In the present paper, we focus on the flow computation of a low head Propeller turbine at a wide range of design and off-design operating conditions. First, we will present the results on the efficiency hill chart prediction of the Propeller turbine and discuss the consequences of using non-homologous blade geometries for the CFD simulation. The flow characteristics of the entire turbine will be also investigated and compared with experimental data at different measurement planes. Two operating conditions are selected, the first one at the best efficiency point and the second one at part load condition. At the same time, for the same selected operating points, the numerical results for the entire turbine simulation will be compared with flow simulation with our standard stage calculation approach which includes only guide vane, runner and draft tube geometries.
The mathematical modelling of screw compressor processes and its implementation in their design began about 30 years ago with the publication of several pioneering papers on this topic, mainly at Purdue Compressor Conferences. This led to the gradual introduction of computer aided design, which, in turn, resulted in huge improvements in these machines, especially in oil-flooded air compressors, where the market is very competitive. A review of progress in such methods is presented in this paper together with their application in successful compressor designs. As a result of their introduction, even small details are now considered significant in efforts to improve performance and reduce costs. Despite this, there are still possibilities to introduce new methods and procedures for improved rotor profiles, design optimisation for each specified duty and specialized compressor design, all of which can lead to a better product and new areas of application. A review of methods and procedures which lead to modern screw compressor practice is presented in this paper. This paper is intended to give a cross section through activities being done in mathematical modelling of screw compressor process through last five decades. It is expected to serve as a basis for further contributions in the area and as a challenge to the forthcoming generations of scientists and engineers to concentrate their efforts in finding future and more extended approaches and submit their contributions.
In the development of very high head pumped storage projects, one of the critical problems is the strength of pumpturbine runners. Data obtained by stress measurements of high head pump-turbine runners indicated that dynamic stress due to the vibration of runner might be detrimental, possibly to cause fatigue failure, if the runner were designed without proper consideration on its dynamic behaviour. Numerous field stress measurements of runners and model tests conducted with hydrodynamic similarity revealed that the hydraulic excitation force developed by the interference of rotating runner blades with guide vane wakes sometimes would induce such heavy vibration of runner. Theoretical and experimental investigations on both the hydraulic excitation force and the natural frequencies of runner have been conducted to explore this forced vibration problem.
The rotordynamic fluid forces acting on a closed type impeller in whirling motion were measured and the influence of the clearance geometry on the stability of the impeller was examined. At small positive whirling speed, the rotordynamic forces acted as destabilizing forces for all casings. A small clearance between the shroud of the impeller and the casing caused large fluid force, but did not change the destabilizing region. Radial grooves in the clearance were effective for reducing the fluid forces and destabilizing region due to the reduction of the circumferential velocity without the deterioration of the pump performance. A rotating phenomenon like a rotating stall of the impeller occurred at low flow rate and the resonance between it and the whirling motion led to a sudden increase in force at the whirling speed ratio of 0.7.
The performance characteristics of centrifugal pump were measured experimentally when running with tap water and drag-reducing surfactant (Octadecyl dimethyl amine oxide (OB-8)) solutions. Tests have been performed on five cases of surfactant solutions with different concentrations (0ppm (tap water), 200ppm, 500ppm, 900ppm and 1500ppm) and four different rotating speeds of pump (1500rpm, 2000rpm, 2500rpm and 2900rpm). Compared with tap water case, the experimental results show that the total pump heads for surfactant solution cases are higher. And the pump efficiency with surfactant solutions also increases, but the shaft power for surfactant solutions cases decreases compared to t hat for tap water. There exists an optimal temperature for surfactant solutions, which maximizes the pump efficiency.
For Lift-type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT), it is difficult to evaluate the performance through the scale-model wind tunnel tests, because of the scale effect relating to Reynolds number. However, it is beneficial to figure out the critical value of Reynolds number or minimum size of the Lift-type VAWT, when designing this type of micro wind turbine. Therefore, in this study, the performance of several scale-models of Lift-type VAWT (Reynolds number : 1.5x104 to 4.6x104) was investigated. As a result, the Reynolds number effect depends on the blade chord rather than the inlet velocity. In addition, there was a transition point of the Reynolds number to change the dominant driving force from Drag to Lift.
An application of contra-rotating rotors, in which a rear rotor is in tandem with a front one and these rotors rotate in the opposite direction each other, has been proposed against a demand for developing higher specific speed axial flow pump. One prototype rotors, which we have designed with a conventional method, has given the positive slope of head characteristic curve especially in the rear rotor. It is necessary to understand the internal flow behavior in the rear rotor to establish the design guideline for achieving higher and more reliable performance. In the present study, we carried out the experimental investigations of the internal flow field of the rear rotor, especially at the partial flow rate, by Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) for the main flow and the limiting streamlines observation on rotor surfaces for the boundary layer flows.
Recently, as global-scale problems, such as global warming and energy depletion, have attracted attention, the importance of future environmental preservation has been emphasized worldwide, and various measures have been proposed and implemented. This study focuses on water hammer pumps that can effectively use the water hammer phenomenon and allow fluid transport without drive sources, such as electric motors. An understanding of operating conditions of water hammer pumps and an evaluation of their basic hydrodynamic characteristics are significant for determining whether they can be widely used as an energy-saving device in the future. However, conventional studies have not described the pump performance in terms of pump head and flow rate, common measures indicating the performance of pumps. As a first stage for the understanding of water hammer pump performance in comparison to the characteristics of typical turbo pumps, the previous study focused on understanding the basic hydrodynamic characteristics of water hammer pumps and experimentally examined how the hydrodynamic characteristics were affected by the inner diameters of the drive and lift pipes and the angle of the drive pipe. This paper suggests the effect of the air volume in the air chamber that affects the hydrodynamic characteristics and operating conditions of the water hammer pump.
Experimental and numerical investigations were conducted for an internal flow in an axial flow stator of a diagonal flow fan. A corner separation near the hub surface and the suction surface of a stator blade was focused on, and further, three-dimensional vortices in separated flow were investigated by the numerical analysis. At low flow rate of 80% of the design flow rate, a corner separation of the stator between the suction surface and the hub surface can be found in both experimental and calculated results. Separation vortices are observed in the limiting streamline patterns both on the blade suction and on the hub surfaces at 80% of the design flow rate in the calculated results. It also can be observed in the streamline pattern that both vortices from the blade suction surface and from the hub surface keep vortex structures up to far locations from these wall surfaces. An attempt to explain the vortices within a three-dimensional separation is introduced by using vortex filaments.