Some recreational runners participate in consecutive races within a short period. A high frequency of participation may not allow for sufficient recovery time, leading to overreaching. This case study reports on the training load, physiological variables, performance, and psychological state of a male recreational runner during a 16-week marathon season. The runner completed four marathon races over a period of eight weeks. Training load was quantified based on the cumulative time spent in three intensity zones (zone 1:<the ventilatory threshold; zone 2: between the ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point; zone 3:>the respiratory compensation point) using heart rate monitoring. The Hooper questionnaire was completed every morning to quantify sleep, stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness. The runner performed four identical treadmill running tests throughout the season. The coefficient of variation for maximal velocity and the physiological variables was 1.0% and 1.8%‐5.2%, respectively. Pearson correlation showed significant relationships between training load and stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness. There was no significant relationship between training load and sleep. In conclusion, it appeared that the subject runner was able to complete four marathon races without overreaching. These findings suggest that the training load and Hooper questionnaire are practical tools for monitoring recreational runners during the marathon season.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between the joint power during the propulsion phase of the standing long jump and the maximum isokinetic strength of the lower limb joints. The subjects comprised 11 male athletes specialized in different sport events. The isokinetic strengths of the extensor muscles at the ankle, knee, and hip joints at two angular velocities were evaluated by dynamometry. Joint powers during the propulsion phase of the standing long jump were calculated with two-dimensional coordinate data (50 Hz) and ground reaction force data (500 Hz). Knee and hip joint peak power during the propulsion phase, normalized by the body mass, highly and significantly correlated with the jump distance (knee: r=0.767, p<0.01, hip: r=0.723, p<0.05). Isokinetic extensor strength of the ankle, knee, and hip joints, normalized by the body mass, did not correlate with peak power during the propulsion phase at the corresponding joint. Additionally, the isokinetic extensor strength did not correlate with the jump distance, with one exception. Although the jump distance depended on lower limb joint power during the propulsion phase, power was not directly modulated by the isokinetic strength. This phenomenon might be derived from the use of strategies that enhance lower limb power, which include a counter-movement and the coupling of an arm swing to the lower limb motion.
Trunk stabilization exercises improve injury prevention and performance, but the effect of deep trunk muscle training for underwater competitive performance and posture has not been clarified. If trunk stability can be obtained immediately after trunk stabilization exercises, such exercises may lead to performance improvements during underwater swimming and improve lumbar lordosis alignment during swim motions. The purpose of this study was to clarify the immediate effects of deep trunk muscle training on lumbar lordosis angle and swimming speed in underwater motion. The trial examined underwater motion before and after two different types and intensities of trunk stabilization exercises (low-intensity and high-intensity). Underwater motion was observed with an underwater high-speed camera placed 7.5 m from the pool wall, while lumbar lordosis angle was measured from the angle formed by markers affixed to the Th12, L3, and S1. During the glide swim, dolphin kick, and flutter kick trials, the maximum lumbar lordosis angle was calculated. Lumbar lordosis angle and swimming speed were calculated before and after two different intensities of trunk exercise interventions. There were significant differences in lumbar lordosis angle after both exercises during all three underwater motions. The high-intensity intervention elicited a significantly lower lumbar lordosis angle during glide swim, dolphin kick, and flutter kick, while swimming velocity was also improved during glide swim and flutter kick (P<0.05). Performing trunk exercise before practice or competition may help improve competition performance by reducing underwater resistance.
The purpose of this study was to clarify how women's physical education was promoted in Japan, particularly around the Taisho era (1912-1926). Before commencing the main discussion, the circumstances leading up to the promotion of women's physical education around the turn of the twentieth century are reviewed, along with the status of women's physical education at that time. Then, the following three points are considered as specific topics for the present study: First, critical opinions on women's physical education are reviewed to examine the details underlying the problematic nature of its promotion, hitherto assumed. Second, measures for promoting women's physical education in view of these difficulties are examined through arguments for promoting measures put forward by leading figures in physical education. Third, the tendencies and problems surrounding proposed measures for promoting women's physical education in the Taisho era are clarified through an examination of critical opinions on these promotion measures.
The study found that, against a backdrop of problematic conditions caused by various factors, measures for promoting physical education for women in the Taisho era placed greater emphasis on effectively advertising physical education than on improving its quality. Conducted in this way, the promotion was also criticized by some leading figures in women's physical education and can be regarded as one of the reasons why the quality of women's physical education remained low.
The purpose of the present study was to determine how runners sprinting along a curved path could rotate their whole body about the vertical axis to maintain their stance so that they continually faced the ever-changing running direction. Ten healthy men were asked to run at 5 m/s along a straight path (RS) and a curved path with a 5-m radius (RC). The running direction during RC was counterclockwise as viewed from above (CCW). A motion capture system (240 Hz) was used to record the three-dimensional coordinates of the reflective markers attached to each subject. The changing patterns of the angular momentum of each segment and the average angular momentum of the whole body in each contact and flight phase were compared between the two movements. In all the phases, the average angular momentum during RC was significantly directed more toward the CCW direction than that during RS. In contrast, the angular momentum of the head and trunk during RS changed periodically from positive to negative values, while that during RC continued to exhibit positive values throughout the stride cycle. The changing pattern of the angular momentum of the left leg during RC was in the phase opposite to that during RS because the subjects swung the left leg on their right side. The left leg moved in an elliptical trajectory in a direction opposite to the rotation of the whole body on the horizontal plane during RC; this presumably generated reactional rotation effects on the other segments to maintain stance that allowed the subject to keep facing the running direction.
This study focuses on the Hotokukai, an auxiliary organization of the Ministry of Home Affairs, and aims to clarify the concept of the promotion of physical education for the Young Men's Association planed by the Hotokukai. First, the Hotokukai sought to encourage physical education for young people to cultivate physical strength and contribute to manual labor. Characteristic of the view of physical education in Hotokukai youth education was the encouragement of physical education that benefitted lives through the link between labor and physical education. To investigate methods of encouraging physical education, the Hotokukai held conferences on matters to be executed with respect to such encouragement. The conferences were attended by Hotokukai trustees and external experts on physical education, education, and medicine. Finally, the Hotokukai compiled the results of these conferences and published matters to be executed with respect to encouraging physical education in Shimin. These matters to be executed listed details of concepts related to physical education for the citizens of the country and physical education in schools, as well as concepts to encourage physical education in the Young Men's Association.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate static stretching and dynamic stretching protocol.
138 coaches of 21 different sports completed a self-reporting questionnaire. The questionnaire was split into four sections and contained fixed-response questions. Section One identified participant demographics. The second and third sections required the participants to detail the static and dynamic stretching they used. The fourth section of the questionnaire identified how participants learned about stretching.
There were 126 coaches using static or dynamic stretching, while 12 coaches did not. Thirty-nine coaches used only static stretching, 10 coaches used only dynamic stretching, and 77 coaches used both types of stretching. The purposes of static stretching were to increase flexibility and to prevent injuries. The purposes of dynamic stretching were improvement of performance and prevention of injuries. The duration of one bout of static and dynamic stretching in a warm-up were 21.8±13.2 and 22.1±16.2 seconds, respectively. A common way to learn about stretching was participation in training sessions.
Coaches should use SS for a greater length of time to achieve their purposes. The results of the present study showed gaps between evidence and practice.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the minimum number of static stretch repetitions required to induce an increase in range of motion of the ankle joint and a decrease in passive torque of the muscle-tendon unit is different between men and women. Twelve men and 15 women participated in this study. Ankle range of motion and passive torque were measured during the passive dorsiflexion phase of ten 10-s static stretching repetitions. The stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit and stress relaxation were also determined. There was no significant sex difference in any parameter. Ankle range of motion was significantly higher after the first stretch, but thereafter further increases were not observed. Passive torque at submaximal ankle angles was significantly lower after the first stretch, and passive torque at maximal dorsiflexion angle was significantly higher after the first stretch, although further increases were not observed. There were no significant stretching-induced effects on stiffness and stress relaxation. These results indicate that there are no sex differences in the effects of ten 10-s repetitions on flexibility, but show that this protocol is sufficient to induce changes in ankle range of motion and passive torque. Therefore, coaches should prescribe the same short-duration static stretching protocol for both sexes of athlete.
Various methodologies have been employed for memory rehabilitation. However, inappropriateness of these approaches for patients suffering from marked memory deficit necessitates new effective approaches. Although studies report that physical activity and exercise can affect cognitive function, they lack sufficient empirical evidence. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effect of aerobic training on memory ability.
The subject was a 48-year-old, right-handed man with memory deficit subsequent to hypoxic encephalopathy. We used an A-B-A single-case experimental design. The subject performed delayed word-recall task and word fluency task 10 times in each phase. During the baseline A- and washout A-phases, after memorizing 3 words, the subject performed a paper and pencil task for 15 minutes, and thereafter recalled the 3 memorized words and performed the word fluency task. During the B-phase, after memorizing 3 words, the subject pedaled a bicycle ergometer at an intensity of 50 W for 15 minutes, and thereafter performed the word-recall and word fluency tasks.
Average performance in the delayed recall task was 0±0 words in the baseline A-phase, 2.3±1.1 words in the B-phase, and 0.1±0.3 words in the washout A-phase (F (2,18)=37.098, p<0.0001). The corresponding values in the word fluency task were 2.7±0.9, 2.3±1.3, and 3.6±1.3 words, respectively.
These results suggest that aerobic training can lead to the recovery of memory deficit. Although acute effects were observed, comprehensive recovery of cognitive function was not achieved.
This paper clarifies the meaning of the term tai-iku (physical education) in the Principles of Physical Education by Heizaburo Takashima (1865-1946), who advocated physical education (PE) in the latter part of Japan's Meiji era. Takashima wrote many books on PE, which included examples of the term tai-iku. PE-related subjects were discussed from various angles, but the meaning of tai-iku was not self-evident. In Japanese, Tai-iku has many meanings throughout history. Therefore, previous references to tai-iku must be clarified through an empirical approach when reading books on PE written in past times, as there is a risk that Takashima's term tai-iku may unconsciously conform to our concept of PE. This paper represents the first attempt to define the term. We concluded that first, Takashima's concept of tai-iku should be defined in terms of his Principles of Physical Education (1904), and second, the definition was methodological, by which intellectual and moral education can be perfected, while retaining the previous meaning in the context of the human body. In Takashima's book, tai-iku has these two meanings. Other issues include whether alternative meanings exist in Takashima's books, or whether these (Principles of Physical Education etc.) can be read consistently and coherently.
The purpose of this research was to clarify the importance of the complementary relation-ship between the Japan Sports Association (JASA) and an Information Network Support NPO (NPO) for creation of a public sphere based on the main arguments of Albert Melucci in his theory of new social movements and Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe in their theory of radical democracy. For this, the JASA (a private sporting organization that plays a central role in the field of Japanese sports) and the NPO (an external organization that has supported the development of community sports clubs [CSCs]) were regarded as civil society organizations that are independent of the public and private sectors, in order to comprehend the complementary relationship between the 2 in real terms.
Data on the actual practices of the JASA and the NPO between 1997 and 2007 were analyzed, and the complementary relationship between the 2 organizations was then discussed based on the concepts of mobilization and symbolic movement. Mobilization is a social space in which individuals redefine their social roles in a self-recursive manner through acceptance of information resources related to the values and ideals that society requires. Symbolic movement is a generic term for social movements whereby individuals' voluntary discourse act and associations act are transformed into civil society-based public intention.
As a result, it was clarified that the JASA has been facilitating mobilization that can temporarily remove individuals from public bureaucracy and customs and direct them towards parties related to CSCs through announcements of investigation and research results and lifelong sports vision and recommendations. On the other hand, it was revealed that the NPO has been playing a symbolic role, leading to normative discourse act and associations act that are initiated by various individuals who are interested in CSCs, namely the private sector, through interactive information exchange that leverages the information and telecommunications infrastructure. Although the business methods of these 2 civil society organizations seem to be confrontational when viewed from the perspective of a complementary relationship, it was suggested that creative confrontation between mobilization and symbolic movement is a requirement for creation of a public sphere. Furthermore, the complementary relationship between mobilization and symbolic movement that attempts to aggregate and share various sources of information related to CSCs, showed some degree of ambiguity, and accordingly may be transformed into public intention in the form of collective/political action.