This study proposes an efficient version of the finite element method (FEM) in option pricing. In this study,we determine element lengths endogenously from the curvature of the Black-Sholes equation. In our method elements reconstruction of FEM consists of two algorithms, expansion of elements, and repartition of elements. We let elements be larger if the curvature of the local domain is low, and be smaller if it is high at each time step. We apply this method to one-dimensional options, a European up-and-out call option,and a compound option. As a result of numerical analysis, we verify that this method is able to reduce the experiment time, while the accuracy remains at a comparable level.
For a public facility construction, usually we use min-ma x or max-min criterion depending on fac ility nature, i.e., useful or obnoxious. City hall, hospital etc. are considered to be typical useful facility. While a disposal center, a waste disposal center etc. are considered to be a typical obnoxious facility. But even city center or hospital has many aspects and so users are divided into two groups. Each user in a group considers distance from the facility should be as close as possible (we call this group welcome group) and each user in the other group considers its distance should be as far as possible (we call the group not welcome group). Therefore, we seek a facility construction site in an urban area minimizing the maximum among all rectilinear distances from it to users of welcome group and maximizing the minimum among all rectilinear distances from it to users of not welcome group under the presence of barriers. But usually there are no fa cility construction site op timizing both criteria s imultaneously. T herefore we find some nondominated sites after defining non-domination about facility construction site. In order to find them, we utilize an id ea of fo rbidden regions where we cann ot construct a faci lity. First we consider the fi nite number case of candidate facility construction site and next discuss the infinite number case of them. For the finite number case, we reduce our problem into the shortest path problem with special network and obtain some non-dominated sites. For the infinite number case, we divide the feasible region of problem into sub-regions. For sub-problem corresponding to each sub-region , we propose an efficient solution procedure utilizing the results in th e finite number case. Based on th e optimal solution of ea ch subproblem, we obtain some non-dominated sites. Finally we summarize the result of this paper and discuss further research problems.
Impacts of fuzzy front end (FFE) activities on the new product development (NPD) process were analysed in Japanese manufacturing firms employing data from a comparative study which was collected in 2003 (that refers to the late 1980s) and 2014 (that refers to the late 2000s). Based on previous research a conceptual model was developed. The framework model of NPD process consists of three phases – project success phase (effectiveness and efficiency), project execution phase (deviations from specifications and project revision), FFE phase (reduction of market uncertainty, reduction of technical uncertainty and intensity of initial planning) and contextual factors (degree of marketing newness, degree of technical newness and degree of organizational newness). Data consisting of 540 NPD projects collected in 2003 and data consisting of 160 NPD projects collected in 2014 from Japanese manufacturing firms were analysed using the Structural Equation Modeling technique. Results suggest that Japanese firms tended to employ FFE activities in 2000s as they had in the 1980s. Moreover, we found that, reduction of market uncertainty and initial planning activities were key success factors in both periods. However, the effect of FFE activities on project success decreased in the 2000s compared to the 1980s. Moreover, in the 1980s Japanese manufacturing firms tended to allow for more flexibility in initial plans, in the project execution phase than they did in the 2000s.Japanese manufacturing firms were analysed using the Structural Equation Modeling technique. Results suggest that Japanese firms tended to employ FFE activities in 2000s as they had in the 1980s. Moreover, we found that, reduction of market uncertainty and initial planning activities were key success factors in both periods. However, the effect of FFE activities on project success decreased in the 2000s compared to the 1980s. Moreover, in the 1980s Japanese manufacturing firms tended to allow for more flexibility in initial plans, in the project execution phase than they did in the 2000s.
This paper aims to show a comprehensive analysis to achieve sustainable production planning in uncertain environments. Recently, some suppliers are often requested to collaborate with rival companies by makers to help Small and Medium Enterprises(SMEs) to establish Business Continuity Plan(BCP) after the Great East Japan Earthquake. To achieve the aim, it is necessary to research sustainable production planning methods with keeping as current situation as possible even if uncertain works are added by emergent collaboration in a time of disaster. Firstly, the results of literature research and hearing survey are indicated. Next, a sustainable production planning model to solve large scale problems is proposed. Lastly, a comprehensive analysis to achieve sustainable production planning in uncertain environments is shown. As a result, they should be able to appeal the stability to makers by recovering earlier than other companies.
We consider the Stackelberg facility location game in urban area. This is a competitive model for nonessential facility such as fast food restaurant, coffee shop, etc. Commuters at demand points are assumed to visit the facility on their way to the nearest station, only when they feel the facility is near. We introduce side-trip distance and concept of nearness for this model. We formulate medianoid problem and centroid problem which objectives are to etermine the best location for the follower and for the leader respectively. We propose Recursive Genetic Algorithms with parallel processing to find the approximate solutions for these problems and show the result of numerical experiments.
The purpose of this study is to explore a causal relationship between IT (Information Technology) management maturity and IT effects for enterprises in Akita prefecture of Japan. This study generates a hypothesis pertaining to the causal relationship and the hypothesis is statistically tested. Enhancing business operation by utilizing IT is one of critical issues not only for a large enterprise but also for a SME (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise). This study provides new insight for approach to gain business value from IT investment in local enterprises by clarifying characteristics of the relationship between IT management maturity and IT effects. Based on the previous research, this study assesses IT management maturity in local enterprises by employing seven constructs: (1) top management leadership, (2) communications, (3) outsourcing, (4) governance, (5) partnership, (6) IT skills, and (7) IT infrastructure. Similarly, seven constructs for IT effects are employed based on the previous research: (1) financial effect, (2) product and service improvement, (3) business scale enlargement, (4) business process transformation, (5) bargaining power enhancement, (6) decision-making sophistication, and (7) efficiency improvement. A mail questionnaire survey is used to gather data. The survey is conducted from mid-September to the end of October in 2012. The questionnaire is sent to 1016 persons in charge of business planning or information system. 331 complete sets of valid responses including various industry types are received. Results indicate that IT management maturity has a positive impact on IT effect. IT management maturity has relatively strong relationship with product and service improvement and bargaining power enhancement. On the other hand, in the group of enterprises whose IT management maturity is high, IT management maturity has strong relationship with decision-making sophistication and efficiency improvement. This study implies that improving IT management maturity is essential to achieve decision-making sophistication and efficiency improvement by using IT in local enterprises.
In the midst of globalization, a declining birthrate, and an aging population, it has long been recognized that Japan’s labor market needs to better utilize female workforce. Among developed countries, Japan lags in terms of utilizing its female workforce. Various interrelated factors—including the custom of lifetime employment, long working hours for full-time employees, lack of measures to support work–childcare balance, discrimination against female employees in the workplace, and a lack of job market awareness among working women—are responsible for this lag in female workforce participation. However, if female workforce participation can enhance corporate earnings and competitiveness (a growing need in the current economic environment), actively promoting the utilization of female workforce may help companies improve their performance.
This paper proposes an approach for determining weight restriction constrains in assurance region method by applying pairwise comparison technique to convert judgment of expert on relative importance among decision criteria into weight bound values which are in a form of ratios of weights. The proposed approach has an attempt to simplify setting bounds which could also give the result to be more consistent with the direction of decision maker. The method is illustrated in facility location problem.