Phase resonance in Francis type hydraulic turbine is studied. The phase resonance is a phenomenon that the pressure fluctuation in the penstock of hydraulic turbine installation can become very large when the pressure waves from each guide vane caused by the interaction with the runner vane reach the penstock with the same phase. Experimental and numerical studies have been carried out using a centrifugal fan. In the present study, comparisons between the pump mode and the turbine mode operations are made. The experimental and numerical results show that the rotational direction of the rotor does not affect characteristics of the pressure fluctuation but the propagation direction of the rotor-stator interaction mode plays an important role. Flow rate fluctuations through the stator are examined numerically. It has been found that the blade passing flow rate fluctuation component can be evaluated by the difference of the fluctuating pressure at the inlet and the outlet of the stator. The amplitude of the blade passage component of the pressure fluctuation is greater at the stator inlet than the one at the stator outlet. The rotor-stator interaction mode component is almost identical at the inlet and the outlet of the stator. It was demonstrated that the pressure fluctuation in the volute and connecting pipe normalized by the flow rate fluctuation becomes the same for pump and turbine mode operations, and depends on the rotational direction on the interaction mode.
Particle Image Velocimetry combined with developed image processing method is adopted to study the liquid-solid two phase flow in the centrifugal pump impeller with crystallization phenomenon. The tracer particle is used to follow the liquid phase, which has the diameter between 8 to 12μm. The crystal particle precipitates from the sodium sulfate solution does change the wavelength of the laser, and which has great laser scattering characteristics . The diameter of the crystal particle is larger than 20μm. Through calculating the diameter of the particles in the image, the tracer particle and the crystal particle can be distinguished. By analyzing the experimental result, the following conclusion has been obtained. During the delay period, there is not any crystal particle and the pump performance has not been changed. As the crystallization process begins, the crystal nuclei appears from the supersaturation solution and grows larger with temperature decreasing, which has the tendency of moving towards the pressure side. The characteristics of liquid-solid two phase flow with crystallization phenomenon in the pump are obtained according to analysis of experimental results, and some guiding advices are presented to mitigate the crystallization phenomenon in pump impeller.
In order to clarify the effect of inlet bellmouth size of semi-opened type axial fan on its performance and flow fields around rotor, fan test and flow field measurements using hotwire anemometer were carried out for 6 kinds of bellmouth size. As results of fan test, the shaft power curve hardly changed, even if the bellmouth size changed. On the other hand, the pressure-rise near best efficiency point became small with the bellmouth size decreasing. Therefore, the value of maximum efficiency became small as the bellmouth size decreased. As results of flow field measurements at fan inlet, the main flow region with large meridional velocity existed near blade tip when the bellmouth size was large. As bellmouth size became smaller, the meridional velocity at fan inlet became smaller and the one at outside of blade tip became larger. As results of flow field measurements at fan outlet, the main flow region existed near rotor hub side.
The type of turbine developed is based on the very low head of water potential source for the electric power production. The area of research is focused for the axial water turbine that can be applied at the simple site open channel with has a very low cost and environmental impact compared to the conventional hydro installation. High efficiency of axial turbine which applied to the very low potential head will made this type of turbine can be used at wider potential site. Existing irrigation weir and river area will be the perfect site for this turbine. This paper will compare the effects of the variation of swirl velocity criterion during the design of the blade of guide vane and rotor of the turbine. Effects of the swirl velocity criterion is wider known as a vortex conditions (free vortex, force vortex and swirl velocity constant), and the free vortex is the very popular condition that applied by most of turbine designer, therefore will be interesting to do a comparison against other criterion. ANSYS Fluent will be used for simulation and to determine the predictive performance obtained by each of design criteria.
In this study, we visualized the internal flow of a regenerative turbomachinery using the direct injection tracer method. For visualization, the working fluid was water and the tracer was oil colors (marbling colors). Droplets were injected at the inlet of the machinery and the streak were recorded using a high-speed camera with high-power light sources. While circulating inside the groove, the droplets were translated by the rotational motion of the impeller. When the droplets flow out of the impeller groove, relative to the impeller, they moved more slowly. And the droplets repeatedly reentered into the groove and circulated again. Then the droplets either flowed to the outlet or to the stripper. As a result, this experiment has confirmed the internal circulating flow of a regenerative turbomachinery.