The propellant acquisition vane (PAV) is a key part of a vane type surface tension propellant management device (PMD), which can manage the propellant effectively. In the present paper, the fluid transportation behaviors for five PAVs with different sections were investigated by using microgravity drop tower test. Further, numerical simulation for the propellant flow in a PMD under microgravity condition was also carried out based on VOF model, and showed the similar flow pattern for PAVs to the experiment. It is noted that the section geometry of PAVs is one of the main factors affecting the fluid transportation behavior of PMD. PAVs with bottom length ratio of 5/6 and 1/2 have larger propellant transportation velocity. Based on the experiments, there were two stages during the process of propellant transportation under microgravity environment: liquid relocation and steady transportation stage. It is also recognized that there is a linear correlation between liquid transportation velocity and relative time's square root. Those results can not only provide a guideline for optimization of new vane type PMDs, but also are helpful for fluid control applications in space environment.
In the present study, a computational analysis of the flow in a centrifugal blower is carried out to predict a performance and to explain noise characteristics of the blower. Unsteady, 3D Navier-Stokes equations were solved with k-ε turbulence model using CFX software. CFD results were compared with the experimental data that is acquired from an experiment conducted with the same blower. The pressure fluctuation in the blower was transformed into the frequency domain by Fourier decomposition to find the relationship between flow behaviors and noise characteristics. Sound pressure level (SPL) which is obtained from wall pressure fluctuation at impeller outlet represents relative overall sound level of the blower well. Sound spectra show that there are some specific peak frequencies at each mass flow rate and it can be explained by flow pattern.
Double-blade vertical axis wind turbines (DB-VAWTs) can improve the self-starting performance of lift-driven VAWTs. We here propose the quadruple-multiple streamtube model (QMS), based on the blade element momentum (BEM) theory, for simulating DB-VAWT performance. Model validity is investigated by comparison to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) prediction for two kinds of two-dimensional DB-VAWT rotors for two rotor scales with three inner-outer radius ratios: 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75. The BEM-QMS model does not consider the effects of an inner rotor on the flow speed in the upwind half of the rotor, so we introduce a correction factor for this flow speed. The maximum power coefficient predicted by the modified BEM-QMS model for a DB-VAWT is thus closer to the CFD prediction.
In order to research the relationship between the tip clearance and leakage flow of centrifugal compressor, a high speed centrifugal compressor was investigated by using CFD. A numerical study on the effect of four different rotor tip clearance sizes of centrifugal compressor, which were 0.5times, 1 times, 1.5times and 2.0times of the design tip clearance, was carried out. Efficiency and pressure ratio curves were obtained under different mass flow. The reasons of the clearance vortex and the factors of vortex size were analyzed. The result indicated that with the increase of tip clearance size, the performance of the compressor changed obviously, the performance parameters such as efficiency and pressure ratio tended to decrease obviously. While, the leakage flow does not always lead to leak vortex. The strength of the vortex increased with the tip clearance. The size of leak vortex was affected by the pressure difference between the suction side and the pressure side of blade tip.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are commonly used techniques to evaluate the flow characteristics in the development stage of blood pumps. CFD technique allows rapid change to pump parameters to optimize the pump performance without having to construct a costly prototype model. These techniques are used in the construction of a bi-ventricular assist device (BVAD) which combines the functions of LVAD and RVAD in a compact unit. The BVAD construction consists of two separate chambers with similar impellers, volutes, inlet and output sections. To achieve the required flow characteristics of an average flow rate of 5 l/min and different pressure heads (left – 100mmHg and right – 20mmHg), the impellers were set at different rotating speeds. From the CFD results, a six-blade impeller design was adopted for the development of the BVAD. It was also observed that the fluid can flow smoothly through the pump with minimum shear stress and area of stagnation which are related to haemolysis and thrombosis. Based on the compatible Reynolds number the flow through the model was calculated for the left and the right pumps. As it was not possible to have both the left and right chambers in the experimental model, the left and right pumps were tested separately.