The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported. Most of the studies have been performed on elite youth soccer players. The purpose of the present study was to examine if anthropometric and performance characteristics were different amongst older and younger soccer players of amateur clubs born in the same year. One hundred seventy six players in three different age group (U10, U14, U15) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, body mass index, body fat) and the performance in physical fitness tests [long jump (LJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), T-test, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 1 (YYIET1)] were the dependent variables. In U14 the older players jump higher to CMJ (p = 0.05) and in U15 the older players performed better to CMJ and YYIET1 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively). We observed differences in some fitness test performances between older and younger soccer players. These differences are indicative of RAE presence, but more studies are required on youth soccer players of amateur clubs and of different ages.
Running economy is an important aerobic energy capacity for 800-m running performance of highly trained runners. The intensity of the running speed in 800-m race exceeds that of 120% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Therefore, we hypothesized that the economy of supramaximal-intensity running (sprint economy [SE]) was strongly associated with running performance, rather than with running economy. The aim of this study was to clarify the association of the SE in highly trained runners to the performance of 800-m running. Seven male middle-distance runners with the personal best time in 800-m of 1′48″9±1″0 participated in this study. They underwent 1-minute running at 120%VO2max to be measured the SE. The SE was evaluated as the sum of energy expenditure from aerobic energy, which was calculated using oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio, and from anaerobic energy, which was calculated using accumulated blood lactate concentration. The SE was not significantly associated with 800-m running performance, whereas SE was significantly associated with the VO2max and speed of 120%VO2max. These results suggest that the running speed strongly depended on the subject's aerobic capacity because the running speed was determined by VO2max.
This study examined the effects of hip joint kinetics on pelvic rotation about the superior-inferior (SI) axis during baseball pitching from the viewpoint of energetics. Twelve right-handed males participated and all used an overarm style. Five participants were active collegiate baseball players and seven participants were former collegiate baseball players. Each participant was instructed to try their maximum effort pitch from an indoor pitching mound. Three pitches per participant that passed through the strike zone were selected for analysis. A motion capture system consisting of 13 cameras and two force platforms were used to collect data and calculate joint torques. Pelvic rotation torque, mechanical energy generation, and transfer were calculated. The hip external rotation torque transferred the mechanical energy from the thigh to the pelvis in the pivot leg, which mainly increased the mechanical energy of the pelvis about the SI axis. Regarding the stride leg, the hip adduction torque generated the mechanical energy, which mainly increased the mechanical energy of the pelvis about the SI axis. The findings highlight the importance of these torques in rotating the pelvis about the SI axis.
Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is viewed as a positive psychological change resulting from the struggle with trauma. This study was designed to prospective examine the association of Hardiness and Social Support with PTG following athletic injuries. University student-athletes (N=235) completed a baseline survey that included questions about socio-demographics, and the Japanese version of the Hardiness Scale for University Student at Time 1 (T1). The same athletes completed a second survey (T2) that included questions about experiences of sports-related injuries, the assessment of Subjective Units of Distress (SUDs), and responding to the Japanese version of the Social Support Scales for University Students, 14 months after T1. Four months later (T3), 209 of the same athletes completed the PTG Scale After an Athletic Injury (PTGS-AI). Data of 92 participants that met the screening criteria were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that appraisal support was the only factor that significantly predicted PTG (β=.48, p<.01) after adjusting for potential covariates such as age and gender. Moreover, hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the association of hardiness and appraisal support with PTG was different for different PTG subscales. The interaction between hardiness and appraisal support was significant for Relating to Team Members (F (1, 87)=3.12, p<.05) and Psychological Strength as an Athlete (F (1, 87)=5.02, p<.01). These findings suggest that developing an environment in which athletes receive appraisal support could contribute to their psychological growth.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanisms and techniques of one-leg swing type takeoffs for acquiring vertical and angular momentums of backward rotation. The kinematics were measured for successful kicking pullovers performed by 12 adult males. Using a 12-segment rigid body link model, the contributions of each body parts to the vertical and angular momentums, the kinematics of both leg joints, and the accelerations of the body parts relative to hip joint of the support leg during the takeoff phase were calculated. The swing leg accelerated away from the ground during the takeoff phase, and was responsible for 64% of the vertical momentum and 43% of the angular momentum of the whole body at takeoff. The hip joint of the support leg extended to the limit of the range of motion at takeoff, achieving both an increase in ground contact time and a backward rotation of the trunk. We concluded that the swing leg greatly contributes to the acquirement of vertical and angular momentum of the whole body in one-leg swing type takeoffs including backward rotation. Specifically, swinging the swing leg using a large range of motion and fully extending the hip joint of the support leg hip joint are the two important technical elements to pre-tense the support leg muscles and increase the ground reaction impulse.
The present study aimed to determine the mechanisms of mild cervical injuries caused by tackling in a rugby union. This study enrolled 137 male players from a Japanese collegiate rugby union club during the 2009-2013 seasons. Twenty-nine (53.7%) of 54 incidents leading to mild cervical injury were identified from match video records and injury data that were reported under the definition of medical attention. In addition, all tackles by players in the same match in which they sustained cervical injury were extracted as a control cohort. All tackles were coded according to eleven characteristics of three tackle phases. Twenty-one tackles were the main events leading to mild cervical injury. The likelihood of tackler-associated mild cervical injuries was significantly higher when tacklers had no time to face forward at the offside line before tackle situations, tackles with incorrect tackler head positions, and not using arms after initial contact. These results suggest that further investigation is needed to determine specific tackling characteristics considering the three tackle phases and their combined effects.
This study aimed to reveal the SA-PEC of elementary school students in Japan through the development of an “SA-PEC Scale for Elementary School Students,” and to reveal the features of SA-PEC for different student grade levels and sex.
As a result of the study, it was revealed that subjective adjustment toward PE classes was comprised of 6 factors, with a total of 17 items of “feeling of acceptance and trust”, “existence of task and purpose”, “feeling of growth”, “presence of peers”, “self-expression”, and “affinity toward PE classes”. Next, examinations in differences between school grades showed that scores were significantly higher among sixth graders than the fifth graders in the factors of “existence of task and purpose”, “feeling of growth”, “presence of peers”, and “affinity toward PE classes”. Furthermore, an examination into sex difference showed that scores were significantly higher among boys than girls in the factors of “feeling of acceptance and trust”, “existence of task and purpose”, “feeling of growth”, “self-expression”, and “affinity toward PE classes”. From this, the P.E. subjective adjustment scale is believed to reflect the extent to which the students have been able to internalize the PE course’s objectives.
Causal relationships among perceived motivational climates in physical education classes, goal orientations, and “Zest for Living” (ZL) were investigated reciprocally in junior high school students. This longitudinal study involved 1045 junior high school students (mean age=13.9+0.8 years) who completed questionnaires on 5 occasions at 2-month intervals throughout the academic year. The measures used included a questionnaire on motivational climates in physical education (mastery climate, cooperative climate, and performance climate), a scale assessing goal orientations (student task orientation and student ego orientation), and a scale assessing ZL. The validity of the 5-wave cross-lagged effect model was verified using structural equation modeling. The results of the study suggested the following processes: (1) The mastery climate and cooperative climate had positive causal effects on ZL. (2) The mastery climate and cooperative climate had positive causal effects on ZL through mediation of task orientation, and exhibited a positive cycle. (3) The performance cli mate had positive causal effects on ego orientation, but negative causal effects on task orientation. In conclusion, to enhance ZL in junior high school students, it is important for teachers to cultivate a mastery climate and cooperation climate in physical education classes. In addition, the performance climate in physical education classes has an indirect negative impact on ZL.
This study examined the possibility of regarding Physical Education as “Semantic Generation”. First, the educational theory of Yano was examined, in order to consider the concept of the body. And this study considers the advisable body in the Physical Education as “Semantic Generation”.
Second, the special experience of the general physical movement (i.e. “melting into the world”: yokai taiken) was examined. It was argued that the sympathetic and interconnected relationship between one’s own body and that of another (intecorporéité) can give rise to a special experience (yokai taiken).
The results of this examination were as follows:
1) Yano claimed that Physical Education was not a means of treating the activity of the body as an educational subject. The body is not a physiological or corporeal object. He considered the living body to have existential identity and that it interacted with the world, and that this type of existence was an essential experience for humans. The body that takes place the special peak experience is hoped in the Physical Education as “Semantic Generation”.
2) The general physical movement of the same body creates a special experience (“melting into the world”: yokai taiken). In the practice of general physical movements, the body schema synchronizes with the movements of others’ bodies. This body schema synchronization represents resonance, sympathy and interaction with the bodies of others: in other words, special experience.
3) The resonant and interactive relationship between an individual body and the bodies of others is known as “intecorporéité”. Behavior matching and interactional synchrony appear in this relationship. This matching and synchrony of bodies deepen interactive mutual understanding. The resonant and interactive movement of the body, for example, creates “the experience of connection by the body”, and this represents the special experience (yokai taiken).
4) Physical Education as “Semantic Generation” can aid in development of educational potential through nurture of the body that creates a special peak experience and resonance, as well as sympathy and interaction with the bodies of others. That is to say, Education in bodily experience of relations between a subject and an object (i.e. “intecorporéité”) is important.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of match results (win-loss, score differential) on the physical performance of rugby union teams to improve training and conditioning and provide ideas for use on the playing field.
Methods: Data were obtained from 45 official matches over the 2013, 2014, and 2015 seasons of one team. Global positioning system units with built-in accelerometers were worn by the players; the per-match total distances, accelerations, and impact forces were calculated for the forwards and backs. Match results consisted of two elements: win-loss result and score differential.
Results: Data showed that each parameter had high values in closely fought matches when a team lost or when the point differential was small. In addition, physical performance was impacted differently from one position to another. Forwards engaged in significantly less high-acceleration and high-impact activity in wins but significantly higher activities in close matches (p<0.05). Backs engaged in significantly higher impacts (i.e., harder/more tackles) in close matches (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Based on these data, some suggestions for new approaches that can be adopted by strength and conditioning coaches to optimize training-related performance and prevent sports injuries have been included.
In Korean traditional archery clubs, there are unique cultures and old customs that are not found anywhere else. This paper tried to trace the origin of the culture and customs. To do that, this study carried out research on “Sage [Archery Fraternity]”, especially the Deokyuge fraternity that existed as the central operating body on Deokyu Archery Club. The purpose of this study is to investigate the true nature and social functions of “Sage”, through a historical consideration of the organization of “Deokyuge”.
The findings were as follows:
1. Deokyuge was established to maintain Deokyu Archery Club through financial support.
2. The operating of Deokyuge was repeatedly breaking up and resuming owing to lack of funds.
3. Through moneylending business, they employed funds. The profits were used to repair archery facilities, hold regular archery competitions and mutual aid.
4. To sustain the fraternity eternally, they made detailed regulations and associated a strict mutual aid system.
5. To enter that club, they had to pay an entrance fee after judging on their personality, job and wealth.
6. Rights and duties are defined by the regulation and the position. The executive enjoyed splendor and privileges.
7. The most important function of the fraternity was supporting social success through passing the national officer certification examination. The exam was composed of several kinds of archery and horseback riding.
8. The fraternity also promptly met the needs of the times. The main function was also changed periodically. After abolition of the traditional officer certification examination, the main function of the fraternity was changed to financial and administrative agency of that village.
9. After the prevalence of modern banking and the movement to modern society, Sage decayed for a while. But, through conversion of traditional archery into competitive sport and modernization of the Sage, the fraternity was invigorated again.
10. Most of the old custom and culture of current Korean archery club were originated in the fraternity.
This study aims to developed a physical competence scale for elementary school students, and thereby clarify what kind of physical competences Japanese elementary school students learn in physical education as well as what characterizes physical competence for students according to grade and sex. We administered a questionnaire survey to 871 fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students in Japan. We found that the physical competence of elementary school students could be assessed in terms of five factors comprising a total of 19 items: a feeling of control, a feeling of approval, a feeling of omnipotence, a feeling of superiority, and a feeling of progress. Furthermore, we found that Fifth graders had significantly higher scores for a feeling of control than sixth graders did, and boys generally scored better in physical competence than girls did, except feeling of superiority. The physical competence scale developed in this study can be used to better understand elementary school students’ perceptions of their own competences and experiences in physical education classes. The results of this study also indicate that improving physical competence is not always positive. For instance, the “feeling of superiority” should not be encouraged. In other words, high levels of the “feeling of superiority” could cause serious discord in classmate interaction, including the exclusion or isolation from teams of children who are unskilled at exercise. This must be examined more closely in future teaching research.
This study aimed to determine the best indicator to evaluate the ability to bend the pole and to clarify the mechanical factors that can influence pole bending with the run-up and pole in the same settings as those in competitions. Eight male vaulters (4.60 m to 5.77 m: personal best record) participated. Three-dimensional body coordinates were obtained using a motion capture system (250 Hz). In addition, the box reaction force was measured with a force plate (1000 Hz). The results were summarized as follows:
(1)The strain elastic energy in the pole (Epole) at maximal pole bending (MPB) showed higher correlation with the maximal height of the vaulterʼs center of gravity (CG) than the maximal bending rate and the maximal amount of pole bending (r=0.94, r=0.86, r=0.87, respectively).
(2)The larger the decrease in the translational energy and the smaller the increase in the potential energy in pole bending phase, the higher the Epole at MPB (r=−0.87 and −0.80, respectively).
(3)The larger the moment of inertia around the CG and the upper grip at the instant where the negative peak value of the angular momentum around the CG appeared, the higher the Epole at MPB (r=0.75 and 0.79, respectively).
These results suggested that the Epole was a more desirable indicator to evaluate the ability to bend the pole. Additionally, these results can serve as a basis for the practical application of techniques, namely, the swing motion with a fully extended posture.
The present study investigated the relationship between psychophysiological state and clutch or choking performance during golf putting under pressure. Ten males and 13 females who were high-level competitive amateur golfers performed 25 putts under control and pressure conditions. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y1 (STAI-Y1), heart rate variability (HRV), and putting scores were measured. Participants whose performance improved under the pressure condition compared to the control condition were defined as clutch performers and all others were defined as choking performers. Change ratios between the pressure and control conditions for each variable were calculated and compared between clutch and choking performers. There was a significant difference in the change ratio of the low frequency (LF) component of HRV such that LF HRV decreased under the pressure condition compared with the control condition only in choking performers. Thus, LF HRV may be associated with improved fine motor control, such as golf putting, under pressure circumstances.
The purpose of this study was to analyze problems related to the mechanism whereby students can accept corporal punishment during extracurricular sports activities with reference to the books Escape from Freedom and Man for Himself that were central to Erich Fromm's authority theory. Specifically, the author focused on the concepts of “authoritarian character,” “authoritarian ethics,” and “authoritarian conscience.” Fromm pointed out that anxiety prompted Germany's citizens to give up their freedom in order to obey authoritarian powers such as Hitler and the Nazis.
Students taking part in extracurricular sports activities were considered from the viewpoint of Fromm's authority theory. It was revealed that students comply with a leader's authority in order to relieve anxiety, and have positive thoughts about corporal punishment. Furthermore, it was found that such acceptance of corporal punishment succeeded in eliminating conspicuous suffering, but not in removing any underlying conflicts.
Fromm pointed that fear of anxiety was relieved by spontaneous activity. To achieve spontaneous activity by students, it was suggested that some form of measure that does not create the type of partnership that occurred between Germany's citizens and Hitler would be desirable for any relationship between the leader of extracurricular sports activities and the students.
The aim of the current study was to develop a questionnaire to measure social support in the context of sport injury throughout two studies. In Study 1, 105 athletes who have an experience of sport injury completed an open-ended format of the questionnaire regarding social support in sport injury context and gathered data was categorised to identify social support for injured athletes. In Study 2, four hundred and thirty-six university student-athletes completed the preliminary version of the Social Support Questionnaire for Injured Athletes (The SSQIA) and other measures. The results indicated that social support for injured Athletes is recovery assistance support, understanding and respect support, empathy and acceptance support, and sense of belonging support. The SSQIA was identified to be a valid and reliable measurement with four-dimensions to examine social support for injured athletes in the current study.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pharmacists working in hospitals and community pharmacies in Japan to assess anti-doping activities, aiming to improve athletes' medication support. An internet survey was conducted anonymously using a structured questionnaire, with items regarding the respondent's basic information, their collaboration with other healthcare professionals, and their experiences with medication support for athletes. Of the 841 pharmacists who completed the survey, 21.4% had experienced anti-doping inquiries from athletes, and 18.7% of non-sports pharmacists had experienced medication consultations with athletes. Significantly more accredited sports pharmacists than non-sports pharmacists referred to the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (p=0.009), the Global Drug Reference Online (Global DRO) (p < 0.001), and the Japan Pharmaceutical Association's anti-doping hotline (p=0.001). A significantly greater proportion of male pharmacists (p < 0.001), accredited sports pharmacists (p < 0.001), and pharmacists who cooperated with other healthcare professionals, such as medical doctors and dietitians (p < 0.001), reported that they were confident handling anti-doping inquiries. Although pharmacists generally conduct consultations with athletes, further education is needed, as pharmacists have trouble effectively providing information on doping prevention. Ideally, athletes should consult with accredited sports pharmacists who have undergone continued anti-doping education. Moreover, multi-sectoral collaboration among healthcare professionals is vital for the effective health support of athletes.
Dance in Bali, Indonesia, known as Balinese dance, has so far been taught by traditional instruction methods that involve repeated program imitation and correction. However, in recent years, an instruction method for beginners known as “Dasar,” has been proposed by an instructor. The purpose of this paper is to consider the problems currently faced while teaching Balinese dance by analyzing the characteristics of the new method of instruction.
As a result of analyzing Dasar and comparing it with traditional instruction methods, we found that this method coincides with the changes in the environment for Bali dance and the children who study it. With these environmental changes, passing on Balinese dance to the younger generation, using traditional instruction methods has become difficult. Tailored to such an environment, Dasar, with its uniform instruction methods and presentation of basic movements was proposed with the intention of establishing new standards for teaching all types of Balinese dance.
Initially, it may seem as though Dasar adopted an instructional method that did not previously exist. A clear effort by an instructor has been made to recognize and protect diversity while categorizing elements into the old and the new of Bali island culture to further promote dance.