Counter Rotating Turbine (CRT) is an axial turbine with a nozzle followed by a rotor and another rotor that rotates in the opposite direction of the first one. Axial spacing between blade rows plays major role in its performance. Present work involves computationally studying the performance and flow field of CRT with axial spacing of 10, 30 and 70% for different mass flow rates. The turbine components are modeled for all the three spacing. Velocity, pressure, entropy and Mach number distributions across turbine stage are analyzed. Effect of spacing on losses and performance in case of stage, Rotor1 and Rotor2 are elaborated. Results confirm that an optimum axial spacing between turbine components can be obtained for the improved performance of CRT.
A scaling method valid for most turbomachines based on first principles is derived. It accounts for axial and centri-fugal turbomachines with respect to relative gap width / tip clearance, relative roughness, Reynolds number and/or Mach number for design and off-design operation as well. The scaling method has been successfully validated by a va-riety of experimental data obtained at TU Darmstadt. The physically based, hence reliable and universal method is compared with previous, empirical scaling methods.
A practical method of surge simulation in a system of a high-pressure-ratio multistage axial flow compressor and ducts, named SRGTRAN, is described about the principal procedures and the details. The code is constructed on the basis of one-dimensional stage-by-stage modeling and application of fundamental equations of mass, momentum, and energy. An example of analytical result on surge behaviors is included as an experimental verification. It will enable to examine the transient flow phenomena caused by possible compressor surges and their influences on the system components in plant systems including high-pressure-ratio axial compressors or gas turbines.
In order to investigate the characteristics of unsteady flow in a mixed flow pump guide vane under the small flow conditions, several indicator points in a mixed flow pump guide vane was set, the three-dimensional unsteady turbulence numerical value of the mixed flow pump which is in the whole flow field will be calculated by means of the large eddy simulation (LES), sub-grid scale model and sliding mesh technology. The experimental results suggest that the large eddy simulation can estimate the positive slope characteristic of head & capacity curve. And the calculation results show that the pressure fluctuation coefficients of the middle section in guide vane inlet will decrease firstly and then increase. In guide vane outlet, the pressure fluctuation coefficients of section will be approximately axially symmetrical distribution. The pressure fluctuation minimum of section in guide vane inlet is above the middle location of the guide vane suction surface, and the pressure fluctuation minimum of section in which located the middle and outlet of guide vane. When it is under the small flow operating condition, the eddy scale of guide vane is larger, and the pressure fluctuation of the channel in guide vane being cyclical fluctuations obviously which leads to the area of eddy expanding to the whole channel from the suction side. The middle of the guide vane suction surface of the minimum amplitude pressure fluctuation to which the vortex core of eddy scale whose direction of fluid's rotation is the same to impeller in the guide vane adhere.
Self-excited pulse jet is a specific nozzle with a closed chamber which can change a continuous jet into a pulse one. Energy of the pulse jet can be output not only unevenly but also with multifrequency. With the peak pressure of pulse jet, the hitting power would be 2~2.5 times higher than that of continuous jet. In order to reveal the correlation between the self-excited pulse frequency and nozzle diameter ratio, nozzle spacing and operating pressure, the model of 3D unsteady cavitation model has been used. We found that with the same nozzle structure parameters and the different operating pressure, the self-excited frequency and the width of peak crest are different, but the wave profiles are similar. With FFT, we also found that the less bandwidth of amplitude in low frequency range will lead to the wider wave crest of outlet velocity in its time domain, and the larger force of the strike will be gained. By studying the St of self-excite nozzle, not only the frequency of a certain nozzle can be predicted, but also a nozzle structure with a certain frequency can be designed.
The characteristics of the thrust for ship propulsion equipment directly driven by air compressed by pressure fluctuation in a blower piping system are investigated. The exhaust valve is positioned upon the air ejection hole in the discharge pipe in order to induce the large-scale pressure fluctuation, and the effects of the valve on the pressure in the pipes and the thrust for the propulsive nozzle are examined. The pressure in the pipes decreases immediately after the valve is opened, and it increases just before the valve is closed. The thrust for the propulsive nozzle monotonically increases with increasing number of revolutions and depth. The interfacial wave in the nozzle appears in the frequency of approximately 4Hz, and it is important for the increase of the thrust to synchronize the opening-closing cycle for the exhaust valve with the generation frequency of the interfacial wave. The finite difference lattice Boltzmann method is helpful to investigate the characteristics of the flow in the nozzle.