Psychological studies have shown that when individuals move their gaze between two alternative objects, they tend to choose the object that holds their gaze for longer (the gaze-manipulation effect). This effect is especially evident when both alternatives appeal to the viewer. We hypothesized that if individuals have an interest in sports and/or fashion, and thus view varieties of sportswear favorably, then gaze manipulation would influence their choice. Japanese university students participated in our experiments. The participants made preference choices between two uniforms of European football teams, which were presented alternately across the left and right sides of a computer screen six times for different durations (900 ms vs. 300 ms). They were required to compare the uniforms with or without fixing their gaze directly on them. They also completed questionnaires designed to assess their interest in football and fashion. The results showed that the gaze-manipulation effect was not significant across all participants or across those participants who merely liked fashion, or who merely watched football or casually played it. However, the effect was significant in participants who had been members of football teams. Our results suggest that application of the gaze-manipulation technique would be more effective for visual advertisement of sports items if it was focused on sports players.
This study clarifies abilities that enable “sympathy of movement” (Mitvollziehen der Bewegung). Moreover, it discusses the methodological directionality to expand these abilities from coaches' and researchers' standpoints, using five discussions by highlighting Husserl's Phenomenology. “Sympathy of movement” refers to sympathizing with an athlete's performance and interpreting their experience from a coaching perspective. Previously, Kaneko indicated that “sympathy of movement” is performed using three coaching activities: the observation of movement, “inquiry,” and “virtual self-movement.” Using these activities, coaches can consider and provide appropriate advice for each individual. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of expanding these abilities; however, the manner in which these abilities should be expanded has yet to be clarified. Thus, this study employs three activities to clarify a methodological directionality to expand these abilities from a phenomenological perspective. In addition, it uses five discussions to indicate the necessity for coaches to learn the difference between external and internal standpoints on performance. Furthermore, researchers should focus on the phenomenological perspective.
This study aimed to examine temporal change in the physical demands with respect to a referee's running distance and speed, and heart rate (HR) during Japanese high-school (U-18) and university (U-22) football matches, and to investigate the match technical-tactical data. Additionally, we compared the physical demands and match performance of referees during the U-18 and U-22 matches. Physical performance (15Hz global positioning system device) and HR of 20 Japanese referees (age, 26.3±3.4 years) were measured from 20 matches (one match dataset per referee). All matches were video filmed to calculate the distance from a foul and match technical-tactical data (passes, shots, fouls, offense-defense turnovers, and penetrations into the attacking zone). We found that physical demands were temporarily increased in the last stage of a match. Some technical-tactical data similarly increased in the same stage, suggested that the referees during the U-18 and U-22 matches are required to move around each penalty area and keep up with play in the last stage of a match. Referees' physical demands and match performance were not different between the U-18 and U-22 matches.
The Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model (the TPSR model) is a method for teaching students about fulfillment of personal and social responsibilities through physical activities. A characteristic of this model is that it aims to transfer and maintain behavior acquired through physical activities. Past studies have revealed a number of challenges related to transfer and maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model. First, physical education classes in schools were not targeted. Second, the effects of the TPSR model were not examined using quantitative data. Third, maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model were not examined. One effective experimental design for examining maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model would probably be a case study in which changes in one group were measured for a certain period of time. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether the TPSR model would promote acquisition and maintenance of social skills in daily life using an experimental design and quantitative data targeting physical education in junior high schools in Japan. The results were as follows: First, the TPSR model promoted the acquisition of social skills that students could use outside of physical education classes, although it did not facilitate the maintenance of these social skills. Second, the TPSR model appeared to promote the acquisition of social skills by encouraging students to imagine scenes in their daily lives that were similar to scenarios in physical education classes, where they were encouraged to behave responsibly. Third, the TPSR model did not facilitate the maintenance of social skills because it did not incorporate methods for acquiring structural knowledge based on fundamental and procedural disciplines or allow students to gain structural understanding that would allow them to apply this knowledge to new scenarios.
The objectives of the present study were: to examine the relationship between kendo competition levels and men strike times in 20 university kendo club members; and to determine factors for shortening men strike times. LED lamps were attached to the men and the kote (the strike targets), and subjects struck in the direction of the lit LED lamp with maximal effort from a distance of 2.30 m. Phase times, movements, and ground reaction force on both feet were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. Subjects of higher competition levels tended to demonstrate shorter men strike times. Reaction times, movement times, and shinai upswing phase time also tended to be shorter. 2. Factor for shortening men strike times in the upswing phase consisted of the following: lifting the right foot from the ground quickly, simultaneously pushing off the ground with great force with the left foot, quickly lifting the right thigh forward while moving the body forward, and to increase the range of upswing motion of the shinai with high velocity. In the downswing phase, the shinai should be swung at a higher velocity, and the left shoulder should be flexed more when striking.
The present study was conducted to analyze the visual behavior of volleyball players using a wearable camera, instead of the expensive eye trackers that have been employed to date. The position of the player's forehead, i.e. the direction of the line of sight, was estimated approximately from the images recorded by the camera (pilot studies 1 and 2). We then examined differences in the player's gaze shift patterns, ball pursuit time and initial spiker fixation when blocking the volleyball, as a function of experience in playing volleyball (main study). The results from pilot studies 1 and 2 indicated that the ball pursuit time from just after release of the ball by the setter and the time taken to fix on the spiker, i.e. the time between the blocker's eyes leaving the ball and shifting to the spiker, was measured as accurately by the wearable camera as by using an eye tracker. The main study indicated that gaze shift pattern was separable into “gaze shift” (volleyball players, 100% and general sports players, 47.8%) and “ball pursuit” types (general sports players, 52.2%) indicative of skills based differences. However, there was no detectable difference in the time when players shifted their sight from the ball, or in the time when they saw the spiker, according to skills based on prior volleyball experience. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that it is possible to estimate visual behavior during blocking tasks in volleyball using a less expensive wearable camera, rather than an expensive eye tracker.
Unity is one of the most important factors for individual and team performance in sports. Mental health is also identified an important factor for athletes' sports performance. Scholars have proposed that athletes' mental health is related to resilience, that includes environmental and personal factors. We have hypothesized that unity in sports teams predicts environmental and personal factors of resilience, which in turn relate to athletes' mental health. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to this examine the effect of team unity on athletes' mental health, and the mediating effect of resilience in its relationship. A total of 626 university athletes (average age 20.08±1.31 years) from 16 sports completed questionnaires. The survey questionnaire comprised the Unity Scale for Sports Teams (Yamada et al., 2013), the Psychological Resilience Scale for University Athletes (Ueno and Shimizu, 2012) and the General Health Questionnaire-30 (Nakagawa and Daibo, 1985). Relationships between team unity, resilience and mental health were tested, as well as the above hypothesis. Results showed that positive correlations between team unity, athletes' resilience and mental health. Additionally, the results supported the mediation hypothesis of resilience in the relationship between team unity and mental health. The results suggest that interventions aiming to support athletes' mental health should focus on both teams and individual athletes.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of fair play in the pre-modern era, targeting pugilism in the 18th century, by focusing on the essence of gambling-oriented spectator sports. First, it analyzes the practice of gambling-oriented spectator sports from the perspective of the concept of figuration. Second, it analyzes Broughton's Rules of pugilism from the perspective of the concept of figuration to identify their function and the characteristics of fair play seen in them. Third, it examines the process by which fair play was transformed in the transition from the pre-modern to the modern era by exploring the meaning of the revision of Broughton's Rules as the London Prize Ring Rules. This study establishes the following. First, the main function of Broughton's Rules was to guarantee interesting bouts and the viability of gambling. The fair play in spectator sports conducted in accordance with these rules manifested itself in the “performance” of a bout that was fought skillfully and carefully right to the end, while being free of unnecessary accidents and injuries. Second, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, fair play in pugilism evolved under the influence of an emphasis on greater clarity. As a result, conduct that had previously been permitted came to be prohibited under the London Prize Ring Rules.
Although the importance of social support has been broadly recognised within the sports field, its mechanism has not yet been fully examined in terms of identifying effective dimensions, providers and timings. The current study's aim was to investigate the received support experienced by university student athletes respectively from coaches and teammates over the course of a week, and examine its relationship with self-confidence and feelings of adaptation. Two hundred thirty-one university student athletes completed questionnaires including the Japanese version of the Athlete Received Support Questionnaire (the ARSQ-J). The results indicated that received support might influence recipients' self-confidence both positively and negatively, depending on its dimensions and providers. Esteem support both from coaches and teammates were effective for self-confidence. Tangible support had a positive impact if provided from teammates, but a negative impact if provided by coaches. With regard to the feelings of adaptation, it was indicated that tangible support both from coaches and teammates were negatively correlated with the outcome. In conclusion, its dimension and provider of support can determine the effectiveness of social support. Further clarification of received support in a sport context by examining its dimensions, providers and contexts will contribute to the identification of effective support, which may be useful in supporting athletes.
Why do we want to win in a sport as strongly as we do? This paper explored this question from the point of view of desire in an attempt to delineate how desire manifests in modern sports, as well as its relevance to brutality. A great many incidents that occur in real life teach us that modern sports involve a great deal of violence. It is equally clear that no violent behaviour will happen in a situation where no competition exists. As we confirmed at the outset, competitors are bound to have an essential desire to win in sports competitions. This desire is directed towards an object called victory. According to Girard, the desire to win is anything but autonomous; rather, it exists as the mimicry of another person's desire. When revisiting modern sports from the point of view of desire in this manner, we can see that international megaevents such as the Olympics, the world cups of various sports, etc., propagate our desire to win to a formidable degree. In other words, modern sports are intimately connected with capitalist economies and strengthen triangular desire in a synergistic manner. The strengthened desire lacks an outlet, reaches the hell of reciprocal mediation, and consequently manifests as brutality.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the implementation of health education in a practical teaching seminar for teaching profession, whose full-scale application at four-year universities was started in 2013. We carried out a nationwide mail survey of 158 departments at 152 universities offering courses leading to the junior high school and high school teaching certificate (in health and physical education). The response rate was 43.0% (68/158), and after exclusion of one blank response, 67 cases were analyzed. Among the participants, 71.6% secured time for health education in a practical teaching seminar. The responses were examined to determine whether the contents of the class were considered suitable for a trial health class (62.5%), whether it reflected a health class in teaching practice (45.8%), whether the content was suitable for health education (39.6%), whether or not it reflected teaching methods in health education (37.5%), whether the design was suitable for devising teaching plans for health classes (33.3%), and whether the material was suitable for health education (27.1%). The various class styles included a trial lesson (48.7%), practice (48.0%), a lecture (33.7%), and others (40.2%). These results were considered to indicate that a practical teaching seminar would contribute to teacher training and development through improvement of curricula in the health education field.
Objective: To analyze the effects of intradialytic resistance training on physical function in 8 hemodialysis patients aged ≥60 years. Method: Physical function, blood pressure, heart rate, and biochemical data were analyzed before and after 3 and 12 months of exercise therapy. Focusing on muscle strengthening of the trunk and legs while on bed rest, the exercise load of the intervention was individualized for each patient. Results: Significant differences were observed in ankle plantar flexor strength, the Timed Up and Go test, and maximum walking speed between before and after 3 months of intervention. However, no significant differences were observed from 3 to 12 months, indicating that there was no long-term improvement upon low-to-medium resistance training during hemodialysis. Conclusion: Further studies with increased sample sizes are required to elucidate the appropriate intensity, frequency, and duration for an effective resistance training program in this population.
This study investigated the relationship between aerobic fitness and repeated sprint ability (RSA) before and after a half-time. Thirteen male volunteers (23±2 years, 175±5 cm, 67±6 kg; [mean±standard error]) participated in this study. All subjects underwent two laboratory tests on a cycle ergometer. An initial test was conducted to determine aerobic fitness. On separate day, the RSA test was conducted. The RSA exercise comprised 15×6-s sprints with 54-s recovery periods. This was duplicated after a 15-min half-time. The blood lactate (Bla) removal rate was calculated using Bla values before and after the half-time. As a result of aerobic fitness, seven subjects were classified as fit (≥58 ml/kg/min) and six as unfit (<58 ml/kg/min). The maximal peak power was significantly reduced in the unfit group (p<0.05) but not in the fit group (p>0.05) at the second session. The change in maximal peak power between sessions was significantly correlated with VO2max (r=0.714, p<0.01). A strong correlation was observed between Bla removal rate and VO2max (r=0.830, p<0.01). These results indicate that aerobically fit subjects recover more quickly after RSA exercise due to superior lactate removal ability.
We examine the advantages of a non-orthogonal joint coordinate system (JCS) in calculating each anatomical torque's power through comparison with a segment coordinate system (SCS) of the distal segment. To clarify the differences between coordinate systems, kinematic data were collected from 12 male participants swinging their legs laterally and anteriorly under two conditions: the toe facing forward and facing laterally. The mechanical power and work exerted by each hip anatomical torque in JCS and SCS were calculated. With the toe facing forward, there is no significant difference between the two methods. The largest energy generators were abduction torque for lateral swing and flexion torque for anterior swing. With the toe facing laterally, in JCS, these results were consistent for both lateral swing (abduction: 0.21±0.06 J/kg; flexion: 0.06±0.04 J/kg) and anterior swing (flexion: 0.35±0.09 J/kg; adduction: 0.01±0.01 J/kg). However, in SCS, the largest energy generator for lateral swing changed from abduction (0.08±0.07 J/kg) to flexion torque (0.22±0.12 J/kg). For anterior swing, the hip adduction torque generated as large energy (0.14±0.08 J/kg) as hip flexion torque (0.20±0.08 J/kg) in SCS. Therefore, although SCS resulted in an inconsistency between power generator and movement due to hip external rotation, JCS avoided it, regardless of leg position, allowing JCS to investigate the power generation/absorption of each anatomical torque, particularly during long axial rotation.
This study investigated trash talk among soccer players, focusing on whether it actually disturbed playing performance and whether the ability to ignore such trash talk was an asset to the game. The “Laws of the Game” of soccer stipulate that any player who uses “offensive, insulting or abusive language and/or gestures” should be dismissed from the field. Therefore, any penalty imposed on players for such behavior can be interpreted as sanctions for prohibited act. Furthermore, any game in which offensive or insulting remark are used was considered by reference to Kawatani's opinion about excellence and “failed athletic contest”. When a referee penalizes a player appropriately for such behavior, it is suggested that the game has not “failed”. On the other hand, as such behavior is often difficult for a referee to notice, an appropriate penalty is sometimes not administered. Therefore, it is suggested that an offensive or insulting remark is an act that indirectly destroys the ethos of a game. I conclude that the ability to ignore trash talk is not an asset to the game in principle, but that such ability is practically necessary.
Psychological and physiological indices including introspective reports, visual analogue scales, and electroencephalogram data were used to investigate during motor imagery and skills acquisition, as well as changes in perspectives during motor imagery in a beginner baton-twirler. We also used a single case experimental design and followed the beginner baton-twirler for three years and intermediate twirlers for two years. Their electroencephalograms were monitored while they engaged in motor imagery of actual baton twirling movements and their α and β band activities were analyzed as indices of arousal. After completing motor imagery, participants responded to the visual analogue scale inquiring about difficulty, vividness, and controllability of motor imagery. Moreover, participants reported skills they obtained and results of competitions. We observed acquisition of new skills, improved results, increased vividness, better regulation of motor imagery, changes in motor imagery perspective, as well as increased α, and decreased β band activities. These results suggest that proficiency in skills promoted high quality motor imagery at an adequate arousal.
In this study, we determined upper limb joint torques during performances of kicking pullover. Kinematics and bar reaction forces (BRFs) were measured during successful kicking pullovers by 10 healthy adult males, with the horizontal bar set at 75% to the individual subject's heights. Sagittal plane analyses using an 11-segment link model were performed between the period from takeoff to the upside-down position. Large extension torques of elbows and shoulders of both arms were observed (1.01±0.14 and 2.08±0.30 Nm/kg as the sum of bilateral arms, respectively) and accompanied by large vertical BRF (0.71±0.07 BW). Because the angular momentum about the center of mass (CM) was mostly satisfied at takeoff, large horizontal BRF after takeoff may be avoided. However, vertical velocity of the CM at takeoff (1.1±0.1 m/s) was insufficient to raise by the necessary distance against gravity, and compensation by vertical BRF after takeoff was demonstrated. Moreover, vertical BRF was responsible for maintaining the position of the body at around the target height against gravity during the second half of the target period. These observations suggest that successful kicking pullovers require large elbow and shoulder extensor strengths, and strengthening of these muscles is effective for achieving kicking pullovers.
This paper outlines a new educational framework for the Judo curriculum established through development of a scale designed to evaluate a pattern of tactical thinking, “the principle of Ju,” inherited from Jujutsu and Judo, through a study of Japanese traditional culture in schools. First, we developed a hypothetical concept for evaluating “the principle of Ju,” which is based on the basic movements and tactics whereby “softness overcomes hardness” (ju yoku go wo seisu), as outlined in “the principle of Ju.” We devised a 35-item evaluation scale and investigated it in detail using the Delphi method. We then formulated a questionnaire comprising 28 items. Next, we subjected Jujutsu practitioners and Judo athletes to exploratory factor analysis and verified the adaptability of a factor analysis model and the reliability of the scale. This research approach yielded two findings: 1) There are two principal elements of ancient Japanese martial arts, kisoku wo hazusu ugoki (lit. A fluid shift between anticipatory restraint and counter-movements) and in to yo no tsukaiwake (lit. A yin and yang approach of selecting actions which harmoniously counter-balance those of the opponent); 2) “The principle of Ju” is able to provide a realistic Judo class and curriculum for learning practical movements and tactical decision-making in schools. Then, through a comparison between wrestling athletes and the general concept of “the principle of Ju” in modern society, it has been clearly confirmed that this is inherited by Jujutsu practitioners, whereas Judo athletes exhibit this on the same level as wrestling athletes. These results indicate that Judo has been influenced by athletic sports, and that this has now become an essential part of Judo principles. Accordingly, “athletic Judo” appears to have a limiting influence on the Judo curriculum when studying traditional culture in schools.
This study investigated modular control during Japanese archery and compared the modules between an elite group (level 4 or above in the Kyudo proficiency test) and a novice group (level 3 or lower) in a pilot study. Muscle activities were recorded on both sides of the rectus abdominis, external oblique (EO), internal oblique/transversus abdominis (IO/TrA) and erector spinae (ES) using surface electromyography. Modules were extracted from electromyography signals using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). According to the results of NMF analysis, two modules explained the electromyographic activity of all muscles. One module was the same between groups and consisted mainly of data from the ES muscle during the first half of the shooting sequence. It is considered a means of stabilizing the trunk to keep it from moving during shoulder flexion and abduction motion. The other module was different between groups, although the activation timing was similar. The module in the elite group mainly engaged IO/TrA activity. In contrast, the module in the novice group mainly comprised EO activity. The IO/TrA fixes the trunk during upper limb movement in the upright position. This result suggests that IO/TrA activity during the shooting sequence may influence performance.
To evaluate the effects of a 12-wk circuit exercise training program using the floor-based exercise station (FBES) on aerobic fitness, strength, and balance in older women. Participants were divided into: FBES exercise group (EX: n=22; 68.1±6.5 yr) and a non-exercise control group (CN: n=18; 68.2±5.7 yr). EX participated in a 12-wk circuit training program, 3 d/wk for 50 min/d, consisting of warm-up exercise (10 min), circuit training (30 min), and cool-down/relaxation exercise (10 min). Twelve strength and balance exercises and 12 aerobic dance exercises were performed alternatively for 30s each with a heart rate of 100-110 bpm. CN continued normal physical activity patterns. After 12-wk, all measurements were repeated in both groups. Compared to CN, EX increased (p<0.05) arm curl (12.6%), timed up-and-go (－8.7%), 12-min walk (5.4%), predict VO2max (6.3%), sit-and-reach (24.3%), and back scratch (271.5%), but not balance parameters. Incorporating both aerobic and resistance training via the FBES improves multiple aspects of fitness but not balance. These results are similar to those from larger, more expensive hydraulic exercise machines. This study supports the efficacy of the FBES for older adults and implementation is feasible in multiple settings as it is relatively inexpensive and requires little space.