Tip clearance losses occur in every turbomachine. To estimate the losses in efficiency it is important to understand the mechanism of this secondary flow. Tip clearance losses are mainly caused by a spiral vortex formed on the suction side of the blade of a turbomachine, which induces a drag and also has an influence on the incident flow of the blades. In this paper a physical based scaling method is developed out of an analytical ansatz for the tip clearance losses. This scaling method is validated by measurements on an axial fan with five different tip clearances.
To provide required flow rates of cooling or circulating water properly, approach flow conditions of vertical pump systems should be in compliance with state of the art acceptance criteria. The direct inflow should be vortex free, with low pre-rotation and symmetric velocity distribution. Physical model investigations are common practice and the best tool of prediction to evaluate, to optimize and to document flow conditions inside intake structures for vertical pumping systems. Optimization steps should be accomplished with respect to installation costs and complexity on site. The report shows evaluation of various approach flow conditions inside a compact waste water pumping station. The focus is on the occurrence of free surface vortices and the evaluation of air entrainment for various water level and flow rates. The presentation of the results includes the description of the investigated intake structure, occurring flow problems and final recommendations.
This study strives to develop an effective strategy to inhibit cavitation inception on hydrofoils by using local cooling technique. By setting up a temperature boundary condition and cooling a small area on the upper surface of a hydrofoil, the fluid temperature around the cooling surface will be decreased and thereby the corresponding liquid saturation pressure will drop below the lowest absolute pressure within the flow field. Hence, cavitation can never occur. In this paper, a NACA0015 hydrofoil at 4° angle of attack was numerically investigated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The CFD results indicate that the cooling temperature and the cooling surface roughness are the critical factors affecting the success of such technique used for cavitation suppression.
Stainless steel stamping multistage pump has become the mainstream of civil multi-stage pump. Combined with the technological features of stamping and welding pump, the studies of design for hydraulic parts of pump were come out. An L18(37)orthogonal experiment was designed with seven factors and three values including blade inlet angle, impeller outer diameter, guide vane blade number, etc. 18 plans were designed. The two stage of whole flow field on stainless steel stamping multistage pump at design point for design was simulated by CFD. According to the test result and optimization design with experimental research, the trends of main parameters which affect hydraulic performance were got. After being manufactured and tested, the efficiency of the optimal model pump reaches 61.36% and the single head is more than 4.8 m. Compared with the standard efficiency of 53%, the design of the stainless steel stamping pump is successful. The result would be instructive to the design of Stainless steel stamping multistage pump designed by the impeller head maximum approach.
Cavitation in cryogenic fluids generates substantial thermal effects and strong variations in fluid properties, which in turn alter the cavity characteristics. In order to investigate the cavitation characteristics in cryogenic fluids, numerical simulations are conducted around an axisymmetric ogive in liquid nitrogen and hydrogen respectively. The modified Merkle cavitation model and energy equation which accounts for the influence of cavitation are used, and variable thermal properties of the fluid are updated with software. A good agreement between the numerical results and experimental data are obtained. The results show that vapor production in cavitation extracts the latent heat of evaporation from the surrounding liquid, which decreases the local temperature, and hence the local vapor pressure in the vicinity of cavity becomes lower. The cavitation characteristics in cryogenic fluids are obtained that the cavity seems frothy and the cavitation intense is lower. It is also found that when the fluid is operating close to its critical temperature, thermal effects of cavitation are more obviously in cryogenic fluids. The thermal effect on cavitation in liquid hydrogen is more distinctively compared with that in liquid nitrogen due to the changes of density ratio, vapour pressure gradient and other variable properties of the fluid.
We developed a high-efficiency, wide-operating-range centrifugal blower stage to meet the demand for reduced total energy-consumption in sewage treatment plants. We improved the efficiency of the two-dimensional impeller using a shape optimization tool and one-dimensional performance prediction tool. A limit of the throat deceleration ratio was set to maintain the stall-margin of the impeller. The low solidity vaned diffuser and return channel were designed using a sensitivity analysis with orthogonal arrays and three-dimensional steady flow simulations. The low solidity diffuser was designed in order to improve the performance in the low-flow-rate region. The return channel was designed so that the total pressure loss in the return channel was minimized. Model tests of both the conventional and optimized blower stages were carried out, and the efficiency and operating range of both stages were compared. The optimized blower stage improved in stage efficiency by 3% and in operating range by 5% compared with the conventional blower stage.
Quest for reliability of hydraulic runners is a concern for all mature electricity producers. The fatigue damage caused by dynamics loads is frequently the root cause of runner failure. This paper presents the damage tolerance approach based on fracture mechanics as the method chosen by Alstom and Hydro-Québec to predict effects of damage on runner lifetime and consequently to be use as a design method. This is sustained by a research on fracture mechanics properties of runner materials and by recommendations on the strategy to define a safety margin for design. The acquired knowledge permits to identify potential improvement of the runner lifetime without significant cost increase, like being more specific on some chemical composition or heat treatment.
This work investigates the influence of water compressibility on pressure pulsations induced by rotor-stator interaction (RSI) in hydraulic machinery, using the commercial CFD solver ANSYS-CFX. A pipe flow example with harmonic velocity excitation at the inlet plane is simulated using different grid densities and time step sizes. Results are compared with a validated code for hydraulic networks (SIMSEN). Subsequently, the solution procedure is applied to a simplified 2.5-dimensional pump-turbine configuration in prototype with different speeds of sound as well as in model scale with an adapted speed of sound. Pressure fluctuations are compared with numerical and experimental data based on prototype scale. The good agreement indicates that the scaling of acoustic effects with an adapted speed of sound works well. With respect to pressure fluctuation amplitudes along the centerline of runner channels, incompressible solutions exhibit a linear decrease while compressible solutions exhibit sinusoidal distributions with maximum values at half the channel length, coinciding with analytical solutions of one-dimensional acoustics. Furthermore, in compressible simulation the amplification of pressure fluctuations is observed from the inlet of stay vane channels to the spiral case wall. Finally, the procedure is applied to a three-dimensional pump configuration in model scale with adapted speed of sound. Normalized Pressure fluctuations are compared with results from prototype measurements. Compared to incompressible computations, compressible simulations provide similar pressure fluctuations in vaneless space, but pressure fluctuations in spiral case and penstock may be much higher.
Standard dimensionless parameters cannot simultaneously represent all operation modes of a pump-turbine. They either have singularities at E=0 and multiple values in the 'unstable' areas, or else get singular at n=0. P. Suter (1966) introduced an alternative set of variables which avoids singularity and always remains unique-valued. This works for non-regulated pumps but not so well for regulated machines. A modification by C.S. Martin avoids distortion at low load. The present paper describes further improvements for the representation of torque, and for closed gate (where Suter's concept does not work). The possibility to interpolate across all operation modes is likewise useful for representing other mechanical parameters of the machine. Practical application for guide vane torque and pressure pulsation data is demonstrated by examples.
During the operation of a hydro turbine the fluid mechanical pressure loading on the turbine blades provides the driving torque on the turbine shaft. This fluid loading results in a structural load on the component which in turn causes the turbine blade to deflect. Classically, these mechanical stresses and deflections are calculated by means of finite element analysis (FEA) which applies the pressure distribution on the blade surface calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a major boundary condition. Such an approach can be seen as a one-way coupled simulation of the fluid structure interaction (FSI) problem. In this analysis the reverse influence of the deformation on the fluid is generally neglected. Especially in axial machines the blade deformation can result in a significant impact on the turbine performance. The present paper analyzes this influence by means of fully two-way coupled FSI simulations of a propeller turbine utilizing two different approaches. The configuration has been simulated by coupling the two commercial solvers ANSYS CFX for the fluid mechanical simulation with ANSYS Classic for the structure mechanical simulation. A detailed comparison of the results for various blade stiffness by means of changing Young's Modulus are presented. The influence of the blade deformation on the runner discharge and performance will be discussed and shows for the configuration investigated no significant influence under normal structural conditions. This study also highlights that a two-way coupled fluid structure interaction simulation of a real engineering configuration is still a challenging task for today's commercially available simulation tools.
In recent years, the market has shown increasing interest in pump-turbines. The prompt availability of pumped storage plants and the benefits to the power system achieved by peak lopping, providing reserve capacity, and rapid response in frequency control are providing a growing advantage. In this context, there is a need to develop pump-turbines that can reliably withstand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes, as well as fast changes from pumping to turbine operation. In the first part of the present study, various flow patterns linked to operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In this context, pump and turbine modes are presented separately and different load cases are shown in each operating mode. In order to create modern, competitive pump-turbine designs, this study further explains what design challenges should be considered in defining the geometry of a pump-turbine impeller. The second part of the paper describes an innovative, staggered approach to impeller development, applied to a low head pump-turbine project. The first level of the process consists of optimization strategies based on evolutionary algorithms together with 3D in-viscid flow analysis. In the next stage, the hydraulic behavior of both pump mode and turbine mode is evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results that show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.
The article is focused in three areas. In the first part there are analyzed the adhesion forces at the liquid and solid surface interface. There are shown the measured values of surface energy for different types of surfaces. The value of surface energy is decisive for determining the extent of the surface wettability by the liquid.The second part points to the possible negative effects of partly wettable surfaces, showing susceptibility to cavitation. The third section describes the practical aspects of surface wettability by the liquid. Under the new boundary conditions bases, expressing the effect of adhesion forces, there are determined the centrifugal pump characteristics.
Small-sized axial fans are used as air cooler for electric equipments. But there is a strong demand for higher power of fans according to the increase of quantity of heat from electric devices. Therefore, higher rotational speed design is conducted, although, it causes the deterioration of efficiency and the increase of noise. Then the adoption of contra-rotating rotors for the small-sized axial fan is proposed for the improvement of performance. In the present paper, the performance curves of the contra-rotating small-sized axial fan with 100mm diameter are shown and the velocity distributions at a partial flow rate at the inlet and the outlet of each front and rear rotor are clarified with experimental results. Furthermore, the flow conditions between front and rear rotors of the contra-rotating small-sized axial fan are investigated by numerical analysis results and causes of the performance deterioration of the contra-rotating small-sized axial fan at the partial flow rate is discussed.
This paper describes the flow field and the blade pressure distribution of a horizontal axis wind turbine in various yawed flow conditions. These measurements were carried out with 2.4m-diameter rotor with pressure sensors and a 2-dimensional laser Doppler velocimeter for each azimuth angle in a wind tunnel. The results show that aerodynamic forces of the blade based on the pressure measurements change according to the local angle of attack during rotation. Therefore the wake of the yawed rotor becomes asymmetric for the rotor axis. Furthermore, the relations between aerodynamic forces and azimuth angles change according to tip speed ratio. By the experimental analysis, the flow field and the aerodynamic forces for each azimuth angle in yawed flow condition were clarified.
The creation of the hydraulic turbine flow factor map will undoubtedly benefit its design by decreasing both the design cycle time and product cost. In this paper, the geometry and flow variables, which effectively affect the flow factor, are proposed, analyzed and determined. These flow variables are further used to create the operating condition maps by using different model approaches categorized into Response Surface Method (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The accuracies of models created by different approaches are compared and the performances of model approaches are analyzed. The influences of chosen variables and the combination of Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and model approaches are also studied. The comparison results between predicted and actual flow factors suggest that two-hidden-layer Feed-forward Neural Network (FFNN), and one-hidden-layer FFNN with PCA has the best performance on forming this mapping , and are accurate sufficiently for hydraulic turbine design.