Concave surface boundary-layer flows are subjected to centrifugal instability which results in the formation of streamwise counter-rotating vortices. Such boundary layer flows have been experimentally investigated on concave surfaces of 1 m and 2 m radius of curvature. In the experiments, to obtain uniform vortex wavelengths, thin perturbation wires placed upstream and perpendicular to the concave surface leading edge, were used to pre-set the wavelengths. Velocity contours were obtained from hot-wire anemometer velocity measurements. The most amplified vortex wavelengths can be pre-set by the spanwise spacing of the thin wires and the free-stream velocity. The velocity contours on the cross-sectional planes at several streamwise locations show the growth and breakdown of the vortices. Three different vortex growth regions can be identified. The occurrence of a secondary instability mode is also shown as mushroom-like structures as a consequence of the non-linear growth of the streamwise vortices. Wall shear stress measurements on concave surface of 1 m radius of curvature reveal that the spanwise-averaged wall shear stress increases well beyond the flat plate boundary layer values. By pre-setting much larger or much smaller vortex wavelength than the most amplified one, the splitting or merging of the streamwise vortices will respectively occur.
With the aim to increase blade loadings and stable operating range in highly loaded compressors, this article has been conducted to explore, through a numerical parametric study, the potential of passive control using slotted bladings in cascade configurations. The objective of this numerical investigation is to analyze the influence of location, width and slope of the slots and therefore identify the optimal configuration. The approach is based on two dimensional cascade geometry, low speed regime, steady state and turbulent RANS model. The results show the efficiency of this passive technique to delay separation and enhance aerodynamic performances of the compressor cascade. A maximum of 28.3% reduction in loss coefficient have been reached, the flow turning is increased with approximately 5° and high loading over a wide range of angle of attack have been obtained for the optimized control parameter.
We have proposed a new approach based on energy gradient concept for the study of flow instability and turbulent transition in parallel flows in our previous works. It was shown that the disturbance amplitude required for turbulent transition is inversely proportional to Re, which is in agreement with the experiments for imposed transverse disturbance. In present study, the energy gradient theory is extended to the generalized curved flows which have much application in turbomachinery and other fluid delivery devices. Within the frame of the new theory, basic theorems for flow instability in general cases are provided in details. Examples of applications of the theory are given from our previous studies which show comparison of the theory with available experimental data. It is shown that excellent agreement has been achieved for several configurations. Finally, various prediction methods for turbulent transition are reviewed and commented.
In this paper, Based on Two-dimensional Flow Theory, adopting quasi-orthogonal method and point-by-point integration method to design the impeller of the low specific speed centrifugal pump by code, and using RANS (Reynolds Averaged N-S) Equation with a standard k-ε two-equation turbulence model and log-law wall function to solve 3D turbulent flow field in the impeller of the low specific speed pump. An analysis of the influences of the blade profile on velocity distributions, pressure distributions and pump performance and the investigation of the flow regulation pattern in the impeller of the centrifugal pump are presented. And the result shows that this method can be used as a new way in low speed centrifugal pump impeller design.
This paper presents an optimization procedure for high-efficiency design of a mixed-flow pump. Optimization techniques based on a weighted-average surrogate model are used to optimize a vane diffuser of a mixed-flow pump. Validation of the numerical results is performed through experimental data for head, power and efficiency. Three-level full factorial design is used to generate nine design points within the design space. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model are discretized by using finite volume approximation and solved on hexahedral grids to evaluate the efficiency as the objective function. In order to reduce pressure loss in the vane diffuser, two variables defining the straight vane length ratio and the diffusion area ratio are selected as design variables in the present optimization. As the results of the design optimization, the efficiency at the design flow coefficient is improved by 7.05% and the off-design efficiencies are also improved in comparison with the reference design.
Based on the consideration that the cavitation would affect the operation stability of miniature pumps, the 3-D turbulent cavitating flow in a test pump was simulated by using a mixed cavitation model and k-ω SST turbulence model. In order to investigate the influence of inlet geometry parameters on the cavitation performance of the miniature pump, two more impellers are designed for comparison. Based on the results, the following conclusions are drawn: 1) Cavitation performance of the double suction shaft-less miniature pump having different impeller is equivalent to the centrifugal pump having ordinary size, though the flow passage at impeller inlet is small; 2) The miniature pump having radial impeller can produce much higher pump head, but lower cavitation performance than that having the impeller based on the conventional design method; 3) It is believed that by applying the double suction design, the miniature pump achieved relatively uniform flow pattern upstream the impeller inlet, which is favorable for improving cavitation performance.
The flow upstream of a centrifugal pump impeller has been investigated by both experimental test and numerical simulation. For experimental study, the flow field at four sections in the pump suction is measured by using PIV method. For calculation, the three dimensional turbulent flow for the full flow passage of the pump is simulated based on RANS equations combined with RNG k-ε turbulence model. From those results, it is noted that at both design load and quarter load condition, the pre-swirl flow whose direction is the same as the impeller rotation exists at all four sections in suction pipe of the pump, and at each section, the pre-swirl velocity becomes obviously larger at higher rotational speed. It is also indicated that at quarter load condition, the low pressure region at suction surface of the vane is large because of the unfavorable flow upstream of the pump impeller.
Our previous experimental and numerical investigations of decelerated swirling flows in conical diffusers have demonstrated that water jet injection along the symmetry axis mitigates the pressure fluctuations associated with the precessing vortex rope. However, for swirling flows similar to Francis turbines operated at partial discharge, the jet becomes effective when the jet discharge is larger than 10% from the turbine discharge, leading to large volumetric losses when the jet is supplied from upstream the runner. As a result, we introduce the flow-feedback approach for supplying the jet by using a fraction of the discharge collected downstream the conical diffuser. Experimental investigations on mitigating the pressure fluctuations generated by the precessing vortex rope and investigations of pressure recovery coefficient on the cone wall with and without flow-feedback method are presented.
Recent results are presented concerning the development of magnetofluidic leakage-free rotating seals for vacuum and high pressure gases, evidencing significant advantages compared to mechanical seals. The micro-pilot scale production of various types of magnetizable sealing fluids is shortly reviewed, in particular the main steps of the chemical synthesis of magnetic nanofluids and magnetic composite fluids with light hydrocarbon, mineral oil and synthetic oil carrier liquids. Design concepts and some constructive details of the magnetofluidic seals are discussed in order to obtain high sealing capacity. Different types of magnetofluidic sealing systems and applications are reviewed. Testing procedures and equipment are presented, as well as the sealing capabilities of different types of magnetizable fluids.
This study highlights especially the mechanism of vortex cavitation occurrence from the end of the suction duct in a double-suction volute pump and pump oscillation which causes cavitation noise from the pump. In this study, full 3D numerical simulations have been performed using a commercial code inside the pump from the inlet of suction duct to the outlet of delivery duct. The numerical model is based on a combination of multiphase flow equations with the truncated version of the Rayleigh-Plesset model predicting the complicated growth and collapse process of cavity bubbles. The experimental investigations have also been performed on the cavitating flow with flow visualization to evaluate the numerical results.
Steady state computations are routinely used by design engineers to evaluate and compare losses in hydraulic components. In the case of the draft tube diffuser, however, experiments have shown that while a significant number of operating conditions can adequately be evaluated using steady state computations, a few operating conditions require unsteady simulations to accurately evaluate losses. This paper presents a study that assesses the predictive capacity of a combination of steady and unsteady RANS numerical computations to predict draft tube losses over the complete range of operation of a Francis turbine. For the prediction of the draft tube performance using k-ε turbulence model, a methodology has been proposed to average global performance indicators of steady flow computations such as the pressure recovery factor over an adequate number of periods to obtain correct results. The methodology will be validated using two distinct flow solvers, CFX and OpenFOAM, and through a systematic comparison with experimental results obtained on the FLINDT model draft tube.
The paper presents a new method for the analysis of the cavitation behaviour of hydraulic turbomachines. This new method allows determining the coefficient of the cavitation inception and the cavitation sensitivity of the turbomachines. We apply this method to study the cavitation behaviour of a large storage pump. By plotting in semi-logarithmic coordinates the vapour volume versus the cavitation coefficient, we show that all numerical data collapse in an exponential manner. By analysis of the slope of the curve describing the evolution of the vapour volume against the cavitation coefficient we determine the cavitation sensitivity of the pump for each operating point.
For a certain operating point of a horizontal shaft bulb turbine (i.e. volume flow, net head, blade angle, guide vane angle) the efficiency for different pressure levels (i.e. different Thoma-coefficient σ) is calculated using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-)-code including two-phase flow and a cavitation model. The results are compared with experimental results achieved at a closed loop test rig for model turbines. The comparison of the experimentally and numerically obtained efficiency and the visual impression of the cavitation show a good agreement. Especially the drop in efficiency is calculated with satisfying accuracy. This drop in efficiency in combination with the visual impression is of high practical importance since it contributes to determine the admissible cavitation in a bulb-turbine. It is seen that the incipient cavitation in Kaplan type turbines has no major importance in determing this admissible amount of cavitation.
This study focuses on the Achard turbine, a vertical axis, cross-flow, marine current turbine module. Similar modules can be superposed to form towers. A marine or river hydropower farm consists of a cluster of barges, each gathering several parallel rows of towers, running in stabilized current. Two-dimensional numerical modelling is performed in a horizontal cross-section of all towers, using FLUENT and COMSOL Multiphysics. Numerical models validation with experimental results is performed through the velocity distribution, depicted by Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry, in the wake of the middle turbine within a farm model. As long as the numerical flow in the wake fits the experiments, the numerical results for the power coefficient (turbine efficiency) are trustworthy. The overall farm efficiency, with respect to the spatial arrangement of the towers, was depicted by 2D modelling of the unsteady flow inside the farm, using COMSOL Multiphysics. Rows of overlapping parallel towers ensure the increase of global efficiency of the farm.
The availability of a high quality open source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R&D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Québec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. This paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: multiple frames of reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis turbine.
The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The influence of outlet bubble cavitation and air injection is also investigated for low cavitation number. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and the associated pressure fluctuations is analyzed by varying the rotational speed.
This work presents numerical results, using OpenFOAM, of the flow in the swirl flow generator test rig developed at Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania. The work shows results computed by solving the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations. The unsteady method couples the rotating and stationary parts using a sliding grid interface based on a GGI formulation. Turbulence is modeled using the standard k-ε model, and block structured wall function ICEM-Hexa meshes are used. The numerical results are validated against experimental LDV results, and against design velocity profiles. The investigation shows that OpenFOAM gives results that are comparable to the experimental and design profiles. The unsteady pressure fluctuations at four different positions in the draft tube is recorded. A Fourier analysis of the numerical results is compared whit that of the experimental values. The amplitude and frequency predicted by the numerical simulation are comparable to those given by the experimental results, though slightly over estimated.
In operating a turbomachine at off-design conditions various instabilities caused by anomalous flow phenomena occur and sometimes lead to the damage of a turbomachine. In order to avoid these phenomena various devices characteristic to each phenomenon have been developed, however they make turbomachines large-sized and cause efficiency drop. The present author has developed a very simple and innovative device, termed "J-groove," of suppressing various anomalous flow phenomena commonly by controlling the angular momentum of the main flow. It has been revealed that J-groove makes an operation of a turbomachine stable in all flow range, causes little efficiency drop, and can be easily applied to an existing machine. Here is reviewed totally the results of suppressing various anomalous flow phenomena in turbomachines.
In this paper, design optimization for mixed-flow pump impellers and diffusers has been studied using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and DOE (design of experiments). We also discussed how to improve the performance of the mixed-flow pump by designing the impeller and diffuser. Geometric design variables were defined by the vane plane development, which indicates the blade-angle distributions and length of the impeller and diffusers. The vane plane development was controlled using the blade-angle in a fixed meridional shape. First, the design optimization of the defined impeller geometric variables was achieved, and then the flow characteristics were analyzed in the point of incidence angle at the diffuser leading edge for the optimized impeller. Next, design optimizations of the defined diffuser shape variables were performed. The importance of the geometric design variables was analyzed using 2k factorial designs, and the design optimization of the geometric variables was determined using the response surface method (RSM). The objective functions were defined as the total head and the total efficiency at the design flow rate. Based on the comparison of CFD results between the optimized pump and base design models, the reason for the performance improvement was discussed.
The objective of present work is to use numerical simulation to investigate the complex three-dimensional and secondary flow structures developed at the inlet and impeller in a centrifugal pump at design and off-design points. The pump impeller is shrouded with 6 backward swept blades and with a specific speed of 0.8574. The characteristic of the pump is measured experimentally with straight and curved intake sections. Numerical computation is carried out to investigate the pump inlet flow structures and subsequently the flow field within the centrifugal pump. The numerical results showed that strong interaction between the impeller eye and intake section. Secondary flow structure occurs upstream at the pump inlet has great influence on the pump performance and flow structure within the impeller.
Radial-vaned air separators show a strong stall suppression effect in an axial flow fans. From a survey of existing literature on the effects and the author's data, a possible mechanism for the significant effects has been proposed here. The stall suppression is suggested to have been achieved by a combination of the following several effects; (1) suction of blade and casing boundary layers and elimination of embryos of stall, (2) separation and straightening of reversed swirling flow from the main flow, (3) induction of the fan main flow toward the casing wall and enhancement of the outward inclination of meridional streamlines across the rotor blade row, thus keeping the Euler head increase in the decrease in fan flow rate, and (4) reinforcement of axi-symmetric structure of the main flow. These phenomena have been induced and enhanced by a stable vortex-ring encasing the blade tips and the air separator. These integrated effects appear to have caused the great stall suppression effect that would have been impossible by other types of stall prevention devices. Thus the author would like to name the device "tip-vortex-ring assisted stall suppression device".