Some recreational runners participate in consecutive races within a short period. A high frequency of participation may not allow for sufficient recovery time, leading to overreaching. This case study reports on the training load, physiological variables, performance, and psychological state of a male recreational runner during a 16-week marathon season. The runner completed four marathon races over a period of eight weeks. Training load was quantified based on the cumulative time spent in three intensity zones (zone 1:<the ventilatory threshold; zone 2: between the ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation point; zone 3:>the respiratory compensation point) using heart rate monitoring. The Hooper questionnaire was completed every morning to quantify sleep, stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness. The runner performed four identical treadmill running tests throughout the season. The coefficient of variation for maximal velocity and the physiological variables was 1.0% and 1.8%‐5.2%, respectively. Pearson correlation showed significant relationships between training load and stress, fatigue, and muscle soreness. There was no significant relationship between training load and sleep. In conclusion, it appeared that the subject runner was able to complete four marathon races without overreaching. These findings suggest that the training load and Hooper questionnaire are practical tools for monitoring recreational runners during the marathon season.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships between the joint power during the propulsion phase of the standing long jump and the maximum isokinetic strength of the lower limb joints. The subjects comprised 11 male athletes specialized in different sport events. The isokinetic strengths of the extensor muscles at the ankle, knee, and hip joints at two angular velocities were evaluated by dynamometry. Joint powers during the propulsion phase of the standing long jump were calculated with two-dimensional coordinate data (50 Hz) and ground reaction force data (500 Hz). Knee and hip joint peak power during the propulsion phase, normalized by the body mass, highly and significantly correlated with the jump distance (knee: r=0.767, p<0.01, hip: r=0.723, p<0.05). Isokinetic extensor strength of the ankle, knee, and hip joints, normalized by the body mass, did not correlate with peak power during the propulsion phase at the corresponding joint. Additionally, the isokinetic extensor strength did not correlate with the jump distance, with one exception. Although the jump distance depended on lower limb joint power during the propulsion phase, power was not directly modulated by the isokinetic strength. This phenomenon might be derived from the use of strategies that enhance lower limb power, which include a counter-movement and the coupling of an arm swing to the lower limb motion.
Trunk stabilization exercises improve injury prevention and performance, but the effect of deep trunk muscle training for underwater competitive performance and posture has not been clarified. If trunk stability can be obtained immediately after trunk stabilization exercises, such exercises may lead to performance improvements during underwater swimming and improve lumbar lordosis alignment during swim motions. The purpose of this study was to clarify the immediate effects of deep trunk muscle training on lumbar lordosis angle and swimming speed in underwater motion. The trial examined underwater motion before and after two different types and intensities of trunk stabilization exercises (low-intensity and high-intensity). Underwater motion was observed with an underwater high-speed camera placed 7.5 m from the pool wall, while lumbar lordosis angle was measured from the angle formed by markers affixed to the Th12, L3, and S1. During the glide swim, dolphin kick, and flutter kick trials, the maximum lumbar lordosis angle was calculated. Lumbar lordosis angle and swimming speed were calculated before and after two different intensities of trunk exercise interventions. There were significant differences in lumbar lordosis angle after both exercises during all three underwater motions. The high-intensity intervention elicited a significantly lower lumbar lordosis angle during glide swim, dolphin kick, and flutter kick, while swimming velocity was also improved during glide swim and flutter kick (P<0.05). Performing trunk exercise before practice or competition may help improve competition performance by reducing underwater resistance.
The purpose of this study was to clarify how women's physical education was promoted in Japan, particularly around the Taisho era (1912-1926). Before commencing the main discussion, the circumstances leading up to the promotion of women's physical education around the turn of the twentieth century are reviewed, along with the status of women's physical education at that time. Then, the following three points are considered as specific topics for the present study: First, critical opinions on women's physical education are reviewed to examine the details underlying the problematic nature of its promotion, hitherto assumed. Second, measures for promoting women's physical education in view of these difficulties are examined through arguments for promoting measures put forward by leading figures in physical education. Third, the tendencies and problems surrounding proposed measures for promoting women's physical education in the Taisho era are clarified through an examination of critical opinions on these promotion measures.
The study found that, against a backdrop of problematic conditions caused by various factors, measures for promoting physical education for women in the Taisho era placed greater emphasis on effectively advertising physical education than on improving its quality. Conducted in this way, the promotion was also criticized by some leading figures in women's physical education and can be regarded as one of the reasons why the quality of women's physical education remained low.
The purpose of the present study was to determine how runners sprinting along a curved path could rotate their whole body about the vertical axis to maintain their stance so that they continually faced the ever-changing running direction. Ten healthy men were asked to run at 5 m/s along a straight path (RS) and a curved path with a 5-m radius (RC). The running direction during RC was counterclockwise as viewed from above (CCW). A motion capture system (240 Hz) was used to record the three-dimensional coordinates of the reflective markers attached to each subject. The changing patterns of the angular momentum of each segment and the average angular momentum of the whole body in each contact and flight phase were compared between the two movements. In all the phases, the average angular momentum during RC was significantly directed more toward the CCW direction than that during RS. In contrast, the angular momentum of the head and trunk during RS changed periodically from positive to negative values, while that during RC continued to exhibit positive values throughout the stride cycle. The changing pattern of the angular momentum of the left leg during RC was in the phase opposite to that during RS because the subjects swung the left leg on their right side. The left leg moved in an elliptical trajectory in a direction opposite to the rotation of the whole body on the horizontal plane during RC; this presumably generated reactional rotation effects on the other segments to maintain stance that allowed the subject to keep facing the running direction.
This study focuses on the Hotokukai, an auxiliary organization of the Ministry of Home Affairs, and aims to clarify the concept of the promotion of physical education for the Young Men's Association planed by the Hotokukai. First, the Hotokukai sought to encourage physical education for young people to cultivate physical strength and contribute to manual labor. Characteristic of the view of physical education in Hotokukai youth education was the encouragement of physical education that benefitted lives through the link between labor and physical education. To investigate methods of encouraging physical education, the Hotokukai held conferences on matters to be executed with respect to such encouragement. The conferences were attended by Hotokukai trustees and external experts on physical education, education, and medicine. Finally, the Hotokukai compiled the results of these conferences and published matters to be executed with respect to encouraging physical education in Shimin. These matters to be executed listed details of concepts related to physical education for the citizens of the country and physical education in schools, as well as concepts to encourage physical education in the Young Men's Association.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate static stretching and dynamic stretching protocol.
138 coaches of 21 different sports completed a self-reporting questionnaire. The questionnaire was split into four sections and contained fixed-response questions. Section One identified participant demographics. The second and third sections required the participants to detail the static and dynamic stretching they used. The fourth section of the questionnaire identified how participants learned about stretching.
There were 126 coaches using static or dynamic stretching, while 12 coaches did not. Thirty-nine coaches used only static stretching, 10 coaches used only dynamic stretching, and 77 coaches used both types of stretching. The purposes of static stretching were to increase flexibility and to prevent injuries. The purposes of dynamic stretching were improvement of performance and prevention of injuries. The duration of one bout of static and dynamic stretching in a warm-up were 21.8±13.2 and 22.1±16.2 seconds, respectively. A common way to learn about stretching was participation in training sessions.
Coaches should use SS for a greater length of time to achieve their purposes. The results of the present study showed gaps between evidence and practice.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the minimum number of static stretch repetitions required to induce an increase in range of motion of the ankle joint and a decrease in passive torque of the muscle-tendon unit is different between men and women. Twelve men and 15 women participated in this study. Ankle range of motion and passive torque were measured during the passive dorsiflexion phase of ten 10-s static stretching repetitions. The stiffness of the muscle-tendon unit and stress relaxation were also determined. There was no significant sex difference in any parameter. Ankle range of motion was significantly higher after the first stretch, but thereafter further increases were not observed. Passive torque at submaximal ankle angles was significantly lower after the first stretch, and passive torque at maximal dorsiflexion angle was significantly higher after the first stretch, although further increases were not observed. There were no significant stretching-induced effects on stiffness and stress relaxation. These results indicate that there are no sex differences in the effects of ten 10-s repetitions on flexibility, but show that this protocol is sufficient to induce changes in ankle range of motion and passive torque. Therefore, coaches should prescribe the same short-duration static stretching protocol for both sexes of athlete.
Various methodologies have been employed for memory rehabilitation. However, inappropriateness of these approaches for patients suffering from marked memory deficit necessitates new effective approaches. Although studies report that physical activity and exercise can affect cognitive function, they lack sufficient empirical evidence. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effect of aerobic training on memory ability.
The subject was a 48-year-old, right-handed man with memory deficit subsequent to hypoxic encephalopathy. We used an A-B-A single-case experimental design. The subject performed delayed word-recall task and word fluency task 10 times in each phase. During the baseline A- and washout A-phases, after memorizing 3 words, the subject performed a paper and pencil task for 15 minutes, and thereafter recalled the 3 memorized words and performed the word fluency task. During the B-phase, after memorizing 3 words, the subject pedaled a bicycle ergometer at an intensity of 50 W for 15 minutes, and thereafter performed the word-recall and word fluency tasks.
Average performance in the delayed recall task was 0±0 words in the baseline A-phase, 2.3±1.1 words in the B-phase, and 0.1±0.3 words in the washout A-phase (F (2,18)=37.098, p<0.0001). The corresponding values in the word fluency task were 2.7±0.9, 2.3±1.3, and 3.6±1.3 words, respectively.
These results suggest that aerobic training can lead to the recovery of memory deficit. Although acute effects were observed, comprehensive recovery of cognitive function was not achieved.
In school education, it is important to encourage students to improve their social skills. Umegaki et al. (2016b) have developed an instructional model known as the Acquisition of Social Knowledge in Sport (ASKS) Model for facilitating improvement in social skills in the context of physical education. They consider that the ASKS Model with heterogeneous team organization would improve social skills that would be applicable to daily life outside of physical education classes and help students to maintain these social skills. However, no previous study has examined whether the ASKS Model would be effective for homogeneously organized teams. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the type of team organization that would be most effective for the ASKS Model by comparing physical education classes with the ASKS Model based on homogeneous teams and heterogeneous teams. The study focused on physical education classes for male students in the second year of junior high school. The classes included those without the ASKS Model, those with the ASKS Model based on homogeneous teams, and those with the ASKS Model based on heterogeneous teams. A formative evaluation of friendship-building and the KiSS-18 questionnaire on paper were administered before and after each class. The study confirmed two points: First, the ASKS Model appeared to be effective when heterogeneous teams were organized. Second, the effectiveness was suggested to be improved when heterogeneity of motor skill was maintained rather than heterogeneity of social skills.
The activity of muscles in the trunk and lower limbs during sidestepping was recorded in nine healthy young men (control group) and three young men with groin pain syndrome. Muscle synergies among subjects were compared. Non-negative matrix factorization was used to extract muscle synergies from electromyographic data. Thereafter, to compare muscle synergies, a scalar product evaluating synergy coincidence was calculated. Three muscle synergies were extracted in both groups from non-negative matrix factorization analysis. In both groups, two out of three synergies were found to be the same by scalar product analysis. In one of these synergies, the oblique muscle, rectus femoris, and adductor muscle were activated before landing in mid-stance during the sidestep motion in the control group. Therefore, this synergy is thought to suppress excessive hip abduction. However, the peak timing of this synergy in the groin pain group was at mid-stance. This delay may cause hip instability because muscles must be activated before landing to enhance joint stability. Risk factors for groin pain are dysfunctional coordination between trunk and lower-limb muscles and decreased hip stability. Even though the number of subjects in this study was small, it is possible that delayed activation of this synergy may be related to the mechanism of injury in groin pain.
This study evaluates the state of sports at the Fuchu YMA in Tokyo. To this end, the paper analyzed Fuchu Sports, a YMA-published newsletter that specialized in sports and was modeled on the popular sports magazine Asahi Sports. The publication of Fuchu Sport was an indication of the strong interest in sports during the Taisho era (1912-1926). After the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Education announced their directives promoting physical exercise, the Tokyo government hosted conferences on the development of sports and physical education in Tokyo YMA. Accordingly, Tokyo was a step ahead of other regions in Japan when it came to setting up YMA athletic clubs. The founding of the Fuchu YMA Athletic Clubs was mainly supported by the Fuchu YMA, but it also received funding from the local authorities and schools of Fuchu. When the Athletic Club recruited university students to become their coaches, the club's programming changed and its level of competitiveness went up significantly. Finally, the Athletic Club's collaborations with surrounding educational institutions, particularly school athletic clubs, led to remarkable successes in competition and expanded the club's philosophical mission.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the consciousness among young people (n=1000) of training body part(s) by showing participants a picture of trunk muscle exercises through a questionnaire-based survey. The participants were shown a picture of bent-knee sit-up (sit-up), back extension (back-EXT), and plank from elbows to toes (plank), and were asked which body part(s) they felt was being trained in each picture. As for the frequency of performing these exercises, only 3% and 8% of all the participants had never performed sit-up and plank exercises, respectively. On seeing the picture, 40-60% of the participants who had no experience doing a sit-up or back-EXT felt that these exercises were to train not only the agonist muscle but also the antagonist muscle. Approximately 40% of the participants who had no experience doing a plank exercise felt that it was not to train the epigastrium or hypogastrium area. Among the participants who experienced doing a plank exercise without a previous experience of strength training under professional supervision, more than half felt that plank exercise was appropriate to train not only the trunk but also the upper limb or lower leg. Furthermore, among the participants who had a previous experience of strength training under professional supervision, approximately 30% had such an opinion. Therefore, although the penetration rate of these trunk exercises are high, doing trunk exercises by referring to only a picture may result in the participants not properly understanding how the body part(s) should be trained during the exercise. Therefore, to enhance the benefits of trunk exercises, individuals (even those who had a previous experience of training under professional supervision) always need to be instructed through appropriate supervision on the correct technique and knowledge about the exercises.
This study aimed to compare the load characteristics of sprint interval training (SIT) according to 400-m sprint performance. Eight elite sprinters and ten sub-elite sprinters were separated according to 400-m sprint performance and participated in this study (age: 21.0±2.5 years, height: 176.0±4.0 cm, and body mass: 67.0±5.3 kg). All subjects performed two different SIT protocols on a cycle ergometer. The SIT protocols consisted of two bouts of 20-s maximal sprints interspersed with either 30-s rest (R-30s) or 60-s rest (R-60s). Mean power output over both sprints in R-60s was significantly greater than in R-30s in both groups (p<0.001). In the elite group, blood lactate did not significantly differ between R-30s and R-60s even though different mean power output was recorded. However, in the sub-elite group, blood lactate from the R-60s condition was significantly greater than from the R-30s condition (p<0.05). These results indicate different physiological responses to SIT depending on 400-m sprint capabilities. To enhance anaerobic adaptations, it is suggested that elite 400-m sprinters should utilize SIT with very short recovery periods, while sub-elite 400-m sprinters should utilize relatively longer recovery periods.
In Japan, community-based professional sports organizations, which are based in a specific area referred to as a hometown, are increasing. This study focused on players from a team of professional independent Japanese baseball leagues and investigated how these players develop an “appropriate attitude for the hometown” and fostered a “sense of community as responsibility” (SOC-R), a widely discussed construct in community psychology. The purpose of this study was to clarify the antecedents and consequences of players' SOC-R for the hometown. Current study constructed the SOC-R model that has “passion for the team activity” and “pride in the team” as antecedents of SOC-R for the hometown, and “being a role model” and “maintaining a good relationship” as consequences. The results of structural equation modeling showed that “harmonious passion”, “obsessive passion”, and “pride” had a significant positive relationship with SOC-R, while SOC-R had a significantly positive influence on “being a role model” and “maintaining a good relationship”. As a result of multi-group analysis, it was suggested that the longer the player belongs to the team, the lower the influence on the SOC-R from the obsessive passion, while the higher the influence on the harmonious passion. These results contribute to the existing body of SOC-R and professional sports organization research, and may help sports managers better understand the psychological states of players from community-based professional sports teams.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effectiveness of regular, vigorous physical activity on the performance of rhythm-synchronized stepping exercises in individuals with hearing loss. The study involved 58 male participants aged between 20 and 24 years; 23 of them (exercise group 15, general group 8) had hearing loss and 35 (exercise group 24, general group 11) did not. Alternating left and right steps, at a rate of 120/minute, were performed in the absence of cues, or in the presence of visual and visual/auditory cues. The results suggested that exercise group with hearing loss can perform simple, repetitive exercises more accurately than general group with hearing loss when visual cues are presented.
Common content knowledge (CCK) includes the knowledge of (a) rules, safety, and etiquette, (b) techniques, and (c) tactics of movement forms (e.g., sports, dance and yoga; Ward, 2009) and has been established as critical knowledge for teachers to provide quality instruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a volleyball CCK test of preservice teachers in Japan. The test was developed using three steps: (a) content experts developed the questions, (b) ten experienced secondary school physical education teachers established face and content validity, and (c) the test was pilot tested with eight preservice teachers to secure concurrent validity. Following this, the test was given to 126 physical education preservice teachers. Data were analyzed using Rasch modeling (Rasch, 1980). The data fit the model for 29 of 30 questions. The analysis provides evidence to support the validity and reliability of the volleyball CCK test for Japanese physical education preservice teachers. The test can be confidently used to assess the knowledge of preservice teachers and the effectiveness of teacher education programs.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the levels of specialized content knowledge (SCK) in volleyball and basketball among preservice teachers (PSTs) in Japan. A total of 689 PSTs (female n=258) participated in the study. Content maps were used to examine the levels of SCK and were analyzed using content development categories and a formula to calculate SCK index scores (Ward et al., 2017). An SCK index score of three was used to differentiate mature and immature levels of SCK. Participants' playing and teaching/coaching experiences in each sport were collected through a demographic questionnaire. The findings were similar in volleyball and basketball. First, more years of playing experiences helped more PSTs to obtain the mature level of SCK. However, even with more than six years of playing experiences, only less than half (volleyball=33.33％; basketball=46.66％) of PSTs scored the mature level SCK. Second, obtaining teaching/coaching experiences helped more PSTs to have the mature level of SCK. Finally, more PSTs who played higher than at the prefecture-level scored the mature level of SCK than PSTs with lower play levels. However, even at the highest playing level category (i.e., the national level or above), less than half of PSTs scored a mature level of SCK. Overall, playing and/or teaching/coaching experiences have some level of positive influence on developing SCK. However, even with those experiences, many PSTs still scored the immature level SCK. Teacher education programs need to be intentional in preparing PSTs to develop SCK.
Maladaptation to university life by undergraduates has often been reported in recent years. Therefore, improvements in the provision of support for student is urgently required. Previous studies have indicated that physical education (PE) classes might provide effective opportunities for improving students' adjustment to universities. The purposes of this study were to develop a scale for quantitatively evaluating perceived benefits of PE in university students and to verify its reliability and validity. Then, the effects of perceived benefits of PE on adjustment to university life were examined by using this scale. A questionnaire survey was conducted with university freshmen (n=2,412) that were enrolled in four-year universities and were taking PE classes. The survey questions consisted of items for developing the assessment scale, and a school adjustment scale. The “Perceived Benefits Scale of university First-Year PE classes (PBS-FYPE)” through exploratory factor analysis. The scale consisted of following sub-scales: “Acquisition of motor skills and training methods,” “Understanding the importance of cooperative play and improvement of communication skills,” “Stress coping and arousal of positive feelings,” “Improvements in physical fitness and physical activities,” and “Establishment of regular lifestyles.” Subsequent analyses confirmed the adequate internal consistency and criterion-related validity of the scale, as well as its reliability and validity. Next, the effects of perceived benefits of PE on adjustment university life were examined by multiple group structural equation modeling taking part in individual and group sporting events. Results indicated “the sense of comfort” was relatively well explained in both groups by the value of the explanatory variables. Moreover, higher scores for “Understanding the importance of cooperative play and improvement of communication skills” were associated with a higher scores for “the sense of comfort”. This effect was stronger in group, compared to individual activities. Finally, limits of this study and future issues including the investigation of factors related to the scale and the necessity for longitudinal research are discussed.
In 2013, the International Olympic Committee announced that the 2020 Summer Paralympic Games will be held in Tokyo for their second time. Despite the enthusiasm toward disabled sport or Paralympic games, whether citizens will watch the Paralympic games at sport facilities remains to be determined. Increasing the number of spectators and supporters is critical to attract new sponsors and gain additional revenue.
The objectives of this study are two-fold. First, it reveals spectators' demographic attributes and, second, using the Motivational Scale for Disability Sport Consumption (MSDSC), it tests for moderating effects on future intentions to spectate the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Paralympic Games. Researchers distributed questionnaires to spectators who attended the 46th Japan Wheelchair Basketball Championship Emperor's Cup on May 19, 2018 (499 valid samples) and May 20, 2018 (487 valid samples). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) eliminated two items from the model. Next, a multiple regression analysis is conducted to test the relationship between spectator motivation and intention to attend a mega sporting event. The results highlight that there is a considerable difference in the effect of the three moderator variables. In conclusion, it is imperative for practitioners to inform spectators about the uniqueness and singularity of wheelchair basketball.
This study aimed to elucidate the relationships among unilateral stance isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTPUni) variables, sprint times, and single-leg jump performance in collegiate football players. A total of twenty male collegiate football players participated in this study. Participants were instructed to perform IMTPUni by pulling a fixed bar on a force plate to measure the ground reaction force (GRF). Based on the GRF, two variables were calculated; force output from onset of pull (F100) and peak force (PF). Sprint performance was measured by light gates over a distance of 30m. The height of single-leg countermovement jumps (CMJ) and the single-leg drop jump index which was the jump height divided by contact time was measured for single-leg jump performance. The legs were divided by two types of definition such as kicking/supporting legs and dominant/non-dominant leg based on PF. As the result, sprint times were significantly correlated with single-leg CMJ only in the kicking and dominant legs. On the other hand, PF of IMTPUni was significantly correlated with sprint times in the supporting leg as well as both the dominant and non-dominant legs. However, no significant correlations were found between F100 and sprint time in both definitions. Therefore, the PF of IMTPUni as well as CMJ can be used as an effective predictor of strength for sprint.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic characteristics associated with curve skating among a group of top skaters in a 300 m time trial (TT) race (300 m TT) at the World Roller Speed Skating Championships that were held in China in 2016. The twelve finalists were classified as constituting the top group. A further nine skaters, ranked between 25th and 45th place, were classified as the subgroup. Data from the three-dimensional coordinates were calculated using the direct linear transformation technique. Recorded parameters included the 300 m TT finishing time, stroke frequency, skating speed, distance of center of body mass (COM) from support leg (Dcom), and the segment and shank tilt angle of the support leg. The results confirmed that the Top roller skaters glided at a higher skating speed on the right stroke and operated at a higher stroke frequency for both strokes. The Dcom was similar in both groups for both strokes. The top roller skaters demonstrated less forward thigh rotation and more forward shank rotation. These results suggested that the top roller skaters:
1) glided at a higher skating speed on the right stroke by obtaining a higher stroke frequency to move their COM inward.
2) moved their COM forward by increasing their shank forward rotation.
3) generated a higher stroke frequency by rotating their shank forward for both left and right strokes.
Individuals with spinal cord injury have reduced afferent input to the thermoregulatory center and lack sweating capacity and vasomotor control below the level of the spinal cord lesion. Limitations in heat loss capacity leads to excessive increases in core temperature, which in turn decreases exercise performance and increases the risk of heat-related illness. To prevent hyperthermia and improve exercise performance in hot environments, body cooling has been proposed. However, despite the interest and research into cooling strategies for able-bodied humans, less is known regarding the application of these cooling strategies in individuals with thermoregulatory impairment secondary to spinal cord injury. The purpose of this review was to describe effective cooling strategies to attenuate the increase in body temperature in humans with spinal cord injury in hot environments. Cooling strategies in individuals with spinal cord injury include external cooling, such as water immersion, water spraying, and cooling garments, as well as internal cooling strategy such as cold fluid ingestion. We discuss practical issues associated with each method. External cooling methods have been criticized for being impractical during sports competitions, although water immersion and cooling garments do reduce core temperature in individuals with spinal cord injury. However, ice ingestion has recently received considerable interest in studies on able-bodied humans. We propose ice ingestion as an effective cooling strategy for individuals with spinal cord injury.
This paper clarifies the meaning of the term tai-iku (physical education) in the Principles of Physical Education by Heizaburo Takashima (1865-1946), who advocated physical education (PE) in the latter part of Japan's Meiji era. Takashima wrote many books on PE, which included examples of the term tai-iku. PE-related subjects were discussed from various angles, but the meaning of tai-iku was not self-evident. In Japanese, Tai-iku has many meanings throughout history. Therefore, previous references to tai-iku must be clarified through an empirical approach when reading books on PE written in past times, as there is a risk that Takashima's term tai-iku may unconsciously conform to our concept of PE. This paper represents the first attempt to define the term. We concluded that first, Takashima's concept of tai-iku should be defined in terms of his Principles of Physical Education (1904), and second, the definition was methodological, by which intellectual and moral education can be perfected, while retaining the previous meaning in the context of the human body. In Takashima's book, tai-iku has these two meanings. Other issues include whether alternative meanings exist in Takashima's books, or whether these (Principles of Physical Education etc.) can be read consistently and coherently.
The purpose of this research was to clarify the importance of the complementary relation-ship between the Japan Sports Association (JASA) and an Information Network Support NPO (NPO) for creation of a public sphere based on the main arguments of Albert Melucci in his theory of new social movements and Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe in their theory of radical democracy. For this, the JASA (a private sporting organization that plays a central role in the field of Japanese sports) and the NPO (an external organization that has supported the development of community sports clubs [CSCs]) were regarded as civil society organizations that are independent of the public and private sectors, in order to comprehend the complementary relationship between the 2 in real terms.
Data on the actual practices of the JASA and the NPO between 1997 and 2007 were analyzed, and the complementary relationship between the 2 organizations was then discussed based on the concepts of mobilization and symbolic movement. Mobilization is a social space in which individuals redefine their social roles in a self-recursive manner through acceptance of information resources related to the values and ideals that society requires. Symbolic movement is a generic term for social movements whereby individuals' voluntary discourse act and associations act are transformed into civil society-based public intention.
As a result, it was clarified that the JASA has been facilitating mobilization that can temporarily remove individuals from public bureaucracy and customs and direct them towards parties related to CSCs through announcements of investigation and research results and lifelong sports vision and recommendations. On the other hand, it was revealed that the NPO has been playing a symbolic role, leading to normative discourse act and associations act that are initiated by various individuals who are interested in CSCs, namely the private sector, through interactive information exchange that leverages the information and telecommunications infrastructure. Although the business methods of these 2 civil society organizations seem to be confrontational when viewed from the perspective of a complementary relationship, it was suggested that creative confrontation between mobilization and symbolic movement is a requirement for creation of a public sphere. Furthermore, the complementary relationship between mobilization and symbolic movement that attempts to aggregate and share various sources of information related to CSCs, showed some degree of ambiguity, and accordingly may be transformed into public intention in the form of collective/political action.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical education lessons focusing on the long jump for elementary school fifth graders would be able to improve their vertical jump velocity. Twenty-eight elementary school fifth graders were instructed in the long jump over 5 lessons. To gain a higher vertical velocity, participants were instructed to pull their swing legs forward at the instant of touchdown for take-off and to lean their trunks backward during take-off. Measurements were taken during the first and fifth lessons. To evaluate the jumping motion, the body's center of gravity and segment angles were obtained using a high-speed video camera from a side angle.
The main results were as follows:
1) Since vertical velocity at toe-off and jumping distance were both significantly increased, elementary school fifth graders were able to learn take-off motion to gain a higher vertical velocity. However, the increase in jumping distance was not due to the increase in vertical velocity but rather a decrease in the distance lost during landing.
2) Although post-measurement showed that the swing legs at touchdown for take-off were pulled more forward than in pre-measurement, the change in that motion did not contribute to the increased vertical velocity.
3) In post-measurement, the trunk was inclined smaller during take-off than in pre-measurement. Therefore, forward rotation of the body during take-off was suppressed, which increased the vertical velocity. In addition, suppressing the forward rotation of the body strongly contributed to the decrease in distance lost during landing.
The purposes of this study were to focus on the campaign against participation in the 10th Far Eastern Championship Games (FECG) in Japan and examine the historical meaning thereof. The FECG was canceled because of the conflict between Japan and China over the “Manchukuo” problem in 1934. The Japan Amateur Athletic Association (JAAA) negotiated with China and the Philippines regarding the problem, but China did not recognize it. Consequently, Manchukuo was unable to participate in the 10th FECG. At that time, those involved in Manchukuo and a right-wing political party criticized and protested against the JAAA, demanding that the Japanese national team not participate in the games. However, the JAAA declared that the team would participate. Those involved in Manchukuo and the right-wing political party attacked the Japanese national team to prevent their participation in the games. Manchukuo, founded as a result of the Manchurian Incident, was supported by many Japanese citizens, and its impact spread to sports. The present study clarifies the tension between politics and sport resulting from Japan's enthusiastic support for Manchukuo.