In the present experimental study, the authors try to clarify the characteristics of the flow around and inside a cross-flow impeller in a typical geometry, over a wide parameter range of an aspect ratio L/D2. In order to eliminate the complicated casing factors, the impeller rotates in open space without any casings. As a result, by using hot wire anemometer measurements and by conventional flow visualisations with a particle image velocimetry technique, the authors show that both the outflow rate and the maximum vorticity attain the maximum for L/D2 = 0.6. In order to investigate the aspect-ratio effect, we further reveal minute fluctuating pressures on an impeller end wall for a singular L/D2 = 0.6. Especially in these pressure measurements, the eccentric vortex is prevented to revolute by the insertion of a tongue, in order to consider the spatial structure of flow more precisely.
Design parameters for suction channels of process centrifugal compressors were investigated, and an optimization method to enhance stage efficiency by using the new design parameters was proposed. From results of computational fluid dynamics, the passage sectional area ratios Ac/Ae, Ae/As and Ac/As were found to be the dominant parameters for the pressure loss and circumferential flow distortion, where Ac, Ae and As are passage sectional areas for the casing upstream side, casing entrance and impeller eye, respectively. The Base suction channel was optimized using the new design parameters, and the Base and Optimized types were tested. Test results showed that the Optimized suction channel achieved 3.8% higher stage efficiency than the Base suction channel while maintaining the same operating range.
Water hammer pumps can effectively use the water hammer phenomenon for water pumping. They are capable of providing an effective fluid transport method in regions without a well-developed social infrastructure. The results of experiments examining the effect of the geometric form of water hammer pumps by considering their major dimensions have been reported. However, these conventional studies have not fully evaluated pump performance in terms of pump head and flow rate, common measures of pump performance. The authors have focused on the effects on the pump performance of various geometric form factors in water hammer pumps. The previous study examined how the hydrodynamic characteristics was affected by the inner diameter ratio of the drive and lift pipes and the angle of the drive pipe, basic form factors of water hammer pumps. The previous papers also showed that the behavior of water hammer pump operation could be divided into four characteristic phases. The behavior of temporal changes in valve chamber and air chamber pressures according to the air volume in the air chamber located downstream of the lift valve was also clarified in connection with changes in water hammer pump performance. In addition, the effects on water hammer pump performance of the length of the spring attached to the drain valve and the drain pipe angle, form factors around the drain valve, were examined experimentally. This study focuses on the form of the lift valve, a major component of water hammer pumps, and examines the effects of the size of the lift valve opening area on water hammer pump performance. It also clarifies the behavior of flow in the valve chamber during water hammer pump operation.
The transfer matrix and unsteady cavitation characteristics, cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor, of cavitating inducer were evaluated by CFD using commercial software. Quasi-steady values of cavitation compliance and mass flow gain factor were obtained first by using steady calculations at various flow rate and inlet cavitation number. Then unsteady calculations were made to determine the transfer matrix and the cavitation characteristics. The results are compared with experiments to show the validity of calculations.
The competition to deliver ultra-low emitting vehicles at a reasonable cost is driving the automotive industry to invest significant manpower and test laboratory resources in the design optimization of increasingly complex exhaust after-treatment systems. Optimization can no longer be based on traditional approaches, which are intensive in hardware use and laboratory testing. The CFD is in high demand for the analysis and design in order to reduce developing cost and time consuming in experiments. This paper describes the development of a comprehensive practical model based on experiments for simulating the performance of automotive three-way catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions. An experiment is conducted to measure species concentrations before and after catalytic converter for different loads on engine. The model simulates the emission system behavior by using an exhaust system heat conservation and catalyst chemical kinetic sub-model. CFD simulation is used to study the performance of automotive catalytic converter. The substrate is modeled as a porous media in FLUENT and the standard k-e model is used for turbulence. The flow pattern is changed from axial to radial by changing the substrate model inside the catalytic converter and the flow distribution and the conversion efficiency of CO, HC and NOx are achieved first, and the predictions are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. It is found that the conversion from axial to radial flow makes the catalytic converter more efficient. These studies help to understand better the performance of the catalytic converter in order to optimize the converter design.