Aim: The purpose of this study was to clarify attacking aspects focused on the initiation of attacks in amputee soccer comparing with different competitive level. Methods: Data were collected from 5 matches played in the 2014 World Cup in Mexico, and 6 matches played in the 2015 championship competition in Japan. Match-performance analysis was used to quantify variables about starting zone of attack, number of successive passes and attacking type. Results: All variables were significant difference between the international level and the domestic level. Attacking middle zone (AMZ) in the starting zone of attack was the highest value in both levels (χ2=128.8, df=5, p<0.01). There were significant differences in the rate of AMZ and Defending zone (DZ) between the levels (p<0.01). The number of successive passes in each starting zone of attack were significantly differences in Defending middle zone (DMZ), DZ and Defending penalty zone (DPZ) (p<0.01). Kick-in (KI) of attacking type was the highest value at 27.2% in international level, whereas stealing the ball (SB) was the highest value at 27.5% in domestic level (χ2=144.8, df=7, p<0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that the attacking aspects were differences depending on the competition level in amputee soccer. And, it was suggested that need to familiarize the possession play in order to improve the domestic level in Japan. Moreover, this study found importance of the re-start play in particular KI for the high competitive level.
Aims: The effects of vocalization on standing-up movement were examined in healthy elderly people. Vocalizations, which are made frequently during sports activities, may also accompany vigorous movement in everyday situations, such as when standing-up from a seated position. Methods: Fifteen healthy elderly men and women (71.1±2.5 years old: average±SD) performed standing-up movement from a sitting position in a chair at voluntary and maximum speeds with and without energetic vocalization. 2D kinetics and kinematics data, thigh muscle electromyographs (EMG), and timing of vocalization were acquired. Results: Peak hip extension moment and EMG activity in the long head of the biceps femoris (BF) were significantly higher with than without vocalization in both voluntary and maximum speed standing, and no significant differences were observed both in peak knee extension moment and in EMG activity in the vastus lateralis (VL). Peak triaxial composite of ground reaction force divided by body weight was significantly higher with than without vocalization at both voluntary and maximum speeds. Almost all subjects vocalized immediately before ground reaction force reached the peak level (before 0.12±0.14 s and 0.09±0.12 s at voluntary and maximum speed, respectively). Standing velocity was significantly higher at voluntary speed with than without vocalization (0.86±0.25 vs. 0.67±0.22 m/s), and no significant change was seen with vocalization at maximum speed. Conclusions: The results suggest that vocalization enhances hip extension muscle force exertion during standing-up movement and increases standing velocity at voluntary speed in elderly people.
To succeed in many sports, players must not only adjust their movements during execution in response to environmental changes, but also switch to different movements altogether. Previous studies have implicated executive functions in movement switching ability. We aimed to clarify expertise differences in movement adjustment and switching, and compared performance on three tasks of target striking between expert and intermediate kendo players as participants. Task 1 was a simple strike, whereby participants struck targets at one position; Task 2 was an adjusted strike, whereby participants struck targets at three positions in a random order. Task 3 was strike-defense switching, whereby participants struck targets as in Task 2 while were also required to switch to defense when an opponent made a counter-strike. That is, the participants were required accurate strike in Task 1 and 2 close to the kendo practices, and were required accurate strike and defense in Task 3 close to the real matches. We found no differences in strike movement time and accuracy in any of the tasks between groups. However, expert players were able to execute successful strike-defense switching in Task 3, whereas intermediate players were not. These results suggest that an expertise difference exists in executive functions, and that it is essential for players to practice focused on acquisition of switching skills in order to further improve their performance.
The purpose of this article was to review the representative research findings on the effects of walking in water on health-related responses from multiple points of view to elucidate the beneficial effects of walking in water on health for older people. Research findings on positive effects of walking exercises in water were identified and discussed in terms of biomechanics, cardiorespiratory responses, body composition, and cerebral circulation compared with walking exercise on land in young and older adults. Collectively, it was suggested that walking exercise in water would be a recommended form of exercise for older adults, especially with the use of walking poles (i.e. aqua-pole walking).
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between classic physiological variables [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), %VO2max at anaerobic threshold (AT), and running economy (RE)] and running performance in recreational runners. 39 recreational runners (24 males and 15 females) underwent a treadmill running test to determine the classic physiological variables and velocity at AT (vAT). AT was defined as the point at which the respiratory exchange ratio stabilized above 1.0, and it was used as an indirect performance variable. Multiple regression analysis showed that 94% of vAT values were explained by all classic physiological variables (p<0.001). In addition, all variables were significantly explanatory (VO2max, p<0.001; %VO2max at AT, p<0.001; and RE, p<0.001). In total, 35 subjects had completed a marathon within the past year. For these subjects, single regression analysis was performed, which showed that 67% of recent marathon times was explained by vAT (r=0.82, p<0.05). This study indicated that during a treadmill running test, VO2max, %VO2max at AT, and RE can precisely explain vAT, which is highly correlated with recent marathon times.
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of the lower limb joint moments on the horizontal and vertical velocities of the body mass center during jumping in different directions. Ten male university students performed forward, vertical, and backward jumps, during which their jumping motion (150 Hz) and ground reaction force (600 Hz) were collected. Induced acceleration analysis was performed to quantify the body mass center velocity produced by each joint moment. In all jump conditions, the hip, knee, and ankle joints exerted extension and plantarflexion moments, and most of vertical velocity of the body mass center was produced by the ankle moment. Additionally, the knee moment produced backward velocity and the ankle moment produced forward velocity, while the hip moment produced neither horizontal nor vertical velocities. These results indicate that the knee moment accelerates the body mass center backward and the ankle moment accelerates it upward and forward, regardless of jumping direction. Although there was no significant difference in the peak joint moments, significant differences were observed in the horizontal velocities produced by the knee and ankle moments. Moreover, significant differences were observed in the forward lean angle of the trunk at the beginning of the jump motion and lower limb segments at take-off. These results indicate that the velocity of body mass center was affected by not only the joint moments but also body configuration.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to (a) determine structural barriers that must be overcome to cultivate female leaders and coaches and (b) study the development of a support system for female leaders and coaches. This study relied on in-depth interviews as the primary means of collecting data. Formal semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven former or currently active female Paralympians, including some who were current coaches. After analyzing the participants' responses, five distinct themes emerged: (a) social identity, (b) challenges of “double minority status” as women and persons with a disability, (c) underrepresentation of women as Paralympic coaches, (d) athletes wanting to be coaches indicating they needed formal training, and (e) current coaches feeling overwhelmed by task requirements not related directly to working with athletes. The first of these relate to realizing identity and the other four to overcoming barriers. The results offer insight into the career challenges and career perceptions of coaches and also former or currently active female Paralympians. The results provide researchers with insight into the status of careers of women in a segment of the sport industry, the Paralympic Movement, which has not yet been thoroughly explored.
This case study investigated whether teachers could improve cooperative learning of physical education lessons through the development and trial use of a video annotation system. The study also sought to shed light on how the video annotation system was perceived by the target teachers. Use of a video annotation system was found to increase the awareness of the teachers, leading to concrete improvements in their instruction. The results of this study suggest the possibility of perceiving the teaching materials, objectives, content, students, and the setting as an integral whole. Video annotation also enabled the teachers to grasp the difference in difficulty between clarifying concrete teaching problems and actually improving those problems to achieve results in daily classes.
The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the 800-m running performance and aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism capacities in well-trained middle-distance runners. This study was conducted on 12 male middle-distance runners (age 19.7±0.9 years, height 170.0±4.6 cm, body weight 58.9±3.0 kg, body fat 7.8%±1.2%, 800-m season best time 1′53″2±2″2, and equivalent to an average velocity of 25.4±0.4 km·h−1 over 800 m). Participants underwent three running tests on a treadmill to assess aerobic (maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max], lactate threshold intensity [LTI], and running economy [RE]) and anaerobic (maximal accumulated oxygen deficit [MAOD] and maximal accumulation blood lactate concentration [ΔbLa]) energy metabolism capacities. The results demonstrated a significantly negative relationship between the 800-m running velocity and RE and MAOD (r=−0.78 and −0.72, respectively), but not with VO2max, LTI, and ΔbLa (r=−0.16, −0.17, and 0.11, respectively). Furthermore, this study demonstrated that >70% of the 800-m running velocity could be explained by RE, LTI, and ΔbLa. These results suggest that RE affects the 800-m running performance in well-trained runners.
The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of the Heads Up Tackling program by defensive players and its influence on safety and performance. Head impacts in football players are directly associated with brain and spine injury, and have been proposed to be associated with chronic injuries such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Therefore, improving safety has been a challenge for football, from the perspective of injury prevention. In 2012, USA Football, the national governing body for amateur American football in the U.S. developed the Heads Up Football (HUF) program which included “Heads Up Tackling (HUT)”, a new instruction of tackling technique. HUT has been attracting attention as an effort to enhance the safety of tackling through a new coaching methodology. Although in Japan, there has been no reports of football related chronic injuries caused by head impacts so far, many concussions occur in football games. Therefore, identifying a methodology to teach tackling techniques to reduce the risks of head and neck injuries seem necessary. There has been studies of coaching intervention related with safety and to reduce head impact exposure and injuries, however there has been no reports relating these efforts with the athletes' performance during a game. If this study can indicate that HUT reduces the risks of injuries in a football game without decreasing athlete performances, it will become a useful resource for the instruction of tackling skills. Four matches of the Japan top league (X-league) 2014 and 2015 season were analyzed, before and after HUT intervention was executed in the preseason of 2015. A total of 166 coded tackles were compared in terms of “characteristics of tackling”, “amount of injuries”, “effectiveness of tackling”, and “loss of yards” to examine the effect of HUT techniques on “safety” and “effectiveness”. The results showed the following. (1) Head “down” tackling was significantly lower after HUT intervention. (2) “Amount of injuries” was reduced after HUT intervention. (3) No effect was observed on the “effectiveness of tackling” in the games. (4) “Loss of yards” was reduced after HUT intervention. (5) The investigation implies that HUT may have reduced the risks of injuries in the game of football, without decreasing athletes' tackle performances.
The purpose of this study was to develop effective teaching plans for learning how to “spring” by creating lesson plans using a “forward roll bridge (FRB)” as the teaching material and analyzing the effectiveness of the lesson plans through their execution in classes.
These lessons of “spring motion from a higher level (SMH)”, which were taught over 6 school hours in total, were carried out as a part of the unit on apparatus gymnastics spanning from April 15th to the 28th, 2016. Participants were 5th grade students (32 male, 31 female, 2 classes) of the F elementary school, which is located in Hiroshima prefecture. These lessons were followed by the “FRB (10 school hours in total)” lessons developed for this study, in which the students learned “the spring motion with hip subduction, from forward roll (SHF)” and aimed to do the “SMH”, landing on the ground. The F elementary school employs a subject teacher system throughout the elementary school, and the students had already learned the “antenna bridge (AB)” and the “FRB” in the previous year.
The results of this study were as follows;
(1) An improvement of the students' athletic skills for doing all of the moves, “AB”, “FRB”, and “SMH”, was observed after the 6 school hour lessons. It expressly indicates that the lesson plans were effective for teaching “SMH”.
(2) A correlation of the achievements of “FRB” and “SMH” was found in the first lesson (|r|≦0.700, p<0.0001). This result indicates that “FRB” should be learned before “SMH”, to produce a higher achievement rate. After the 6th lesson, the correlations between “AB” and “FRB” (|r|≦0.348, p<0.006) and between “FRB” and “SMH” (|r|≦0.440, p<0.0001) were found. This might show that effectiveness of “FRB” as a move connecting the learning of “AB” and “SMH”.
(3) The qualitative analysis of the students' movements indicated that there were two types of students who were not able to do “SMH”, those students who achieved “SHF” but could not do the spring, and those students who had not achieved “SHF”. This differs from former studies that showed only the latter type of students existing. This indicates that the difficulties of “SMH” were that 1) the students first need to achieve two skills, “SHF” and “pushing with hands”, and 2) the students need to adapt themselves for another situation in order to be able to do the move.
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in pulmonary functions in individuals with past medical histories of bronchial asthma in physical education classes in summer and winter. Twenty-nine Japanese healthy male students (18.2±0.5 years) with a past medical history of bronchial asthma (Asthma group) and twenty-one control (Non-asthma group) students (18.4±0.5 years) volunteered to play a basketball game in summer (10 minutes) and a soccer game in winter (15 minutes) in physical education classes, in a national college, 2010～2012. The participants' indices of objective pulmonary functions FEV1.0 (forced expiratory volume in one second), FEV1.0%fall (the percent fall in FEV1.0) were measured before the game (Rest) and at the time 5 minutes after each game (Rec. 5). The temperature of classroom was controlled 25-28°C throughout the year.
No significant changes were found on indices of pulmonary functions (FEV1.0, FEV1.0%fall) in both groups in summer, each year. On the other hand, significant reductions in FEV1.0 and significant increases in FEV1.0%fall were observed at Rec. 5 in Asthma group in winter each year (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences observed on FEV1.0 and FEV1.0%fall in Non-asthma group in both seasons.
Based on the results, it was able to consider that pulmonary function would decrease in the factors such as winter and aerobic exercise in the students with past medical histories of bronchial asthma.
This study sheds light on researchers' understanding of athletes' pure experience and consciousness with the aim of advancing the research field of pure experience and consciousness to make sport coaching more efficient in enabling high performance. To discuss questions regarding researchers' understanding of athletes' pure experience and consciousness, this study proposes a philosophical idea to interpret athletes' pure experience and consciousness in performance using an ideographic approach with interviews based on phenomenology. In this approach, this research focuses on one elite high jumper who is a winner of the Japan National Championships to explore his pure experience and consciousness that have enabled his high performance.
Japan will host the Rugby World Cup 2019, the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, and the World Masters Games 2021 Kansai. A total of 30,000 domestic and 20,000 international athletes are expected to participate in the World Masters Games 2021 Kansai. However, little is known about constraints and constraint negotiation among such sport tourists (i.e., masters athletes). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the constraints and constraint negotiation experienced when Japanese masters athletes participate in domestic and international masters games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five Japanese masters athletes who had participated in both domestic and international (outside of Japan) masters athletic games and who belonged to the prefectural Masters Athletics Association. Thematic analysis of the transcribed data was conducted in an inductive manner. Our results indicated that: (a) time, physiological, and masters-game-specific constraints exist in both domestic and international contexts, while financial and travel constraints exist only in international contexts; (b) family, time, financial, and psychological negotiation exist in both domestic and international contexts; and (c) constraints and constraint negotiation may differ depending upon the nature of participation in the masters games (i.e., the level of involvement and social orientation).
The relationship between torque and velocity of the elbow flexor muscles was studied with isotonic and isokinetic dynamometers in the same subjects (males; n=26; aged 18-31 years). Simultaneously, the electromyographic activities (EMG) of the biceps brachii (BB), brachioradialis (BRD) and, triceps brachii (TB) muscles were recorded during concentric, eccentric, and isometric contractions. In the isotonic condition, plotted data covered almost entire force region, i.e. 0-1.0 P0 where P0 is the maximal isometric torque, and were well described by Hill equation. The maximum angular velocity of elbow flexion (Vmax), the maximum isometric torque, and the maximal eccentric torque were 943.78±312.48°s－1, 59.07±11.65 Nm, and 1.40±0.18 P0, respectively. In the isokinetic condition, the measureable ranges of torque and angular velocity were limited between 0.5 and 1.0 P0, and 0 and 0.35 Vmax, respectively. In concentric condition, the shape of torque-angular velocity curve obtained from isokinetic measurements was well coincided with that obtained from isotonic measurements. On the other hand, the maximal eccentric torque obtained from isokinetic measurements was 1.12±0.17 P0, which was considerably smaller than that obtained from isotonic measurements. Electrtomyographic (EMG) measurements with surface electrodes showed that the activation level of the elbow flexor muscles during eccentric contraction was significantly lower in the isokinetic condition than in the isotonic condition. These results suggest that muscle-fiber recruitment during eccentric contraction is suppressed in isokinetic condition when compared with isotonic condition. One of the possible reasons for this may be the difference between proprioceptive input to the feedback system.
[Objective] It has been reported that everyday physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness in older adults can affect their cognitive function. However, to our knowledge, no empirical evidence of this effect has yet been reported in convalescent patients with cognitive impairment resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, for such patients, it is important to investigate this issue to ensure optimal amelioration of their cognitive impairment during rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to estimate the amount of total energy expenditure during hospitalization, and to investigate the association between total energy expenditure and cognitive function in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disease.
[Methods] We recruited 24 patients (16 men and 8 women; average age 68.8±10.6 years) with cerebrovascular disorders. The total energy expenditure of each subject per day was estimated by the factorial method for five months. Cognitive function was assessed using items on the Functional Independence Measure (FIM).
[Results] Both total energy expenditure and cognitive items on the FIM increased significantly (p<0.001) during the five-month period. A significant correlation was found between them (r=0.294, p=0.001), and the two showed a significant partial correlation (r=0.221, p=0.016) when weight was used as a control variable. There was also a significant partial correlation between the gain in total energy expenditure and the gain in the cognitive items on the FIM when the baseline score for cognitive function was used as a control variable (3 months: r=0.466, p=0.044; 5 months: r=0.485, p=0.035).
[Discussion] We conclude that there is a relationship between total energy expenditure and cognitive function in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disease.
The objective of this study will be to clarify the historical characteristics of the formation process of admissions based on sports recommendation in Japanese universities. First, in Japan, even before the recommendation admission system was officially approved, athletes had been given preferential treatment in entrance examinations. Next, Since the recommendation admission system was officially approved in 1967, private universities' faculties of physical education, among others, started actively admitting athletes based on a recommendation. These physical education faculties selected students based on physical skills tests to secure competent athletes. And in the 1980's, private universities played a leading role in conducting entrance examinations with a special admission quota for athletes. Waseda University launched the Special Selection System for the Physical Education Major, which introduced a special admission quota for athletes, specified the athletic events and performances, and made the selection process widely known to the public. Last of all, 1987 the Ad Hoc Council on Education recommended that assessment on sports activities be taken into consideration in entrance examinations. The 1989 University Admissions Selection Implementation Guidelines listed “adequate assessment of activities in sports, culture, etc.” as a selection method for university admission for the first time.
This study aimed to clarify the rotational acceleration of the head of an uke during tai-otoshi, seoi-nage, osoto-gari, and ouchi-gari when safe ukemi is performed. Eight judo club members of the National Institute of Technology (mean age, 17.5±1.5 years; mean height, 173.0±4.21 cm; mean weight, 72.4±10.57 kg) were subjects who acted as the ukes. A subject with 8 years of experience in judo and qualified to the second dan (age, 20 years; height, 165.0 cm; weight, 70.0 kg) played the role of throwing the uke. A rotational velocity sensor was used to measure the rotational acceleration in the sagittal plane of the uke's head. One-way analysis of variance (Friedman test) was used for the statistical analysis, and when a significant difference was observed, multiple comparison test was performed using the Bonferroni method. The results revealed that of the four throwing techniques, osoto-gari generated maximum rotational acceleration of the uke's head. Furthermore, the maximum rotational acceleration was greater with tai-otoshi than with seoi-nage. Our results suggested that among the four throwing techniques, osoto-gari was most likely to injure the head.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact conditions that enable a batter to hit a pitched ball toward the opposite field. Three-dimensional finite element analysis method was used to construct an impact model between a baseball and a wooden baseball bat, and a series of simulations were conducted with various bat angles and under-cut distances. The bat angle at ball impact was set in a horizontal range from －31 to 20° and a vertical range from 0 to 51° with a 3° interval. The under-cut distance was altered by changing the vertical angle of the line of impact in a range from 0 to 30° with a 5° interval. The velocity and the angle of projection of the batted ball were determined for each simulated condition. The simulation model was validated by comparing the simulation outcome with the corresponding experimental data obtained from opposite-field hitting practice performed by collegiate baseball players. The results showed that when a batter intends to hit a ball toward a given horizontal angle in the opposite field with the highest speed, the batter should impact the ball with the bat facing about 60％ of the horizontal angle toward which to launch the ball and with the line of impact angled upward at 5-10° from the horizontal plane. In addition, the horizontal angle of the batted ball and the velocity of the batted ball were found to change systematically by altering the vertical angle of the line of impact and the vertical bat angle: For a given horizontal angle toward which to launch the batted ball, there was a trade-off relation between the vertical angle of the line of impact and the vertical bat angle.
Exercise associated muscle cramp (EAMC) is common among athletes. However, no study has systematically investigated the effect of the amount of loss of fluid on EAMC. This study was designed to examine the relationship between the amount of decrease in body fluid through sweating and EAMC. A decrease in body fluid by 1％, 2％, and 3％ of body mass were induced by sauna exposure on 3 different days, and the occurrence of EAMC was compared between the three conditions and a control (no sauna exposure) condition. Nine young men (age: 22.2±1.4 yrs) who had experienced EAMC during and/or after exercise in the previous year volunteered for the study. A “cramp test”, in which the occurrence of EAMC during maximal voluntary muscle contraction of hamstrings at maximally shortened position for 15 s, was performed before and one hour after the body fluid reduction of 1％, 2％, and 3％ of body mass. The cramp test was performed on 2 occasions separated by 3 hours without sauna exposure as the control condition. No EAMC occurred in the control and the 1％ condition. Three subjects experienced EAMC in the 2％, and 6 in the 3％ condition. These results suggest that body fluid loss of 2％ body mass increases the likelihood of EAMC and loss of body fluid is a factor for EAMC.
The purposes of this study were to classify jumping techniques in the preparatory and take-off phases of elite male long jumpers in official competitions by using a cluster analysis and to identify biomechanical characteristics of classified technique types. The preparatory and take-off motions of 29 elite male long jumpers in official competitions were collected three-dimensionally using two high-speed cameras. Their jumps were classified into four types of jumping technique by using the Ward's method of cluster analysis with the take-off angle as a parameter. The four types were named the Horizontal (H-type), Semi-Horizontal (SH-type), Semi-Vertical (SV-type), and Vertical (V-type) types. There were no significant differences in jumping distance among the types. H-type jumpers were characterised by a forward lean of the trunk and a larger swing leg knee flexion during the preparatory phase. V-type jumpers flexed the knee joint of the support leg more during support phase in the last stride and showed a larger backward lean of the trunk at touchdown of the take-off foot. SH- and SV-types were located between H-type and V-type jumpers. This classification will help coaches and jumpers to select appropriate techniques.
This study compared the differences in board velocity, stroke rate, and stroke length during 40-m maximal board paddling between elite and sub-elite paddlers. Sixteen Japanese male lifesavers (eight each of elite and sub-elite paddlers) performed 40-m maximal board paddling using the knee paddling (K-paddling) and prone paddling (P-paddling) techniques, respectively. Board velocity (BV), stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL) were calculated from video-recorded time trials. Board velocity was significantly higher in the elite group with both paddling techniques. The present study identified that the differences in the BVs between the two groups were mainly due to greater SL in K-paddling and higher SR in P-paddling, respectively, in the elite group. Furthermore, peak BVs were significantly related to SL with both paddling techniques in the elite group. Therefore, board paddlers and coaches should understand the differences in the SR-SL ratios for different performance levels based on the results of the present study. They should focus on the increases in the SL and SR values for K-paddling and P-paddling, respectively, based on the SR-SL ratios of the elite group in the present study, when improving sub-elite paddlers' BV to reach elite paddler levels.
The purpose of this study is to examine the motivational differences of attending a sporting event between local residents and non-residents. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the spectators of the triathlon events held in Odaiba and Yokohama. Seven factors namely aesthetic, interaction, achievement, skills, knowledge, performance, and drama, were revealed as key motivators for attending the sporting event. The results also revealed several differences in spectators' motivations for attending the event based on spectator types. In addition, the estimated variance was relatively high, suggesting that motivational factors are potentially only one aspect that explains spectators' repeated attendance of a specific sporting event. While several limitations were acknowledged, this research contributed by highlighting the possibility of using geographical residential status to segment spectators for future research.
This study examined the influence of the relative age effect (RAE) on the competitive level and playing position of male elementary school Japanese baseball players. The sample comprised the following: (1) 506 general male baseball players (BP) who were aged 11-12 (sixth grade) and who had not competed at the prefectural level and (2) 189 regionally selected players (SP) who were aged 11-12 (sixth grade) and who had been selected to compete at the prefectural level or a higher level. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their birth months (Semester 1 (S1): April-September and Semester 2 (S2): October-March). Prevalence ratio for each semester was calculated. Pearson's chi-square test was employed to examine the RAE of each group and each playing position. Results of a chi-square test at each competitive level showed that the SP group was statistically significant (S1>S2) but the BP group was not. The chi-square test for the pitcher and the fielder (catcher, infielder, and outfielder) positions revealed statistical significance in the SP group (S1>S2), with only the pitcher position showing statistical significance in the BP group (S1>S2). The results indicated that the RAE was higher in more competitive level junior baseball players and that the RAE exerted a stronger influence on the pitcher position than on the fielder positions.
The Young Men's Association (YMA) was an education institute that provided programs and further education for young men. It aimed to train both mind and body, and valued physical education.
However, in preceding studies, emphasis was placed on the consideration of the national stance that physical education should be promoted in the YMA, or on the consideration of the implementation status of physical education in the YMA in the local community. Specific considerations on the policy and process of the local government liaising between national aim and region implementation were insufficient. This study aims to clarify the development process of the physical education promotion policy of the YMA, taking as an example the Tokyo Prefecture administration during the Taisho Era.
As a result, the following points were clarified:
1) In the Local Governor Conference, no instruction on the specific development method concerning physical education promotion of the YMA was given. Therefore, in each prefectural administration, policies needed to be formulated and implemented, taking into account the regional situation within the jurisdiction.
2) Prefectural Governor Tomoichi Inoue who spearheaded the YMA policy in Tokyo Prefecture, had set as the main objective of the YMA, the implementation of civil education and labor education for the working young men. He placed physical education as “prerequisite for all” activities of the YMA. In so doing, the aim was to train “young men who contribute to labor” through physical education.
3) As a specialized institution reviewing physical education policies of the YMA in Tokyo Prefecture, Governor Inoue established “Tokyo Prefecture Physical Education Council.” The council members consisted, not only of Tokyo prefectural workers, but also of external “education and physical education experts.”
4) The Physical Education Council raised as specific issues, “improvement of the physique and strength of young men” and “popularization method of physical education,” and held repeated discussions thereof. In resolving the above issues, the Physical Education Council cooperated and collaborated with companies within Tokyo Prefecture, and further held “workshops” and “lectures” in the YMA” at a local level.
5) The Physical Education Council compiled the information obtained through discussions and through the “workshops” and “lectures,” and therefrom established and issued the “Tokyo Prefecture Regulations for Young Men's Physical Education.” Regulations for Young Men's Physical Education Promotion played an important role in the origin of physical education of the YMA in Tokyo Prefecture in the years to follow.
In 2002, the Central Education Council published a report entitled “Improvement of children's physical fitness.” The report pointed out that changes in the social environment and lifestyles in recent years had influenced children's physical fitness and movement skills, and that a “comprehensive policy” addressing various aspects was essential for tackling this problem. On the basis of this report, the Ministry of Education and local boards of education are currently undertaking various projects; however, a number of gaps still remain between the findings of the report and what is actually being done to address this issue. The present paper examines the local political issues that have led to differences between the practices of local educational governments and the recommendations of the report by focusing on practices in the Tokyo metropolitan area and Osaka Prefecture after publication of the report. This study revealed that the local governments had been strongly influenced by the results of physical fitness tests in comparison with other districts, counter to the comprehensive policy suggested by the report. This suggests that one of the reasons for the existing gap is the implicit demand for measurable results based on strong promotion of the evaluation system stipulated by the current educational policy. The results also show that most projects to improve children's physical fitness have been undertaken by schools, despite the fact that almost no budget has been allocated for this purpose, thus forcing schools to bear the burden and responsibility alone. Furthermore, it is also evident that competitive sports are frequently used to promote an active lifestyle, even in elementary and junior high schools. In view of the numerous practices aiming to improve performance through sports club activities and competitive sports events, such as long-distance relays for children and Olympic education, it appears that the government in fact has a hidden agenda to promote sports and to improve athletic performance behind the facade of children's fitness as a “social issue.”
Medical technology has made remarkable advances in recent years. On the one hand, these advances have the benefit of contributing to the happiness of humankind; on the other hand, they can raise various ethical and social issues, precisely because they are applied to individual humans. One such issue is enhancement technology, which can be used not only for the purpose of treating disease, but also for improving or enhancing the body or mind; humans themselves can become subject to alterations without any medical purpose. Body enhancement used to improve athletic performance is of particular concern in competitive sports. In this study, body enhancement was considered to be an act of pursuing a better-performing body, and examined the issues related to “better-ness” in this context from an ethical viewpoint. Specifically, I (1) elucidate the meaning of the word “better-ness” within the phrase “better performing” and (2) examine whether the act of pursuing a body that is “better” is an act of overall human betterment by engaging in an ethical discussion of its pros and cons. I use the principle of act described in Kant's practical philosophy as a framework for discussion. With regard to (1), I conclude that the meaning of “better” in the context of body enhancement in competitive sports is defined by theoretical (logical) judgment, and not by moral judgment. With regard to (2), I describe what an unacceptable act is according to Kant's Formula of the End in Itself. I also present the limits of this study, and point out the need to clarify in future studies the concept of what comprises human nature.
The professional development of a physical education (PE) teacher occurs within a variety of experiences that become resources for the teacher to learn from. However, to gain experience does not necessarily mean development. Development through learning by experience is influenced by the beliefs that the person has. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition and function of PE teacher beliefs—especially “image of what a teacher is” and “vocational beliefs” that influence their professional development. In addition, we classified PE teachers by their beliefs, and examined their development status with a focus on the relevance of receptivity to growth experiences for changing a teacher's ideals. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Data were collected from a sample of 634 junior high school and high school PE teachers. The main findings are summarized below.
1) Factor analysis of data revealed that the PE teachers' image of what a teacher is comprised 4 factors: “leader,” “supervisor,” “supporter of learning,” and “team member”, and vocational beliefs comprised 7 factors: “emphasizing public values,” “self-actualization,” “pursuit of pioneering teaching practices,” “emphasizing students,” “professional exclusiveness,” “exercise of autonomy,” and “research orientation.”
2) The teachers were classified by image of what a teacher is into 2 types: “supervisor” and “supporter”. The teachers were classified by vocational beliefs into 5 types: “self-actualization,” “emphasizing students,” “open-minded beliefs,” “self-righteous,” and “close-minded beliefs.” The ratios of young teachers classified into “supervisor” and “emphasizing students” were significantly larger than that of experienced teachers. The ratios of experienced teachers classified into “supporter,” “self-actualization,” and “self-righteous” were significantly larger than that of young teachers.
3) Factor analysis of data revealed that receptivity to growth experiences comprised 5 factors: “reflecting on teaching practice,” “knowledge acquisition,” “conversing with fellow teachers,” “observing and opening up one's own teaching practices,” and “hard experiences.” Experienced teachers were more passive in their experiences, except “knowledge acquisition”, than younger teachers. For more experienced teachers, having positive experiences was more effective for changing ideals.
4) Teachers classified as the “open-minded beliefs” type were more willing to experience a variety of things than the “close-minded beliefs” type teachers. Regression analysis of data revealed that “emphasizing public values,” “pursuit of pioneering teaching practices,” and “research orientation” correlated significantly and positively with experience. But “professional exclusiveness,” “exercise of autonomy” and years of service correlated significantly and negatively with experience.
In the present four-year longitudinal study we investigated lifestyle factors that would improve the physical fitness of children considered to have “inferior” physical fitness.
The participants were 9,593 elementary school children. Personal data obtained annually were linked over four years. In the first year, we focused on the group considered to have inferior physical fitness (T-score <45). We calculated the degree of change in terms of differences in T-scores between the first and fourth years. On the basis of the change evident in the fourth year, we subdivided the “inferior” group into two groups: those showing a decrease or increase in physical fitness. We then analyzed the lifestyle changes in the two groups.
In the group showing increased physical fitness, fitness had improved to the national average after three years. Improvement of exercise habits was show to enhance fitness, whereas deterioration of exercise habits reduced fitness. This difference between the groups was significant. In contrast, health habits and dietary habits showed no significant inter-group differences, and no association with physical fitness.
These results suggest that improved exercise habits can help attain the national average or even increase the physical fitness of a child who has been previously evaluated to have inferior fitness.