For efficient design process of regenerative blower, the present study provides new generalized pressure and leakage flow loss models, which can be used in the performance analysis method of regenerative blower. The present performance analysis on designed blower is made by incorporating momentum exchange theory between impellers and side channel with mean line analysis method, and its pressure loss and leakage flow models are generalized from the related fluid mechanics correlations which can be expressed in terms of blower design variables. The present performance analysis method is applied to four existing models for verifying its prediction accuracy, and the prediction and the test results agreed well within a few percentage of relative error. Furthermore, the present performance analysis method is also applied in developing a new blower used for fuel cell application, and the newly designed blower is manufactured and tested through chamber-type test facility. The performance prediction by the present method agreed well with the test result and also with the CFD simulation results. From the comparison results, the present performance analysis method is shown to be suitable for the actual design practice of regenerative blower.
The swirling flow in the draft tube of a Francis turbine can cause the flow instability and the cavitation surge and has a larger influence on hydraulic power operating system. In this paper, the cavitating flow with swirling flow in the diffuser was studied by the draft tube component experiment, the model Francis turbine experiment and the numerical simulation. In the component experiment, several types of fluctuations were observed, including the cavitation surge and the vortex rope behaviour by the swirling flow. While the cavitation surge and the vortex rope behaviour were suppressed by the aeration into the diffuser, the loss coefficient in the diffuser increased by the aeration. In the model turbine test the aeration decreased the efficiency of the model turbine by several percent. In the numerical simulation, the cavitating flow was studied using Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) with particular emphasis on understanding the unsteady characteristics of the vortex rope structure. The generation and evolution of the vortex rope structures have been investigated throughout the diffuser using the iso-surface of vapor volume fraction. The pressure fluctuation in the diffuser by numerical simulation confirmed the cavitation surge observed in the experiment. Finally, this pressure fluctuation of the cavitation surge was examined and interpreted by CFD.
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the applicability of mass transfer cavitation models and determine appropriate numerical parameters for cavitating flow simulations. CFD simulations were performed for a NACA66 hydrofoil at cavitation numbers of 1.49 and 1.00, corresponding to steady sheet and unsteady sheet/cloud cavitating regimes using the Kubota and Merkle cavitation models. The Merkle model was implemented into CFX by User Fortran code. The Merkle cavitation model is found to give some improvements for cavitating flow simulation results for these cases. Turbulence modeling is also found to have an important contribution to the prediction quality of the simulations. The relationship between the turbulence viscosity modification, in order to take into account the local compressibility at the vapor/liquid interfaces, and the predicted numerical results is clarified. The limitations of current cavitating flow simulation techniques are discussed throughout the paper.
The failure of hydraulic turbine runners is a rare event. So in order to assess the reliability of these components one cannot rely solely on the number of observed failures in a given population. However, as there is a limited number of degradation mechanisms involved, it is possible to use physically-based reliability models. Such models are often more complicated but are able to account for physical parameters in the degradation process. They can therefore help provide solutions to improve reliability. With such models, the effect of materials properties on runner reliability can be highlighted. This paper presents a brief review of the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram which links the damage tolerance approach, based on fracture mechanics, to the stress or strain-life approaches. Using simplified response spectra based on runner stress measurements, we will show how fatigue reliability is sensitive to materials fatigue properties, namely fatigue crack propagation behaviour and fatigue limit obtained on S-N curves. Furthermore, we will review the influence of the main microstructural features observed in 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steels commonly used for runner manufacturing. The goal is ultimately to identify the most influential microstructural features and to quantify their effect on fatigue reliability of runners.
This presentation describes an experimental approach for the detection of cavitation in hydraulic machines by use of ultrasonic signal analysis. Instead of using the high frequency pulses (typically 1MHz) only for transit time measurement different other signal characteristics are extracted from the individual signals and its correlation function with reference signals in order to gain knowledge of the water conditions. As the pulse repetition rate is high (typically 100Hz), statistical parameters can be extracted of the signals. The idea is to find patterns in the parameters by a classifier that can distinguish between the different water states. This classification scheme has been applied to different cavitation sections: a sphere in a water flow in circular tube at the HSLU in Lucerne, a NACA profile in a cavitation tunnel and two Francis model test turbines all at LMH in Lausanne. From the signal raw data several statistical parameters in the time and frequency domain as well as from the correlation function with reference signals have been determined. As classifiers two methods were used: neural feed forward networks and decision trees. For both classification methods realizations with lowest complexity as possible are of special interest. It is shown that two to three signal characteristics, two from the signal itself and one from the correlation function are in many cases sufficient for the detection capability. The final goal is to combine these results with operating point, vibration, acoustic emission and dynamic pressure information such that a distinction between dangerous and not dangerous cavitation is possible.
This paper deals with the influence of leakage flow existing in SHF pump model on the analysis of internal flow behaviour inside the vane diffuser of the pump model performance using both experiments and calculations. PIV measurements have been performed at different hub to shroud planes inside one diffuser channel passage for a given speed of rotation and various flow rates. For each operating condition, the PIV measurements have been trigged with different angular impeller positions. The performances and the static pressure rise of the diffuser were also measured using a three-hole probe. The numerical simulations were carried out with Star CCM+ 9.06 code (RANS frozen and unsteady calculations). Some results were already presented at the XXth IAHR Symposium for three flowrates for RANS frozen and URANS calculations. In the present paper, comparisons between URANS calculations with and without leakages and experimental results are presented and discussed for these flow rates. The performances of the diffuser obtained by numerical calculations are compared to those obtained by the three-holes probe measurements. The comparisons show the influence of fluid leakages on global performances and a real improvement concerning the efficiency of the diffuser, the pump and the velocity distributions. These results show that leakage is an important parameter that has to be taken into account in order to make improved comparisons between numerical approaches and experiments in such a specific model set up.
The effect of the inlet swirling flow in a hydraulic turbine draft tube is a very complex phenomenon, which has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In fact, the finding of the optimal flow distribution at the draft tube inlet in order to get the best performance has remained a challenge. Thus, attempting to answer this question, it was assumed that through an automatic optimization process a Genetic Algorithm would be able to manage a parameterized inlet velocity profile in order to achieve the best flow field for a particular draft tube. As a result of the optimization process, it was possible to obtain different draft-tube flow structures generated by the automatic manipulation of parameterized inlet velocity profiles. Thus, this work develops a qualitative and quantitative analysis of these new draft tube flow field structures provoked by the redesigned inlet velocity profiles. The comparisons among the different flow fields obtained clearly illustrate the importance of the flow uniformity at the end of the conduit. Another important aspect has been the elimination of the re-circulating flow area which used to promote an adverse pressure gradient in the cone, deteriorating the pressure recovery effect. Thanks to the evolutionary optimization strategy, it has been possible to demonstrate that the optimized inlet velocity profile can suppress or mitigate, at least numerically, the undesirable draft tube flow characteristics. Finally, since there is only a single swirl number for which the objective function has been minimized, the energy loss factor might be slightly affected by the flow rate if the same relation of the axial-tangential velocity components is maintained, which makes it possible to scale the inlet velocity field to different operating points.
The present study is conducted to identify a better design and optimal number of Francis runner blades for sediment laden high head micro hydropower site, Tara Khola in the Baglung district of Nepal. The runner is designed with in-house code and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is performed to evaluate the performance with three configurations; 11, 13 and 17 numbers of runner blades. The three sets of runners were also investigated for the sediment erosion tendency. The runner with 13 blades shows better performance at design as well as in variable discharge conditions. 96.2% efficiency is obtained from the runner with 13 blades at the design point, and the runners with 17 and 11 blades have 88.25% and 76.63% efficiencies respectively. Further, the runner with 13 blades has better manufacturability than the runner with 17 blades as it has long and highly curved blade with small gaps between the blades, but it comes with 65% more erosion tendency than in the runner with 17 blades.
Numerical simulation was applied to investigate the Taylor vortex flow inside the concentric cylinders with a constant radial temperature gradient. The reliability of numerical simulation method was verified by the experimental results of PIV. The radial velocity and temperature distribution in plain and 12-slit model at different axial locations were compared, and the heat flux distributions along the inner cylinder wall at different work conditions were obtained. In the plain model, the average surface heat flux of inner cylinder increased with the inner cylinder rotation speed. In slit model, the slit wall significantly changed the distribution of flow field and temperature in the annulus gap, and the radial flow was strengthen obviously , which promoted the heat transfer process at the same working condition.
It is difficulty to calculate velocity circulation in centrifugal pump impeller outlet accurately. Velocity circulations of a double-blade pump impeller outlet were calculated with Stodola formula, Weisner formula and Stechkin formula. Simultaneously, the internal flow of impeller for the double-blade pump were measured with PIV technology and average velocity circulations at the 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 times of design flow were obtained. All the experimental values were compared with the above calculation values at the three conditions. The results show that calculation values of velocity circulations with Weisner formula is close to the experimental values. On the basis of the above, velocity circulations of impeller outlet were corrected. The results of experimental verification show that the corrected calculation errors, whose maximum error is 3.65%, are greatly reduced than the uncorrected calculation errors. The research results could provide good references for establishment of theoretical head and multi-condition hydraulic optimization of double-blade pumps.
A valve-less electro-hydraulic servo steering device (short: VSSD) for ships was chosen as a study object, and its mathematic model of hydraulic shock was established on the basis of flow properties and force balance of each component. The influence of system structure parameters, changing rate of motor speed and external load on hydraulic shock strength was simulated by the method of numerical simulation. Experiment was designed to test the hydraulic shock mathematic model of VSSD. Experiment results verified the correctness of the model, and the model provided a correct theoretical method for the calculation and control of hydraulic shock of valve-less electro-hydraulic servo steering device.