobuyuki KOBAYASHI, Eriko HIKISHIMA, Aki NAKAMOTO, Tsuguto INAYAMA, S ...
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 139-146
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Previous studies showed that using assurance cases to increase the feasibility of accomplishing management vision and management strategy. The assurance case description method proposed by previous studies, however, does not take into account the work whose purpose changes in the progress. This study proposes an assurance case description method according to the PROCESS definition defined in this study, for being able to visualize that assuring a task whose purpose changes according to the work progress. The reason we refer to ISO 15288:2015 is that PROCESS defined in ISO 15288:2015 considers Purpose, and thus assumes changes in a certain work's purpose in the progress of the work. This study evaluates the effectiveness of both a) being able to understand the purpose of PROCESS and b) being able to visualize that assuring a work whose purpose changes according to the work progress by using both open coding and paired t-test. Based on the paired t-test result, the proposed description method was judged effective compared with current practice, about a) being able to understand the purpose of PROCESS and b) being able to visualize that assuring a work whose purpose changes according to the work progress. Furthermore, from the open coding results, the results suggested why the proposed description method is effective. This study concludes with future research topics.
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  • Nobuyuki KOBAYASHI, Aki NAKAMOTO, Seiko SHIRAKAWA
    Type: research-article
    2019 Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 147-152
    Published: December 31, 2019
    Released: December 31, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Having multiple viewpoints is an indispensable capability for persons who lead the development and operation of large-scale, complex, technological and social systems. Previous studies state that structuralization with multiple viewpoints by using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) refers to connecting multiple viewpoints in layers. If this study can quantitatively evaluate the ability to structuralize systems with multiple viewpoints of users describing GSN, it is likely to show that the evaluation is effective for human resource development. Previous studies have also shown that it is possible to increase the feasibility of accomplishing management vision and management strategy by describing management vision, management strategy, business process and IT system using GSN (D-Case). This study therefore proposes a quantitative evaluation method for evaluating the ability to structuralize systems with multiple viewpoints of users describing GSN. The verification method for the proposed quantitative evaluation method is also presented. The aim of verification in this study is to confirm that the proposed quantitative evaluation method can make a relative evaluation on the ability to structuralize systems with multiple viewpoints of users describing GSN. The subjects first described four themes using GSN. After that, we quantify the description results using the quantitative evaluation method. This study verifies that the proposed quantitative evaluation method is effective for evaluating the ability to structuralize systems with multiple viewpoints of users describing GSN by showing the quantitative evaluation results. Finally, this study concludes with future research topics.
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