Earthworms play important role in the soil ecosystem influencing soil properties regulating underlying ecosystem functions such as soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and soil erosion and quantifying their influence on SOM cycling in tropical ecosystems. The casts produced enhance microbial activities in soil that promote nutrient cycling and help in aggregate formation and stability in soil. The aims of this paper are to study focuses on the dynamic of physical and chemical properties of earthworm casts in different species of earthworm and aging of earthworm. The oven-dried weight of casts has been quantified in laboratory. The soil parameters pH, electrical conductivity (EC), bulk density, porosity, organic matter and exchange capacity were analyzed. The results found that pH values of casts ranged from 6.36 to 8.18. Fresh casts were characterized by higher EC, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Na+ and organic matter than in old cast. The values were higher in earthworm casts of Khitarae (Pheretima peguana). The moisture contents were significantly higher in fresh casts (ranged 6.89% to 33.93%). The cast of Khikhu (Pheretima sp.) bulk density values was highest (1.19 g cm3). Exchangeable K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in earthworm casts were higher than bulk soil. Porosity was highest (69.52%) in fresh casts of Khitarae (P. peguana). In conclusion, the physical-chemical properties of earthworm casts were different between the earthworm species. The distribution and biodiversity of earthworm may play and importance role in soil fertility.
Nowadays, organic agriculture has become an important activity for control of soil pollution and degradation. The use of organic manures and bio fertilizers are important practices in the field of agriculture. Vermicompost tea is a liquid organic bio fertilizer. Vermicompost tea is composed of plant nutrient, plant hormone and microorganism. However, during storage of the vermicompost tea, its quality could change, hence improving the quality of vermicompost tea is important. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of quality of vermicompost tea after molasses and oxygen addition. The vermicompost tea used in this study came from the Eudrilus eugeniae composting worms, fed with vegetable, soil, cow manure, and ashes of 4:3:2:1 ratio. Experiment design was factorial 4*2 in completely randomized design with three replications. Factor A was different rate of molasses (0%, 0.5%, 2.5% and 5.0%). Factor B was oxygen and non-oxygen. After 3 days, the results showed that there was an interaction of pH, EC, total nitrogen and total phosphate content but no interaction of total potassium content between 2 factors. Nutrient content (total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium) and electrical conductivity (EC) were significantly increased at higher rates of molasses but pH was decreased (P < 0.01). The addition of oxygen, pH, EC and total potassium content was increased while total nitrogen and total phosphorus were decreased. Therefore, the quality improvement of vermicompost-tea can be achieved by adding molasses.
The skillful management is one of the foremost important success factors for today’s farms. When a farm is well managed, it can generate funds for its sustainability. Grape is one of the most diffuse fruits in the world and Afghanistan. Grape is covering an estimated 82,450 hectare which is equivalent 48% of the total fruit growing area with estimated 874.500 tons production and the average yield per year is 8.5 ton/h. Although fresh grape is one of the cash crops however, the quality and quantity are not satisfactory for producers and external markets. The situation has not changed with the years. Therefore, a survey was conducted in 2017 with 60 grape growers, supported by questionnaires in Mirbachakot, Kalakan and Shakardara Districts of Kabul province. The purpose was to get an understanding of 1) current socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, 2) management methods, 3) constraints factors, 4) and contribution of grape farming to household income. Findings indicate that grape farming was predominant 83.3% male activity and main source of annual income. Further, 60% of small-scale grape producers had less than one hectare of land under grape production. Likewise, 50% had more than 10 years and 33.3% between 1-5 years’ experience in grape farming. Improper vine training, poor canopy management and weak postharvest vineyard management were the core factors for incidence of pest and disease which put negative effect on grape production. Moreover, high level of farmer’s illiteracy and diseases had significant digit effect on growth, yield and quality of grapes. Hence the low quality and quantity of grape are influenced by poor management methods, such as non-availability experts, lack of technical guidance and high initial investment was the severest constraint’s factor for development of grape farming in the study site. Thereby the study recommended and suggested that improved managerial skills of farmers and providing initial investment material for grape producers could contribute to address the problems.
Liver fluke disease (henceforth LFD) in North-East region community remains the significant public health problem in Thailand. It is necessary to carry out disease measures to establish a good prevention practice for ordinary people to reduce the incidence of LFD and cholangiocarcinoma. This quasi-experimental research aimed to study the effectiveness of the Liver Fluke Prevention Behaviors Program (henceforth LFPBP). The study samples included 108 ordinary people from Tao-Ngoi District, Sakon Nakhon Province. The samples were randomly selected into the experimental and the control group. There were 54 people in each group equally. The experimental group received the LFPBP designed by the researcher. The questionnaire was used to collect data. Percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent t-test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that the experimental group had higher perceived susceptibility of LFD, perceived severity of the LFD, benefits of liver fluke prevention behaviours, cues to action of liver fluke prevention behaviours and self-efficacy on practising liver fluke prevention behaviours than before participating in the program. Also, it showed that the experimental group has statistical significance (.05) than those in the control group. On the other hand, after participating in the program, the subjects in the experimental group reduced the perceived barrier of the liver fluke prevention behaviours than the baseline and then those in the control group at a .05 statistical significance level. In conclusion, the Liver Fluke Prevention Behaviors Program is effective. The local organization in the North-East region, who face with LFD and the cholangiocarcinoma can implement the program in their provinces, in order to promote liver fluke prevention behaviours to the ordinary people.
Farmer-trainer is a generic term used to address farmers who provide and conduct trainings not only to farmers, but also to other actors such as agricultural extension agents, students, teachers, hobbyists, and businessmen in a community. They play very important roles in the dissemination and adoption of technologies. Through these farmer-trainers, younger generations will be encouraged and motivated to engage in organic farming, and issues related to decreasing number and aging population of existing farmers in Japan and the Philippines can be partially solved. Prior to conducting research about the effectiveness of organic farmer-trainers in the Philippines, this paper aims to qualitatively explore, interpret, and understand perceptions, experiences, and motivations to compare organic farmer-trainers (OFTs) and institutions in the Philippines. Using Life History Approach (LHA) and Grounded Theory Approach (GTA), this qualitative study analyzed collected data from interviews and observations of purposively selected four OFT and two institutions. Observations and interviews revealed that OFTs have varied reasons such as sustainability, health, and environmental concerns, and motivations to conduct their respective trainings. These reasons and motivations affect the farmer-trainer’s training method and quality, and impact to their respective trainees. In general, Filipino OFTs should consider and adopt the philosophy and uniqueness of how Japanese OFTs conduct trainings and impact the community.
Global temperatures have raised because of phenomena such as Greenhouse effect and Global warming. Theses phenomena affect primary producers; plants, on earth. As health issues become significant in Thai society, variety types of healthy food are available in Thai markets, Sunflower sprouts are sold among them. The controlled room or greenhouse became needier in plantation and seedling because air temperatures and humidity can be adjusted and controlled to suit plants inside the greenhouse, the temperatures in the greenhouse could be reduced from 2 to 10 Celsius and relative humidity could be arranged from 70 to 99%RH. This work focused on utilizing the greenhouse installed with the developed temperature and humidity controller in sunflower seedling for income earning in a community. A new temperature and humidity controller including sensors was designed and fabricated to control conditions inside the greenhouse based on Arduino technology with a low fabrication cost and easy to program as well as maintenance. The greenhouse investigation was performed by using three different sunflower seedling nutrient solutions which were affordable and locally available solutions; a commercial nutrient solution, solutions prepared from cattle and earthworm manure bio-extracts, and three different seedling materials; cotton balls, coconut coir and loam. The greenhouse was set 4 Celsius lower than ambient temperatures and temperature and different relative humidity values compared with the ambient air were set to be between 25 and 35%RH, the greenhouse performance in this work was indicated by sunflower sprout germination percentage and germination index. From the experimental results, the maximum sunflower sprout germination percentage at 91.11% and the maximum germination index at 13.98 were obtained when the sunflower seeds were grown in the coconut coir with the solution prepared from earthworm manure bio-extracts, the higher germination percentage than that of a literature. The greenhouse with the developed in-house temperature and humidity controller has proved its performance in seedling sunflower sprouts and this feasibility study has shown that it had potentiality to be used in a household seedling application.
During sugarcane harvesting process on fields, there were sugarcane losses occurred in the process such as blown-out loss from a primary extractor fan used to clean leaves out of the sugarcane, loss from conveyers and from high cutting by a base cutter. Different species of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) contained different trunk and leaf sizes, different cleaning fan speeds should be considered. If the losses are reduced, the better process can be obtained, and farmers get more income from more products and less loss. This work focused on finding the proper operating speeds of the primary extractor fan equipped in the sugarcane harvester; A8000/8800 model CASE IH trademark, to harvest the Khon Kaen 3 (KK 3) sugarcane (S. officinarum L.) in the minimum contamination and by the maximum flawed sugarcane sticks less than 2%. The harvester manufacturer has recommended the fan speed at 800 rpm as the suggested speed. The experimental investigations in five different operating speeds; 700, 800, 900, 1000 and 1100 rpm, of the fan were performed at the sugarcane field in Saybouly District, Kenghat Village, Lao PDR. Ten different sampling points were specified to check contamination; sand, leaves and flawed sugarcane sticks, along 400-meter-long plots with 1.65-meter plot offset. Each sampling point was in a 10-meter-square area. The reported values were average values obtained from all points in three repeating examinations. We found that the minimum contamination was 7.26% and the flawed sugarcane was 1.95% when the fan speed at 700 rpm. The maximum contamination was at the highest speed. Therefore, the fan speed at 700 rpm was used as the new operating speed for the harvester in the KK 3 sugarcane harvesting process to reduce the losses.
Fertilizers are one of the most important nutrient inputs into soil for supplying nutrients that were absorbed by plants. Application of organic and inorganic fertilizers has given an effect to soil properties directly or indirectly. Recently, organic fertilizers application such as compost, cow manure or green manure were introduced to local farmers in Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia. However, improper agricultural practices incorporating with raw materials or immature compost have a direct impact on plant health and crop productivity with resulting in contamination of soils with pathogenic microbes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of pathogenic microbes with organic and inorganic fertilization in Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia. Twenty samples of soils where collected from farmlands where organic and inorganic fertilizers were applied in Samraong and Baray Communes. Also, 5 samples of compost and cow manure were collected in the same areas. From these samples of soil, compost and cow manure, the biological properties such as pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and fungi were analyzed. The experiment results indicated that there was a certain contamination of E. coli in these samples of soil, compost and cow manure. Also, the degrees of contamination were divided into 4 categories as very low, low, medium and high, respectively. In addition, the results of pathogenic bacteria E. coli in samples of soil were summarized in hazard map. However, the correlation between microbes such as pathogenic bacteria E. coli or fungi and fertilization was not observed statistically, while organic and inorganic fertilizers has been applied to the soil. It was considered that the sources of E. coli are not only from organic fertilizer applied in this area, but also transported from upstream, as there are many range lands for breeding cows in the upstream of both Samraong and Baray Communes.
During sedimentation, organic matter is absorbed on metal ions or clay minerals (soil particles), affording metal complexes that are difficult to use as organic materials. Hence, it is critical to separate the organic matter from metal or clay mineral complexes, possibly leading to the effective use of sediment and agriculture soils. Previously, a solar cell-combined sediment microbial fuel cell, constituting one of electrokinetic treatments, was applied into the sediment. As a result, metal complexes in the sediment were found to be dissociated, leading to changes in the state of organic matter present in the sediment. In this study, a new perspective into the changes in the state of organic matter by different methods of electrokinetic treatment was reported. In laboratory experiments, the sediment was subjected to different methods of electrokinetic treatment. Positive current was conducted for the transfer of electrons from the sediment to water, i.e., electron recovery. On other hand, negative current was conducted for the transfer of electrons into the sediment, i.e., electron supply. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) and Fourier infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of each sediment were carried out at the end of experiments. TG-DTA results revealed that the mass loss on ignition increases compared to the control sediment due to electron recovery, indicative of the release of organic matter. However, a difference was not observed with electron supply. FTIR results suggested that changes in the state of organic matter are the same for electron recovery and electron supply, i.e., release of O-H hydroxyl and C=O carboxylic acid groups were confirmed. Notably, by supplying electrons after electron recovery, the losses of O-H hydroxyl and C=C aromatic groups from the sediment were confirmed. Clearly, different states of organic matter were obtained by changing the method of electrokinetic treatment.
Flooded transplanting rice with full tillage is a traditional rice production technique in Thailand. However, the intensity of soil tillage increased operation costs and affected soil fertility especially on soil organic carbon (SOC). No-till is widely used as a system to improve soil properties and reduce operation costs. However, the effectiveness of no-till to flooded transplanting rice needs further investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of rice yield response and the change of soil properties under flooded transplanting rice conditions after using a no-tillage system. A field experiment was conducted over three years on Typic Plinthaquults (Phen series) with 4 treatments including conventional tillage (CT), conventional tillage with green manure incorporation (CTG), no-till (NT) and no-till with green manure application (NTG). NT and NTG treatments showed a significant increase in SOC, soil total nitrogen, Bray II P and exchangeable K compared with CT. Under flooded transplanting rice, no-till had a negative effect on rice yield in the first 2 years. However, the NT yield significantly increased in the third crop and was comparable to the CT yield. Adequate application of green manure to no-till could improve yield reduction at early year of no-till adoption. The results in this paper reveal that no-till is more effective to use in a flooded transplanting rice system which improves soil properties and rice yield.
Soil salinity has become a serious threat to crop productivity worldwide. Salt tolerance for rice varieties vary with different stages against salinity. This study was to evaluate the effect of three different levels [0.2, 6.0, and 8.0 dS m-1] of salinity on the growth and yield of improved rice lines at different growth stages. This study was conducted as two-factor factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Yezin Agricultural University in 2017 and 2018. After screening at seedling and vegetative stages, the selected rice lines were grown at three different salinity levels [3.3, 6.0, and 7.6 dS m-1] in the field. Among the one hundred improved rice lines, thirteen lines were tolerant to 8.0 dS m-1 during three weeks of application at seedling stage. Studies at vegetative stage showed that these thirteen lines were tolerant to 6.0 dS m-1 during six weeks of application. However, seven rice lines were moderately tolerant to 8.0 dS m-1 during six weeks of application in term of leaf mortality. In the field experiment, all seven rice lines were tolerant to 6.0 dS m-1 at all growth stages, whereas death occurred at 7.6 dS m-1. All agronomic parameters such as tiller numbers, panicle numbers and grain numbers per panicle were grown up to maturity under 6.0 dS m-1 at field condition. All these parameters were found to be major cause of yield reduction under saline conditions.
Soil fertility in mid-hills of Nepal has been largely maintained with application of locally made organic manure namely farmyard manure. It is often believed that organic manures in mid-hills of Nepal are of inferior quality, lacking in essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and micronutrients due to inadequacy of technical knowledge and management strategies. So, this study focuses on knowing the present conditions and constraints in productions, application of organic fertilizers for agricultural sustainability in mid-hills of Nepal. This study was conducted on the basis of questionnaire survey, interviews, group discussions and field visits in 13 Village Development Community (VDC) of Dhankuta District. Manure samples were tested for their maturity, nutrient content and pathogenicity. The results showed that all the famers in the study area used organic fertilizer in their farm; most of them also used chemical fertilizers, but use of potassium fertilizer was less. Loss of nutrients and heat through runoff or leaching was a major problem as most of the farmers used heap method for composting in open, with improper methods used. Use of starter during composting was negligible. The amounts of organic manure produced increased with the number of livestock owned by the farmer. In general, frequency of application of organic manure corresponded to number of crops cultivated in the year irrespective to maturity of manure. Self-heating test and C/N ratio of manure samples showed that farmers used immature manure resulting in lower mineral content and presence of pathogenic bacteria.
This research focused on the development of the rotating rice grain dryer prototype for Germinated Parboiled Brown Rice (GPBR) grains. The main GPBR producer in this study was Baan Dong Luang community enterprise, Bung Tawai Sub-District, Tao Ngoi District, Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. The producer needs to reduce paddy moistures from above 20% wb down to 15% wb as the packaging and buyer requirements. The original prototype was designed to utilize heat from only the sunlight. It consisted of the driving part, the base and frame and the dryer chamber, which was a smooth-inside-area stainless steel cylinder. In this work, five aluminum fins were installed inside the cylinder to increase the grain distributions. The grain-collecting tray and wheels were attached to the prototype. Experimental investigations were performed repeatedly; 3 times. From the experimental results, the grain distributions observed from the developed prototype were better those from the original prototype. The tray could facilitate the users in taking the dehumidified grains out. The wheels made the prototype movable, the developed prototype could be moved to take the sunlight more convenient. The noticeable experimental result was the drying performance of the developed prototype. The developed prototype took 3 hours to reduce the paddy moistures down to 15% wb while the original prototype could reduce the paddy moistures down within 4.5 hours. On the other hand, the fins could distribute the grains, the heat transfer inside the chamber was enhanced. The reduced drying period was about 33.33%. As the rice dryer is an important tool in household and community rice producers, this dryer prototype could be proved to reduce the drying areas, periods and labors which affects the net incomes of farmers. The famers satisfied with the developed prototype.
Total Suspended Solids (TSS) was an important parameter used to control biomass in an aeration tank during the activated sludge process also known as Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS). The weighed standard glass-fiber filter and the residue retained on the filter are dried to a constant weight at 103 to 105 °C. There were major steps in a standard method, which take time to analyze. Therefore, microwave method was an attractive technique because rapid determination of total suspended solids. This comparative study was made on the analysis of total suspended solids between the use of microwave and standard method of American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation (APHA, AWWA & WEF). It was conducted to examine the appropriate condition of microwave power 800-watt at two levels including medium-high and high levels at 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Synthetic wastewater was prepared by Cellulose power of thin layer chromatography at concentrations 100 mg/l. The result show on that the optimum condition was using high level at 10 minutes. Mean of total suspended solids was at 97.39 mg/L. The sample of wastewater was collected from Conventional Activated Sludge, CAS of Sakon Nakhon Hospital. After comparison, it was found that total suspended solids with microwave and standard method had an average concentration at 156.2 and 150.4 mg/L, respectively. There was no significant difference of total suspended solids from the two methods at a 95% confidence level.
In recent years surface runoff water harvesting is gaining more popularity in arid and semi-arid regions such as Afghanistan due to the increasing demand for scarce water resources. In Paghman District growing season starts in March and ends in October; however, in the latter half from June to October, it hardly rains, which causes crop failure and low productivity. So, collecting and stocking a certain amount of runoff water in the wet season and using it as irrigation water during the latter half of the growing season can reduce water shortage problems. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze water harvesting potentials through identifying suitable water harvesting sites and estimating the potential volume of surface runoff based on the rational method and the sorptivity method in the Qargha Watershed of Paghman District, Afghanistan. In this study, weighted overlay in GIS was used to determine suitable water harvesting sites. Sorptivity method and rational methods were used to estimate the volume of surface runoff. Based on the results of suitability analysis only 27.67% of the land was suitable for water harvesting. The estimated potential volume of surface runoff applied the rational method, and the sorptivity method was at 509.4 m3 and 478.3 m3. Therefore, it was concluded that water harvesting is possible in the study area. However, these estimated potential volumes of surface runoff needed to be calibrated with the observed data.
Pon Yang Khram Livestock Cooperative Limited (PYK Coop) is a business organisation located in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. PYK Coop has an essential economic role in assisting the farmer and the community by creating a fair income distribution. The present study aimed to analyse the competitive ability and potentiality for business operation of PYK Coop and to establish strategic planning to improve PYK Coop business that has an impact on social and community. Porter’s five forces of competitive analysis were applied by using primary and secondary data collecting from an in-depth interview with 30 cooperative stakeholders and available annual PYK production reports. The results reveal that PYK Coop has somewhat highly competitive ability and potentiality for business operation. PYK Coop has strength on the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers. Whereas, their weakness is on the underlying technology in the cattle business. PYK Coop has faced with the threat from the external factor on free trade agreements. Overall, the strategic planning suggested for PYK Coop is a co-planning between all stakeholders in the whole supply chain to identify target customers and to create a product differentiate. The suggested strategies will help to improve the competitive ability and potentiality for the business operation of PYK Coop.
Detailed information on seasonal distribution of vegetable growing areas and comprehensive study on cultural practices of some commercial vegetables are still lacking in Myanmar. This study was done to produce seasonal distribution maps of vegetables for the selected area and to analyze crop management practices and profitability of the selected commercial vegetables. Kyee Inn village tract, Pyinmana Township, Nay Pyi Taw was selected and studied from May 2016 to December 2017. Total study area was 483 ha and DJI Phantom 4 drone, Lichi software, GPS device, pix 4D software and ArcGIS were used to draw the maps. A total of 50 vegetable farmers were interviewed to analyze crop management practices and profitability for selected five commercial vegetables; okra, chilli, yard long bean, cucumber and ridge gourd by using descriptive analysis and profit function. The result showed that 15 kinds of vegetable were distributed year-round and total vegetable production areas ranged from 3.69 acres (0.31%) to 17.61 acres (1.44%) of total cultivable land. Farmers used hybrid seeds except for chilli and practiced their preferable spacing, not following the recommended one provided by Department of Agricultural Research (DAR). Farmers commonly used high dosage of urea and some farmers used wrong pesticides to control green leaf hopper, leaf miner, powdery mildew and rust. Moreover, most farmers had no awareness on using pesticide. Okra production gives the highest Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 2.5 if it was grown in less than average acre. But, in chilli and ridge gourd production, BCRs (2.7 and 3.7) were the highest in ‘average growing acre’. Yard long bean and cucumber production give the highest BCRs (2.5 and 2.5) in ‘above average growing acre’. In total cost of production, labor cost was the highest followed by fuel cost for irrigation.
This case study investigates the need of English for intercultural communication for government officers, Department of Fisheries, Thailand. 50 respondents including 25 government officers, 16 government workers, and 9 contracted office temps were purposively selected based on their duties which directly handle with international activities relating to fisheries via questionnaires. The findings portrayed that respondents realized the importance of English however most training courses were available only for government officers and English training courses were arranged by some divisions due to their budget limitation. Speaking and reading were found to be the most two critical skills which participants wanted to improve. In terms of qualitative data half of the respondents wanted more opportunities to practice English and requested a training in General English (GE) and English for Specific Purposes (ESP). Factors related to English as a Lingual Franca (ELF), cultural knowledge and communicative strategies should also be considered. Further suggestions are presented in the final part.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the reduction in poverty and improvement of food security in ethnic minority areas can be realised by the diffusion of agricultural innovation with a social networking system, established through a case study of the Project on Food Security Improvement (PFSI) for Small Scale Farmers in Central Vietnam. The project had developed and expanded the PFSI model, which consists of three components of technical, network, and monitoring submodels. The model was promoted to distribute an innovative agricultural technique of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method to local farmers, as well as strategic arrangements to identify talented key adopters, who are constructing effective networks among traditional minority group communities. The results of the project implementation revealed dramatic improvements in the capacity for food self-supply, by improving rice productivity with an average yield increase of 1.4 ton/ha, compared with the conventional method. Moreover, the arrangement of identifying key adopters and establishing a network system had led to further diffusion of innovation to the minority groups. The paper explains the importance of understanding the heterogeneous features of Vietnamese localities and ethnicities, pointing out how participation of minority groups can influence others in their community. The lesson learned from the case gives an important insight towards solving the issue of disparities between rural and urban, among regions, and between ethnic majorities and minorities in Vietnam, which may be hidden easily in the face of the country’s recent rapid economic growth and “average” improvement of the country’s social welfare.
Tanzania is a low-income country, with a high proportion of its population below the poverty line. Like most developing countries, access to financial services from formal microfinance institutions (MFIs) is limited. Recently, however, access to financial services in both rural and urban areas has increased, with group lending programs playing a significant role in this transformation. To assess the repayment performance of group lending programs, this study highlights the case of BRAC Tanzania, a leading non-governmental organization. Primary data were collected through questionnaires administered to 177 members of ten randomly selected groups and interviews with BRAC Tanzania officials, whereas secondary data were obtained from BRAC Tanzania reports and other documents. Repayment performance is measured by the proportion of the portfolio that is overdue (arrears), the proportion of the portfolio that is overdue by 30 days or more (portfolio at risk), and the percentage of the loan portfolio that is written off. The results indicate remarkably low levels of arrears, portfolio at risk, and write-offs, implying high repayment performance. This success reflects good institutional design, such as frequent client visits, frequent repayment schedules, and a strict loan approval process. In addition, from the member side, this success is owing to several factors such as sanctions, contributions by other group members, and the protection of future access to credit.
Soil rehabilitation is needed for salt affected area which is the problem of soil in wide world. Salt affected areas damage agriculture production and soil fertility. The objective of this research was to study the effects of vermicompost and rice husk ash on the change of soil electrical conductivity (EC) and the growth of rice in salt affected area in Khon Kaen, Thailand. The experiment plan was randomize complete block design 4 treatments with 3 replications 1) saline soil 2) saline soil + rice husk ash (rate 1000 kg per Rai) 3) saline soil + vermicompost (rate 1000 kg per Rai) 4) saline soil + vermicompost and rice husk ash (rate 1000 kg per Rai for both), and used two rice varieties (KMDL 105 and Rice berry). The results found that EC was lowest in the treatment mixed with vermicompost and rice husk ash followed by mixed with rice husk ash and mixed with vermicompost, respectively. The rice tillers number and height were found higher in the treatment mixed with vermicompost and rice husk ash followed by mixed with rice husk ash and mixed with vermicompost, respectively. The results of this study concluded that using vermicompost and rice husk ash helped reducing EC and increasing the rice’s growth in salt affected area.
The utilization rate of bamboo in Japan is still very low, leading to the formation of abandoned bamboo forests. To reduce the area of abandoned bamboo forests, the use of bamboo as a construction material has been gaining attention in recent years. To use bamboo as a construction material, its physical characteristics (e.g., bending and compressive strengths) and chemical (e.g., degradation and organic matter) characteristics must be understood. Previously, the compressive strength and degradation of bamboo had been reported. To the best of our knowledge, the relation between the physical and chemical characteristics is still unclear. The first objective of this study is to clarify the degradation characteristics of bamboo in water and soil environments. Another objective of the study is to examine changes in the physical characteristics of bamboo, i.e., compressive strength, in response to its degradation in water and soil environments. Regarding the experiments performed in the laboratory, the bamboo samples with and without creosote oil treatment were placed in deionized water, soil, and ultraviolet light environments. Then, the temporal changes in mass loss on ignition, water content, and compressive strength of each sample were examined. Soil organisms were observed at the end of the experiments. The degradation of bamboo seemed to be higher in soil and UV light environments compared with its degradation in deionized water. Soil organisms and the destruction of cell walls of bamboo due to UV light may partly contribute to the higher degradation of bamboo in soil and UV light environments. It is noteworthy that the compressive strength seemed to decrease with the bamboo degradation. Fortunately, treating bamboo with creosote oil could reduce the rate of reduction in compressive strength of bamboo due to degradation. From the observation made on soil organisms, bamboo degradation could activate heterotrophic bacteria in soils, and treating bamboo with creosote oil had no negative effects on soil organisms.
This study examines the quantification of riverbank erosion trend, by detecting the shoreline changes and river migration of Amu River, during the recent 14-years period in Qarqin District of Afghanistan. In this study, Landsat images (TM/ETM/OLI TRI) from 2000 to 2014 were used to categorize eroded area and identify shoreline change locations. Furthermore, the images were classified into five different classes, i.e., water, built-up, barren land, sand bank, and agriculture land. River boundaries were digitized from the shorelines on the images from 2000 to 2014. Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) was applied to calculate shoreline movement. End point Rate (EPR) and Linear Regression Rate (LRR), were used to compute long term changes for the analysis. The study found that the river movement was toward Afghanistan side, i.e., south-word. The threat of losing land of Afghanistan was estimated to be ca. 362.4 ha/year. The total eroded area was calculated to be 1,984 ha, 1,410 ha, and 1,680 ha during period of 2000-2005, 2005-2010 and 2010- 2014, respectively. The shoreline was demarcated in each image and the area was categorized into three zones correspond to the erosion trend, i.e., lower as moderate eroded zone, central as high eroded zone and upper as lower eroded zone. This research work can provide the advocatory input to policy makers in war torn countries to manage riverbank erosion.
Irrigation plays an important role in melon (Cucumis melo L.) production. The study was conducted to compare the influence of irrigation frequency on growth and yield of melon and to identify the irrigation water use efficiencies of each treatment. The experimental plot was designed in RCBD layout divided into four treatments with three replications. They were Treatment 1 (T1), irrigated by drip irrigation 1 time per day, Treatment 2 (T2) irrigated by drip irrigation 2 times per day, Treatment 3 (T3) irrigated by drip irrigation 3 times per day, and Treatment 4 (T4) irrigated by hand-watering 2 times per day. All treatments were applied with the same amount of irrigation water based on crop water requirement calculation. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA in SPSS software. The results indicate that T3 significantly affected on vegetative development (plant height and plant diameter), water use efficiency (WUE), dried and wet mass and yield of melon. The highest yields were obtained from T3 of 46.75 tons/ha with WUE of 78.18 kg m-3, while the plant height and plant diameters were 164.33 cm and 10.55 mm and the lowest at the T4 of 29.17 tons/ha with WUE of 51.98 kg m-3, while the plant height and plant diameters were 148.33 cm and 9.63 mm. However, there were no significant differences in water use efficiency between T1, T2 and T4 which are 55.60 kg m-3, 64.10 kg m-3 and 51.98 kg m-3, respectively. Therefore, based on vegetative development, yield and quality of melon, T3 treatment would be the most appropriate irrigation for melon growers in controlled conditions.
In order to facilitate environmental restoration and reconstruction following natural disasters, accumulation of detailed topography and land use information before the disaster is essential. Recently, the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan announced a survey manual using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The UAV-Structure from Motion (SfM) system has accumulated a great deal of accuracy verification information from the topographic survey, and it is expected that in the future UAV surveying and mapping will be expanded in scope. However, many research cases were performed in flat areas, and UAV surveying and mapping in hilly and mountainous areas are few. With the progress of depopulation and ageing, there is concern that regional disaster prevention capabilities will decline because of the devastation of agricultural land and the disappearance of communities in hilly and mountainous areas. It is necessary to clarify the method for UAV surveying and mapping with high accuracy even in the complex geographical conditions of hilly and mountainous areas. In the present paper, we attempted to create a Digital Elevation Model with UAV in the terrace paddy field of Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. We investigated the influence of flight conditions and the number and location pattern of Ground Control Positions (GCPs) on surveying accuracy by UAV. UAV surveying results are compared with the accuracy of the digital topographic map with scale in Japan specified by the public survey work regulations. We also surveyed the GCPs by RTK-GPS at 15 locations in the terrace paddy field. Comparing the results of UAV surveying without GCPs and RTK-GCP, the standard deviation in the horizontal direction and elevation was 2.44 m ± 1.59 m (SD) and 39.36 m ± 45.30 m (SD), respectively, and corresponds to the digital topographic map with scale in Japan 1:1,000 and 1:5,000, respectively. From these results, it is verified that correction by GCPs is necessary for UAV-SfM surveying in order to ensure high accuracy.
The buffer zone plays a key role as an ecological barrier for protected areas. Socio-economic conditions of the residents relate not only to the development of provincial regions but also to the success of conservation strategies for the protected areas. Recent studies revealed that the local communities surrounding Bach Ma National Park, Vietnam, especially ethnic minority communities that utilize forest resources for their economic livelihoods, could contribute to biodiversity loss. Alternative livelihoods could be an effective solution to reducing their dependences on forest resources. In this study, we employed a GIS-based criteria approach to evaluate nature-based tourism resources. Forest management units in the buffer zone within Dong Giang District, Quang Nam Province were chosen as study units. Twelve meetings with sixty local representatives were organized to identify potential destinations. This study proposed three criteria for the assessment of the suitability to tourism development. The first criterion is “attraction”, which is scored by evaluating diversity of landscape, destination potential, and topographic characteristics. The second criterion is “accessibility”, which evaluated the distance from main road to tourism resources, and the third is “adaptation”, which is scored based on local legal scenarios pertaining to land use management and usage. These criteria led to the identification of eleven potential destinations and eight forest management units, which have a high potential for nature-based tourism development. The results of this study show that there are bright prospects for improving local livelihood by the tourism development in the buffer zone.
The small-scale aquaculture holds an essential role in the provision of nutrition, increasing the income and welfare of the community in developing countries. Through the transmigration program, which has been undertaken in tidal lowland by the Indonesian government, small-scale fish farming is a feasible prospect that should be considered. This research aimed to study the characteristics, the strength, and barriers of current aquaculture systems in the tidal lowlands area. Data were collected through survey interview to 60 farmers who have earthen ponds. Soil and water quality analysis have been done in two villages of Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatera, Indonesia. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis showed that aquaculture could be an alternative income besides agricultural activities (paddy and corn farming). The available of earthen ponds sized 16-300 m2, and the water canal could be functioned as media farming and water source. Farmers have a decent expectation of fish culture, mainly due to the high demand for fish. The weakness comes from water and soil quality besides the less availability of adequate feed and fry. The presence of pyrite in the soil as a character of tidal lowlands caused low pH (<4). Thus, it should be managed appropriately. Social conditions, technology, and information, as well as government supports, are great opportunities for improving small-scale aquaculture. However, some threats such as limited capital, a suitable price, and management practices have to be evaluated to optimize sustainable fish production.