If large pressure fluctuation is observed in the draft tube of a Francis turbine at part-load operation, we have generally called it draft-tube-surge. As occurrence of this phenomenon seriously affects the limit of turbine operating range, extensive studies on the surge have been made since proposal of surge-frequency criterion given by Rheingans. According to the literature survey of related topics in recent IAHR symposiums on hydraulic machinery and systems, in which state-of-the-art contributions were mainly presented, a certain review of them may be desirable for an outlook on the future studies in this research field. Thus, in this review paper, the authors' previous attempts for the last three decades to challenge the following topics: a rational method for component test of a draft tube, nature of spiral vortex rope and its behavior in a draft tube and cavitation characteristics of pressure fluctuations, are introduced together with other related contributions, expecting that more useful and significant studies will be accomplished in the future.
Jet pump is one type of artificial lifts and is used when depth and deviation of producing wells increases and pressure depletion occurs. In the present study, numerical analysis has been carried out to analyze the flow behavior and find the performance of the jet pump. Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations were solved and k-ε turbulence model was used for simulations. Water and light oil as primary fluids were used to pump water, light oil and heavy oil. The ratios of area and length to diameter of the mixing tube were considered as design parameters. The pump efficiency was considered to maximize for the downhole conditions. It was found that the increase in viscosity and density of the secondary fluid reduced efficiency of the system. Water as primary fluid produced better efficiency than the light oil. It was also found that the longer throat length increased efficiency upto 40% if light oil was used as primary fluid and secondary fluid viscosity was 350 cSt.
Mini centrifugal pumps having a diameter smaller than 100mm are employed in many fields. But the design method for the mini centrifugal pump is not established because the internal flow condition for these small-sized fluid machines is not clarified and conventional theory is not suitable for small-sized pumps. Therefore, mini centrifugal pumps with simple structure were investigated by this research. Splitter blades were adopted in this research to improve the performance and the internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump which had large blade outlet angle. The original impeller without the splitter blades and the impeller with the splitter blades were prepared for an experiment. The performance tests are conducted with these rotors in order to investigate the effect of the splitter blades on performance and internal flow condition of mini centrifugal pump. On the other hand, a three dimensional steady numerical flow analysis is conducted with the commercial code (ANSYS-CFX) to investigate the internal flow condition in detail. It is clarified from experimental results that the performance of the mini centrifugal pump is improved by the effect of the splitter blades. Blade-to-blade low velocity regions are suppressed in the case with the splitter blades and total pressure loss regions are decreased. The effects of the splitter blades on the performance and the internal flow condition are discussed in this paper.
In order to apply the design method of diagonal flow fan based on axial flow design to the design of radial-outflow type diagonal flow fan which has lower specific speed of 600-700 [min-1, m3/min, m], radial-outflow type diagonal flow fan which specific speed was 670 [min-1, m3/min, m] was designed by a quasi three-dimensional design method. Experimental investigations were conducted by fan characteristics test, flow surveys by a five-hole probe and a hot wire probe. Fan characteristics test agreed well with the design values. In the flow survey at rotor outlet, the characteristic region was observed. Two flow phenomena are considered as the cause of the characteristic region, one is tip leakage vortex near rotor tip and another is pressure surface separation on the rotor blade.
Data centers have been built with spread of cloud computing. Further, electric power consumption of it is growing rapidly. High power cooling small-sized fans; high pressure and large flow rate small-sized fan, are used for servers in the data centers and there is a strong demand to increase power of it because of increase of quantity of heat from the servers. Contra-rotating rotors have been adopted for some of high power cooling fans to meet the demand for high power. There is a limitation of space for servers and geometrical restriction for cooling fans because spokes to support fan motors, electrical power cables and so on should be installed in the cooling fans. It is important to clarify complicated internal flow condition and influence of a geometric shape of the cooling fans on performance to achieve high performance of the cooling fans. In the present paper, the performance and the flow condition of the high power contra-rotating small-sized axial fan with a 40mm square casing are shown by experimental and numerical results. Furthermore, influence of the geometrical shape of the small-sized cooling fan on the internal flow condition is clarified and design guideline to improve the performance is discussed.