A broad sense of values, globalization, and ecology is needed in production activities because production processes are becoming rapidly more complex due to demands for downsizing, functionality, quality. This is in addition to cost reduction, shorter lead times, and energy saving in fabrication. Many types of measurement system and large amounts of production information are therefore needed in production engineering.
In-process and on-machine measurements are used to evaluate a variety of machining factors and conditions and work done on machine tools. With increasingly complex machining processes and greater needs for accuracy and precision, the demand for advances in process optimization has also grown.
This special issue covers manufacturing metrology and quality management as its two main fields of interest, together with their important implications for science, industry, and engineering. This special issue also covers novel in-process and on-machine measurement and sensing and quality management techniques now being widely applied to production engineering, focusing on the important role of measurement in manufacturing technology as it progresses from inspection tools to strategic production tools in managing process quality and product quality control. The advanced papers in this special issue present the latest advancements in these fields, ranging from fundamental research to industrial applications. These reports will thus enable readers to share their experience and knowledge in technology, new development, and potential applications of promising techniques in measurement and in product and process quality control.
We thank the authors for their invaluable contributions and the reviewers for their always useful advice, which have helped make this special issue both fascinating and far-reaching.
In-process and on-machine measurements are used to evaluate a variety of machining factors and conditions as well as the work done on the machine tool. With the increasing complexity of machining processes and greater requirements for accuracy and precision, the demand for advanced methods for process optimization has also increased. To meet this demand, process quality management (QM) requires an expansion of manufacturing metrology to include comprehensive closed-loop control of the machining process. To eliminate the effects of disturbances on the machining process and adjust the control quantities to optimal values for robustness, in-process and on-machine measurements are very essential. In this paper, we review technical trends in in-process and on-machine measurements for process QM and conventional quality control (QC) of products. Spreading measurement targets and applications are comprehensively reviewed.
This paper presents a scheme to calibrate the error map of the rotary axes of a five-axis machine tool. This is done by means of on-the-machine measurement of a test piece using a contact-type touch-trigger probe. The present probing-based approach is more suitable for efficient and automated “self-calibration,” than conventional calibration schemes, such as ball bar tests or R-test. It is thus advantageous in the application to periodic checking of the error map, or periodic updating of its numerical compensation. In the present approach, a test piece of arbitrary geometry, e.g. a raw unmachined workpiece, can be used as the probing target. An experimental demonstration is presented.
This paper introduces the width measurement of a cutting tool edge by utilizing a laser triangulation displacement sensor. By using the reflected light intensity of the laser displacement sensor, micrometric edge width which is smaller than the diameter of the laser beam spot can be measured. With regard to the quantitative evaluation of the laser spot diameter, a calibration method of the laser spot diameter is achieved by using the pin-gauges. The diameter of the laser spot is obtained by using the pin-gauges, and the relationship between the reflected light intensity and the diameter of the pin-gauges are investigated. The width of the cutting tool edge is measured by the calibrated laser spot diameter, and then the reproducibility is evaluated.
Most ultra-precision machine tools for fabricating optical lenses and lens molds have on-machine measurement units that can be used for form measurement with the workpiece held on the main spindle. However, for lenses with high numerical apertures, such as pick-up lenses for Blu-ray discs and their molds, the form measurement needs to be made even at a large angle of inclination, which is not feasible with a conventional on-machine measurement unit. In this study, an on-machine measurement unit with a measurement angle range ±75 degrees is developed. Its performance assessment shows that it has high measurement reproducibility. Ultra-precision cutting are then made to verify the effectiveness of the on-machine measurement unit in the correction processing. It is also reported that, in grinding process, high-form-accuracy workpieces can be made through the correction processing by repeatedly using the on-machine measurement unit to make time-series measurements of the grinding wheel wear and by predicting the wear.
Error separation techniques of the surface profile from parasitic motions have been developed for the straightness profile measurement of a mechanical workpiece. These are known as software datums, which separate the surface profile from the parasitic motions by using multiple sensors and/or multiple orientations. The authors proposed a generalized two-point method that used the difference with either integration or inverse filtering. This method can take any sampling interval. In this article, the relationship between the ratio of the sensor distance to the sampling interval and the error propagation at the lowest spatial frequency is clarified. Furthermore, experimental results are described to support the theoretical analysis of the error propagation.
Research into manufacturing technology requires regular measurement and documentation of workpiece and tool quality. The instant or direct measurement of tool or workpiece surfaces is often difficult or impossible. Remounting of workpieces or tools leads to undesired remounting errors, a direct integration of adapted measurement systems is not suitable for research and development. Additionally, abrasive or transparent surfaces can be unsuitable for use with some measurement systems. This study evaluates an imprinting method for the production of positive replicas of tool or workpiece surfaces. The resulting errors between original sample and replica are evaluated. The analyses include common test methods, such as tactile surface profiling, focus variation microscopy, and white light interferometry. The study shows that for the evaluated reproduction method, the difference between original and replica is less than 10% of the surface roughness, Ra, for original surface roughnesses greater than Ra=0.1μm. Mostly better results are achieved (difference <2%). In addition, contour dimensions greater 1 mm can be copied with deviations less than 0.5%.
Gas leaks can cause major accidents resulting in both human injuries and financial losses. Vacuum pressure-induced air leaks lead to the emission of acoustic signals. Vacuum leak tests are implemented in this paper, and signals excited by leaks through apertures of three different diameters are investigated. According to the acoustic emission signal processing theory, several characteristic parameters were utilized to analyze the generation of continuous vacuum leakage acoustic emission signals. Applicable signal characteristics are used to distinguish the vacuum leaks through apertures of different sizes. It can be inferred that the acoustic emission method can detect vacuum gas leaks as they happen, and signal parameter characteristics analysis can be used to distinguish between the different aperture sizes. This paper is of practical significance to the work of acoustic emission vacuum leak detection.
Since the uncertainty of measurement data was becoming complicated, ISO-26000s of the third generation was created from the technical field of Quality Control (QC). QC engineering started the first generation of ISO-9000s. The second generation of ISO-14000s and the innovation has continued up to now with new the third generation of ISO-26000s. The first generation has established a critical reliance and an assurance. A Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Reliance (QR) are problems utmost importance. The second generation has planned predication technology for QC. Further more Environment Assessment (EA) is important for the QA performance. Significant improvement is necessary better accuracy. Furthermore, performing management was adapted for EA. is represented by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA). Many rules for QC are made by the related organization. The third generation established a timeframe for making it sustainable to deliver social responsibility in market dealings. This study considers the third generation for biochemical analysis, and the verification is performed in the calibration curve. The first generation and the second generation are standard and regulation in nature, whereas the third generation is mere guidance and do not mandatory.
The development of medical devices and systems is essential for improving quality of life and reducing global healthcare costs. Machine tools are increasingly used in the medical, automotive, airplane, and electronics fields thanks to advances in manufacturing technology. The processing of artificial implants and biomaterials, for example, and parts of medical devices such as endoscopes are manufactured with multiaxis machine tools. This demand is expected to increase as society ages.
Equipment used in diagnostics and surgery has also developed rapidly. Despite the use of advanced diagnostics such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, surgery still largely depends on the skill and sense of the surgeon. Advanced manufacturing technologies are thus needed to achieve these desired attributes.
Biomanufacturing requires expertise in basic manufacturing processes such as cutting, electrophysical and chemical processes, forming, and abrasive processes. These, in turn, must be integrated into machine design, surface modification, precision engineering, and metrology within the overarching frameworks of design, life cycle engineering and assembly, production systems, and organization.
Biomanufacturing is thus defined as the application of design and manufacturing technologies for reducing cost while advancing safety, quality, efficiency and speed in healthcare services and biomedical sciences. Biomanufacturing provides an excellent platform for converging innovations in precision engineering, nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences.
This special issue presents the latest in research advances, practical and theoretical applications, and case studies on biomanufacturing. The papers featured in this issue provide aid in the development of next-generation manufacturing technologies.
We thank the authors for their invaluable contributions and the reviewers for their ever- useful advice. We know you will find this special issue both fascinating and worthwhile.
In this paper, authors report the effects of process parameters of thermal annealing method on the morphology and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) property of gold nanodots. Results show that the nanodots aggregated on a quartz glass substrate are large and sparse, while the nanodots aggregated on a silicon substrate are small and dense. The peak of the absorbance spectra is shifted to a longer wavelength and becomes broader when the gold film is thicker. The absorbance intensity increases with the increase in the gold film thickness. Increase the annealing temperature and/or the annealing time result in a blue shift of the absorbance peak and a decrease in the peak intensity. It is found that the variation in the absorbance peak wavelength and peak intensity closely correlates to the variation in the average circularity of the nanodots. This result suggests that the LSPR of nanodots can be tuned by controlling the morphology, specifically the circularity, of the nanodots.
A force feedback manipulator system was developed for use in neurosurgery. The system consists of a multidegree of freedom manipulator with a force-detecting gripper and a device capable of using force feedback to display kinesthetic sense. The structure, which consists of parallel thin plates in the gripper of the manipulator, enables the detection of a gripping force and a pulling force, which can be used to grip and pull tumors. In this paper, we describe ways of improving the structure of the force sensor. Throughbilateral control, the operation device is able to display the gripping force as its driving force, and the pulling force as the frictional force between the display device and the skin of the finger. We also conducted experiments to test the force sense display capabilities of the developed system. The results showed that the system can display a force and the difference between the softness of different objects that are gripped. The ability of the system to identify different objects is increased by magnifying the detected force using an appropriate scale.
This paper describes a method for assembling cell-laden microplates into three-dimensional (3D) microstructures by in situ gluing using photocurable hydrogels. We picked up cell-laden microplates with microtweezers, placed the plate perpendicular to one another on a microgroove device, and glued them by local photopolymerization of biocompatible Poly (Ethylene Glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. The advantage of this assembly method is its ability to construct 3D biological microstructures with targeted cells. We demonstrated the assembly of a 3D half-cube microstructure with genetically labeled cell-laden microplates. We believe our method is useful for engineering the positions of cells in 3D configurations for cell-cell interaction analysis and tissue engineering.
In this study, we developed a surface modification technology for implants using commercially pure (cp) Ti. The technology used in this study leads to reduction in the time required for adhesion between bone and surfaces of implants. The existence of microasperities and oxide layers is important to induce calcium phosphate precipitation and bone formation activity of osteoblasts. In addition, we focused on nanosecond-pulsed laser treatment as a method to create both microasperities and oxide layers. First, we observed surface morphologies formed by laser treatment. An oxide layer with high oxygen concentration and microasperities on the order of 10 nm to 10 μm were produced. Moreover, the OH groups were created on the laser-treated surface. Second, by culturing osteoblasts on the laser-treated cp Ti surface, its effects on cell shape, proliferation, and activity of bone formation were evaluated. Even though cell proliferation was at a comparable level in these two surfaces, the ALP activity per cell number was improved by about four times in the laser-treated surface compared with that in the polished surface. On the laser-treated cp Ti surface, it was considered that the bone formation activity of osteoblasts was promoted without inhibiting cell proliferation. From the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that by treating cp Ti surfaces with a laser, a surface with good cytocompatibility can be created.
In this paper, we propose a method for identifying systems incorporating a mechanical oscillation part for a non-invasive ultrasound theragnostic system (NIUTS). The NIUTS tracks and follows movement in an area requiring treatment (renal stones, in this study) by irradiating the area with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Blur noise caused by oscillation of the mechanical system adversely affects the servo performance. To solve this problem and enhance the servo performance, it is first necessary to identify those parts of the NIUTS system that incorporate a mechanical oscillation part. Secondly, we implemented a mechanical oscillation suppression filter based on the above-mentioned method for identifying the mechanical oscillation part.
Difficulties involved in producing Double-Side Polished (DSP) GaN substrate are extracted and approaches to overcoming them are reported in this paper. Mechanical polishing with a neutral diamond slurry of pH 7.0 for the N-face and CMP for the Ga-face are widely applied to obtain DSP GaN substrates. Accordingly, the substrate exhibits transparency. However, this is accompanied by approximately 100 μm of bowing due to the Twyman effect. In this paper, the reduction of the substrate bowing to 10 μm is successfully achieved through the use of an acidic diamond slurry with a pH of 1.8 instead of a neutral slurry. Cathode luminescence reveals that an acidic diamond slurry also induces less subsurface damage in the N-face than does the neutral one. We conclude that the stress on the N-face induced by the subsurface damage in the case of polishing with an acidic diamond slurry comes closer to that of the Ga-face finished via CMP.