In order to clarify the features of tip leakage vortex near blade tip region in a half-ducted axial fan with large bellmouth, the experimental investigation was carried out using a 2-dimensional LDV system. Three sizes of tip clearance (TC) were tested: those sizes were 1mm (0.55% of blade chord length at blade tip), 2mm (1.11% of blade chord length at blade tip) and 4mm (2.22% of blade chord length at blade tip), and those were shown as TC=1mm, TC=2mm and TC=4mm, respectively. Fan characteristic tests and the velocity field measurements were done for each TC. Pressure - flow-rate characteristics and two-dimensional velocity vector maps were shown. The vortex trace and the vortex intensity distribution were also illustrated. As a result, a large difference on the pressure - flow-rate characteristics did not exist for three tip clearance sizes. In case of TC=4mm, the tip leakage vortex was outflow to downstream of rotor was not confirmed at the small and reference flow-rate conditions. Only at the large flow-rate condition, its outflow to downstream of rotor existed. In case of TC=2mm, overall vortex behaviors were almost the same ones in case of TC=4mm. However, the vortex trace inclined toward more tangential direction. In case of TC=1mm, the clear vortex was not observed for all flow-rate conditions.
Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields; automobile radiator pump, ventricular assist pump, cooling pump for electric devices and so on. Further, the needs for mini centrifugal pumps would become larger with the increase of the application of it for electrical machines. It is desirable that the mini centrifugal pump design be as simple as possible as precise manufacturing is required. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, we started research on the mini centrifugal pump for the purpose of development of high performance mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure. Three types of rotors with different outlet angles are prepared for an experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the outlet angle on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pumps. In addition to that, the blade thickness is changed because blockage effect in the mini centrifugal pump becomes relatively larger than that of conventional pumps. On the other hand, a three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted with the commercial code (ANSYS-Fluent) to investigate the internal flow condition. It is clarified from the experimental results that head of the mini centrifugal pump increases according to the increase of the blade outlet angle and the decrease of the blade thickness. In the present paper, the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is shown and the internal flow condition is clarified with the results of the experiment and the numerical flow analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the blade outlet angle and the blade thickness on the performance are investigated and the internal flow of each type of rotor is clarified by the numerical analysis results.
Phase resonance in a centrifugal compressor was experimentally observed and simulated with a commercial CFD code. It was found that pressure fluctuation at the volute outlet becomes the maximum when the rotational speed of the modes caused by the rotor-stator interaction agrees with the sound velocity. A simple one-dimensional theory is presented to explain the phase resonance in turbomachinery.
Turbo-pumps have weak points, such as the pumping operation is unstable on the positive slope of the head curve and/or the cavitation occurs at the low suction head. To improve simultaneously both weak points, the first author invented the unique pumping unit composed of the tandem impellers and the peculiar motor with the double rotational armatures. The front and the rear impellers are driven by the inner and the outer armatures of the motor, respectively. Both impeller speeds are automatically and smartly adjusted in response to the pumping discharge, while the rotational torques between both impellers/armatures are counter-balanced. Such speeds contribute to suppress successfully not only the unstable operation at the low discharge but also the cavitation at the high discharge, as verified with the axial flow type pumping unit in the previous paper. Continuously, this paper investigates experimentally the effects of the tandem impeller profiles on the pump performances and the rotational speeds against the discharge, using the impellers whose loads are low and/or high at the normal discharge. The worthy remarks are that (a) the unstable operation is suppressed as expected and the shut off power is scarcely large in the smart control, (b) the blade profile contributes to determine the discharge giving the maximum/minimum rotational speed where the reverse flow may incipiently appears at the front impeller inlet, (c) the tandem impeller profiles scarcely affect the rotational speeds, while the loads of the front and the rear impellers are same, but (d) the impeller with the low load must run faster and the impeller with the high load must run slower at the same discharge to take the same rotational torque, and (e) the reverse flow at the inlet and the swirling velocity component at the outlet of the front impeller with the high load require making the rotational speed of the rear impeller with low load fairly faster at the lower discharge.
The study of bacterial flagellar swimming motion remains an interesting and challenging research subject in the fields of hydrodynamics and bio-locomotion. This swimming motion is characterized by very low Reynolds numbers, which is unique and time reversible. In particular, the effect of rotation of helical flagella of bacterium on swimming motion requires detailed multi-disciplinary analysis. Clear understanding of such swimming motion will not only be beneficial for biologists but also to engineers interested in developing nanorobots mimicking bacterial swimming. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of a three dimensional single flagellated bacteria has been developed and the fluid flow around the flagellum is investigated. CFD-based modeling studies were conducted to find the variables that affect the forward thrust experienced by the swimming bacterium. It is found that the propulsive force increases with increase in rotational velocity of flagellum and viscosity of surrounding fluid. It is also deduced from the study that the forward force depends on the geometry of helical flagella (directly proportional to square of the helical radius and inversely proportional to pitch).
An unsteady numerical analysis has been carried out to study the strong impeller volute interaction of a centrifugal pump with six backward swept blades shrouded impeller. The numerical analysis is done by solving the three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes codes with standard k-ε two-equations turbulence model and wall regions are modeled with a scalable log-law wall function. The flow within the impeller passage is very smooth and following the curvature of the blade in stream-wise direction. However, the analysis shows that there is a recirculation zone near the leading edge even at design point. When the flow is discharged into volute casing circumferentially from the impeller outlet, the high velocity flow is severely distorted and formed a spiraling vortex flow within the volute casing. A spatial and temporal wake flow core development is captured dynamically and shows how the wake core diffuses. Near volute tongue region, the impeller/volute tongue strong interaction is observed based on the periodically fluctuating pressure at outlet. The results of existing analysis also proved that the pressure fluctuation periodically is due to the position of impeller blade relative to tongue.