In China, agricultural irrigation water often contains a lot of suspended sediment which may cause the nozzle wear. In this study, a new numerical simulation combing the Discrete Phase Model and a remeshing algorithm was conducted. The geometric boundary deformation caused by the erosion wear, was considered. The weight loss of the nozzle, the node displacement and the flow field were investigated and discussed. The timestep sensitivity analysis showed that the timestep is very critical in the erosion modeling due to the randomness and the discreteness of the erosion behavior. Based on the simulation results, the major deformation of the boundary wall due to the erosion was found at the corners between outlet portion and contraction portion. Based on this remeshing algorithm, the simulated erosion weight loss of the nozzle is 4.62% less compared with the case without boundary deformation. The boundary deformation changes the pressure and velocity distribution, and eventually changes the sediment distribution inside the nozzle. The average turbulence kinetic energy at the outlet orifice is found to decrease with the erosion time, which is believed to change the nozzle’s spray performance eventually.
A twin unidirectional impulse turbine for wave energy conversion has been suggested in our previous study, and the
performance under unsteady flow has been investigated by quasi-steady analysis. In the present study, the performance
of twin impulse turbine under unsteady flow condition has been investigated by unsteady analysis of Computational
fluid dynamics. As a result, the mean efficiency of twin unidirectional impulse turbine under unsteady flow is lower
than the maximum efficiency of unidirectional impulse turbine. Moreover, it is verified that airflow goes backward in
the reverse turbine in low flow rates.
The present study reported of the use of special shaped blade to reduce the difference in pressure across the Wells turbine for wave energy conversion. The blade profile was composed of NACA0020 airfoils and trailing edge was notched like chevron. Experiments were performed investigating the influence of trailing edge shape on the turbine performance. Four notch depths were used to investigate the effect of depth of cut on the turbine performance. As results, by placing a notch-cut at the trailing edge of the blade, it was possible to reduce the pressure difference across the turbine without lowering the efficiency. In addition, the pressure difference substantially reduced at a constant rate with the increase of the cut ratio.
Surrogate model based shape optimization methodology to enhance performance of a centrifugal pump has been implemented in this work. Design variables, such as blade number and blade angles defining the pump impeller blade shape were selected and a three-level full factorial design approach was used for efficiency enhancement. A threedimensional simulation using Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations for the performance analysis was carried out after designing the geometries of the impellers at the design points. Standard k-ε turbulence model was used for steady incompressible flow simulations. The optimized impeller incurred lower losses by shifting the trailing edge towards the impeller pressure side. It is observed that the surrogates are problem dependent and most accurate surrogate does not deliver the best design always.
A bathtub vortex above the outlet of a rotating barrel is simulated. By analyzing the Ekman layer theory, it can be found that the main flow circulation is inversely proportional to the thickness of Ekman layer. The thicker the Ekman boundary layer, the weaker the rotational strength and the shorter of the length of gas core is. According to this law, models of barriers with rods of different heights are established. The reduction of air-core length in this air entrainment vortex and weakening the strength of rotation field were achieved.
Turbocompounding is a key technology to satisfy the future requirements of diesel engine's fuel economy and emission reduction. A turbocompound diesel engine was developed based on a conventional 11-Liter heavy-duty diesel engine. The turbocompound system includes a power turbine, which is installed downstream of a Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) turbine. The impacts of the VGT rack position on the turbocompound engine performance were studied. An optimal VGT control strategy was determined. Experimental results show that the turbocompound engine using the optimal VGT control strategy achieves better performance than the original engine under all full load operation conditions. The averaged and maximum reductions of the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are 3% and 8% respectively.
Information on the surge behaviors and stall stagnation boundaries for a nine-stage axial flow compressor are summarized on the basis of analytical data in comparison with those for a single-stage one, with attention to the pressure ratio effect. The general trends of the surge loop behaviors of the pressure-mass flow are similar for both compressors including the fact that the subharmonic surges tend to appear very near the stall stagnation boundaries. With respect to the nine-stage compressor, however, the mild loops in the subharmonic surges tend to be very small in size relative to the deep loops, and at the same time, insufficient surge recovery phenomenon, which is a kind of subharmonic surge, appears also far from the stagnation boundary for relatively short delivery flow-paths. The latter is found to be a rear-stage surge caused by unstalling and re-stalling of the rear stages with the front-stages kept in stall in the stalled condition of the whole compressor, which situation is caused by stage-wise mismatching in the bottom pressure levels of the in-stall multi-stage compressor. The fundamental information on the stall stagnation boundaries is given by a group of normalized geometrical parameters including relative delivery flow-path length, relative suction flow-path length, and sectional area-pressure ratio, and by another group of normalized frequency parameters including relative surge frequencies, modified reduced resonance frequencies, and modified reduced surge frequencies. Respective groups of the normalized parameters show very similar tendency of behaviors for the nine-stage compressor and the single-stage compressor. The modified reduced resonance frequency could be the more reasonable parameter suggesting the flow-induced oscillation nature of the surge phenomena. It could give the stall stagnation boundary in a more unified manner than the Greitzer's B parameter.
This study aims to identify aerodynamic characteristics of the ramp tab, a mechanical deflector, by conducting a non-combustive experiment using compressed air and supersonic flow test equipment. With the ramp tabs installed symmetrically and asymmetrically on the outlet of the supersonic nozzle, the structure of the flow field, the thrust spoilage, the thrust deviation angle, and the lift/drag coefficients were derived and analyzed. The results show that the asymmetrically-installed ramp tabs are advantageous relative to the symmetrically-installed tabs in terms of the performance of thrust vector control, thrust deviation angle, and lift coefficient.
The shock-free inflow criterion applied in the development of two-dimensional cascade for turbomachinery design. The developed cascade analysis with potential flow calculation through a panel method has been used to determine the shock-free inflow condition. The combination between cascade analysis and PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm provides an opportunity to develop a diagram of a two-dimensional parameter cascade at various airfoil shapes. Analytical equations have been derived from the diagram that will facilitate the turbomachinery designer in applying the shock-free inflow criterion on their developed cascade. This method has been used to develop the very low head axial hydraulic turbine and provides excellent results of numerical and actual prototype performances.
As a single-channel pump is used for wastewater treatment, this particular pump type can prevent performance reduction or damage caused by foreign substances. However, the design methods for single-channel pumps are different and more difficult than those for general pumps. In this study, a design optimization method to improve the hydrodynamic performance of a single-channel pump impeller is implemented. Numerical analysis was carried out by solving three-dimensional steady-state incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the shear stress transport turbulence model. As a state-of-the-art impeller design method, two design variables related to controlling the internal cross-sectional flow area of a single-channel pump impeller were selected for optimization. Efficiency was used as the objective function and was numerically assessed at twelve design points selected by Latin hypercube sampling in the design space. An optimization process based on a radial basis neural network model was conducted systematically, and the performance of the optimum model was finally evaluated through an experimental test. Consequently, the optimum model showed improved performance compared with the base model, and the unstable flow components previously observed in the base model were suppressed remarkably well.
Flow over a bluff body is an attractive research field in thermal engineering. In the present study, laminar flow over a confined heated square cylinder using CuO-Water nanofluid is considered. Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved numerically using finite volume method (FVM). Recent correlations for the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids, which are function of nanoparticle volume fraction, temperature and nanoparticle diameter, have been employed. The results of numerical solution are obtained for Richardson number, nanoparticle volume fractions and nanoparticle diameters ranges of 0-1, 1-5% and 30-100 nm respectively for a fixed Reynolds number of Re = 150. At a given volume concentration, the investigations reveal that the decreasing in size of nanoparticles produces an increase in heat transfer rates from the square cylinder and a decrease in amplitude of the lift coefficient. Also, the increment of Nusselt number is more pronounced at higher concentrations and higher Richardson numbers.