The present study aims to describe muscular activity levels of each part of the body used in 21 basic nursing actions, and to compare two sets of techniques used for postural change: ergonomic techniques introduced by Kamiya (1991) (A method) and conventional techniques (B method). The subjects were seven young adult women with experience in nursing. In each of the 21 nursing actions, surface EMGs from 16 different muscles were recorded using portable electromyography apparatus. Maximal EMG response (EMGmax) during isometric maximal voluntary contraction for each muscle was used to normalize the EMG signal (% EMGmax). In all 21 actions, the activity level of each muscle was 30% EMGmax or less. As a result of a repeated 2-way ANOVA on 12 postural change actions, significant effects for each of the 2 factors (action and muscle) for muscular activity level and their interaction were recognized. The muscles which indicated relative higher activity levels were erector spinae, soleus, and biceps brachii. The actions of “sitting”, “lying”, and “half raise” (B method) also showed high muscular activity levels in each part of the body. Moreover, it was confirmed that some postural change methods which used the theory of body mechanics lowered activity levels in the arm and lower back muscles in comparison with conventional methods. The results of this study will be useful in: estimating the levels of physical fitness and techniques necessary for nurses; developing and improving nursing equipment; and in structuring exercise programs for nursing staff.
Indian women often report premature exhaustion in the lower limb while performing the Harvard step test (HST) for measurement of physical fitness index (PFI) whereas they can easily perform the Queen's college step test (QCT). 155 sedentary females of 19-24 years were selected for the study from Institute of Dental Sciences, UP, India to evaluate the applicability of QCT as an alternative of HST. They were divided into study group (n=100) and confirmatory group (n=55). All subjects performed QCT comfortably but 35 (20 from study group and 15 from confirmatory group) of them could not properly perform the HST due to premature fatigue in their legs and therefore these 35 subjects were discarded from the study. Existence of significant correlation (r =-0.90, P <0.001) between PFI and QCT heart rate depicted the following prediction norm for PFI from QCT heart rate : Y=195.06-3.09 X (SEE=3.09). Prediction of PFI by this norm in the confirmatory group showed insignificant variation with the directly measured value from the HST. Bland and Altman's analysis also indicated that QCT norm predicts the PFI with 95% confidence interval. Moreover, QCT is easy to perform and the derived norm from QCT predicted the PFI score with substantially small standard error of estimate. Therefore, QCT is recommended as a valid and authentic test for evaluating PFI in young sedentary females of Uttar Pradesh, India.
The purposes of this study were to determine the joint torque (JT) and power (JP) of the takeoff leg and the relationship of the angular impulse and work done by the JTs to center of gravity (CG) velocity change during the long jump takeoff, and to identify the functions of the takeoff leg joints. The takeoff motion of eleven Japanese male long jumpers was videotaped (250 Hz) from the right side of the runway. Ground reaction forces were also recorded (1 kHz). The forward-backward component of the force platform was set parallel to the runway. The plantar-flexors and knee extensors exerted great negative JP during the first phase and positive JP during the second phase, and, thus, they functioned as great mechanical energy absorbers in the first phase and as mechanical energy generators in the second phase. The hip joint exerted extension torque immediately after touchdown and supported the body against the impact force and contributed to an increase in vertical CG velocity by pivoting the body over the takeoff foot during the first phase. There were no relationships of the magnitude of the peak joint torques of the takeoff leg and angular impulse and work of the takeoff leg joint torques to horizontal CG velocity at touchdown or jumping distance.
In this study, we focus on a video-recorded sports game (soccer game video), and apply discriminant analysis in order to quantitatively examine the relationship between the subjective evaluation of the video by physical education teachers and their teaching experience. The teaching experience includes teaching years on soccer (long term, medium term and short term) and content knowledge (possession of JFA license). In the analysis, the subjective evaluation of the video and the teaching experience information work as explanatory variables and criterion, respectively. Experimental results show that the teaching year is related to tactical viewpoint while content knowledge is related to problem solving in the game.
In order to maintain an exercise habit, it is important to repress the urge to quit the exercise habit that had been formed once. If it is stopped, it is important to promote restarting some sort of exercise. In this study, we have examined the correlation between quitting an exercise habit and intention to restart exercise, and psychological factors for exercise and sports for high and junior high school students. A questionnaire including items for psychological factors (enjoyment, benefit and psychological barrier scales for exercise and sports) calibrated by item response theory was distributed to 1,544 high and junior high school students from 1st grade of junior high to 2nd grade of high school. The result of multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that quitting exercise was explained by psychological barriers (p<0.001), grades (p<0.001) and sex (p<0.01). The odds ratio of psychological barrier was 2.67 when the psychological barrier scale score increased 1.0 (equivalent to 1.1 SD increase in the subject group). Intention to restart the exercise habit was explained by enjoyment (p<0.001), grade (p<0.001) and time elapse after quitting (p<0.001). The odds ratio of enjoyment was 2.52 when the enjoyment scale score increased 1.0 (equivalent to about 1.1 SD increase in the subject group). The important knowledge from the results is that quitting exercise and intention to restart the exercise habit were explained by different psychological factors. The psychological barrier should be considered when planning intervention for prevention of quitting exercise habit. On the other hand, the enjoyment of exercise is an important factor to promote restarting some sort of exercise.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived satisfaction with care-prevention exercise programs on the continuation of such programs. Thirty-two subjects out of 81 residents at an apartment home for seniors volunteered for this study as subjects. The subjects participated in either of two group exercise programs (GEP's) or the fragility screening battery test (FST) held in the residence. In the GEP's, the continuing participants showed significantly higher scores of satisfaction than the not-continuing participants (F=8.15, p<0.05), while there was no significant difference in satisfaction of FST between continuing and not-continuing participants. These results suggest that perceived satisfaction is important for continuation with care-prevention exercise programs.
This study aimed to investigate how long-term biweekly participation in health education classes has affected the maintenance of independent lifestyle, care needs, and 10-year (125-month) mortality rates in Yoshida Village, where individuals among the community residents aged 58 years or older, participate in health education classes (Silver College). There were 1,013 people in total (male; n=456, 65.5±5.6y. and female; n=557, 71.5±9.5y.) on baseline in 1994. We examined participant gender, birth date and care needs in October 2004, degree of care needs, the first date when care needs became grade 2 or higher, the status of participation in Silver College, and date of death. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the survival rates of the participants and non-participants at the end of the trial were 90% and 67%, respectively. Cox's proportional hazards regression model showed that adjusted hazard ratios for age were 1.125 (95% CI: 1.111-1.139) in all subjects, 1.115 (95% CI: 1.095-1.136) in males, and 1.138 (95% CI: 1.117-1.158) in females. Adjusted hazard ratios for participation in health education classes were 0.270 (95% CI: 0.172-0.423) in all subjects, 0.423 (95% CI: 0.228-0.787) in males, and 0.215 (95% CI: 0.112-0.412) in females. Long-term comprehensive health education classes for middle-aged to elderly people including lifestyle, exercise, diet, and hot spa bathing, even if conducted biweekly, may be effective in the prevention of long-term care needs.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of strength training among Japanese adults, and to identify the characteristics of individuals who engage in strength training regularly. The current data was collected from 3000 randomly selected Japanese adults in the SSF National Sports-Life Survey 2006 (Sasakawa Sports Foundation, 2006). The response rate was 62.2%. As a result, the prevalence of regular strength training (more than 2 times per week) was 3.9%. In particular, the rates of regular strength training were low in older individuals (60-69 years were 2.5%, over 70 years were 0.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, smoking habit, and self-rated physical fitness were significantly correlated with regular strength training. These findings indicate that the majority of Japanese do not participate strength training, especially among the elderly, women, smokers, and those with a lower degree of physical fitness.
Recently there has been an interest in developing culturally-specific instruments in order to explain different aspects of exercise behavior. The present study continues in the same line by reporting further analyses regarding the psychometric properties of the Spanish Attitudes, Motivation and Self-efficacy Questionnaire of Exercise Participation (Sp-AMSQEP). This study comes to complete a recent preliminary study (Pappous, Cruz & Godoy; 2006) basically by: a) aplicating some semantical modifications and retesting the internal consistency of the instrument, and b) by including a factor analysis in order to evaluate the support for the three dimensional a priori factor structure of the instrument. The results, in sum, provided initial evidence to support that Sp- AMSQEP is a suitable tool to measure the dimensions of attitudes, motivation and self efficacy in Spanish-speaking samples in the context of sport participation in health clubs. The fact that this study makes part of the first steps of the validation of this instrument is stressed and therefore further analyses are recommended in order to asses the generality of the instrument.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of jump ability in elite adolescent male athletes for the purpose of comparing them to healthy coeval males by referring to the results reported by Endo, et al., (2007). One hundred and twenty elite male athletes (alpine skiers, fencers, soccer players, track and field sprinters and jumpers, and weight lifters) aged 18 to 24 yrs and 316 healthy males aged 19 and 20 yrs performed countermovement jumps (CMJ) and five- repeated rebound jumps (5RJ) on a mat switch system. CMJ and 5RJ abilities were evaluated by jump height and RJ-index (=jump height/ground contact time), respectively. Although the jump height in CMJ and the RJ-index in 5RJ developed from ages 6 to 18 yrs, these values reached a plateau between the ages of 18 and 20 yrs in healthy males, elite athletes further developed after age 18. When the values for the healthy males in the present study were added to the results obtained for 1137 boys by Endo, et al., (2007), the regression line and correlation coefficient between jump height in CMJ and the RJ-index in 5RJ changed only slightly. However, the values for elite adolescent athletes tended to appear in the upper right from the population ages of 6 to 20 yrs; moreover, the scattering exhibited wide variation. The results revealed that although jump ability in healthy adolescent males changed little after age 18, jump ability in elite coeval athletes were superior after age 18 and that individual differences increased according to the length of specific training in each sport.
In the present study, an ergometer (SErg) was developed to determine the force-velocity-power relationship in sprint running and to examine its applicability for assessing sprinting ability on the ground. The SErg consisted of a low friction belt, a rotary encoder, a force transducer attached to the runner's waist, and an electrical brake on the belt. The subjects (nine healthy and active men, including two sprinters: age, 22.6±2.1yrs; body height, 175.3±4.1cm; body weight, 74.1±9.3 kg) sprinted with maximal effort at five loads that were generated by the braking force. The mean velocity (V) and force (F) were calculated where the mean belt velocity in six steps was maximal. In addition to the treadmill running, the subjects performed a 60m maximal sprint on the ground. From the F-V relationship, the value of the intercept on the V axis was regarded as estimated maximal velocity (eVmax). The maximal power (ePmax) was also calculated from V-P regression. The test-retest reliability of the eVmax and ePmax was high (ICC>0.79). The eVmax (8.25+/-0.89m/s) and ePmax (856.5+/-135.0W) were highly correlated to the maximal velocity (8.91+/-0.75m/s, r =0.91) and acceleration (3.55+/-0.24m/s2, r =0.91), respectively, in the 60 m sprint on the ground. The present results indicate that the SErg can be applicable to determine the F-V-P relationship during sprint running and to estimate maximum velocity and acceleration in maximal ground sprinting.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of certified care need and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), mobility and muscle function. The subjects were 73 frail elderly people certified as needing care and 15 independent frail elderly people without dementia. The measurements were the strength and thickness of knee extensor muscles, walking speed and one leg standing endurance test. The IADL was also evaluated by a 13 part questionnaire. The total points of IADL and accomplishment rates of mobility tests showed significant differences according to levels of certified care need, although there was no relation between stage and maximal knee extension strength and muscle thickness. These results indicate that people certified as being in need of long term care might have muscle function similar to independent frail elderly people.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination exercises on brain activation as measured by functional MRI. In this study, we defined coordination exercises as exercises with a greater degree of complexity and quality, as compared to the control exercises. We hypothesized that coordination tasks evoke more brain activation than control tasks, based on the attributes of coordination exercises requiring adjustment and judgment. Two experiments were designed to study the differences in the effects of brain activation between the coordination exercises and the simpler movements of the control exercises. The first experiment compared brain activation when subjects viewed video images of the coordination exercises with that when they viewed video images of the control exercises. The second experiment compared brain activation when subjects actually performed the coordination exercises with that when they performed the control exercises. These experiments demonstrated that performing and viewing coordination exercises activated the brain activities related to motor control to a much greater degree than those of the control exercises. The results of this study indicate that coordination exercises contribute to the improvement of motor activities and also cognitive control, lending support to claims for the effectiveness of coordination training in medicine as well as in sports.
The purpose of the study was to identify if and how barriers to exercise perceived by adolescents differ across stages of change and if gender is intervening variable — the problem that has not been extensively studied yet. 1251 high-school students aged 16 to 19 (M 17.33, SD .87) were surveyed. 7.59% of the sample were diagnosed in precontemplation stage (PC), 11.35% in contemplation (C), 43.25% in preparation (P), 13.11% in action (A), and 24.70% in maintenance (M). Mean scores of perceived barriers differed across stages of change. For students on PC three barriers appeared to be equally important in preventing them from exercising: “lack of interest”, “lack of time” and “lack of motivation”. In the remaining stages “lack of time” was the principal barrier. Females declared higher level of perceived barriers comparing to males, especially on P stage. The information obtained in the study may influence physical activity interventions for adolescents to prepare them better to participation in leisure time exercise.
This study aimed to examine the characteristics of handedness in Japanese adults based on gender differences, the presence of left-handed (LH) relatives and experiences with the forced conversion of handedness. Subjects were comprised of 4668 Japanese adults ranging from 15 to 29 years of age (3127 males 18.8±1.8 years old and 1541 females 18.8±1.4 years old). We investigated their subjective handedness, the presence and type of LH relatives, and their experiences with forced conversion of handedness. Although there was no gender difference in the incidence of “innate LH (a subject who had experienced forced conversion of handedness, or a LH subject without experience in the forced conversion)”, females underwent more forced conversion of handedness and had a higher incidence of subjects whose handedness changed from LH to RH. There was no significant difference in the proportion of forced conversion based on the presence of LH relatives, but the incidence of innate LH was higher in subjects with LH relatives and the proportion of LH subjects who remained unchanged after forced conversion was also higher in subjects with LH relatives. Among the subjects with LH relatives, the incidence of current LH was significantly higher in subjects with LH grandparents or parents than siblings. These findings may suggest that forced conversion may influence a gender difference in the incidence of LH. In addition, the presence of LH relatives genetically and environmentally (imitation) influences handedness, and the influence is greater in parents than siblings.
The purposes of the present study was to investigate the age-related development of fundamental running and footwork abilities from a viewpoint of jumping ability characteristics used by Endo et al. (2007). A total of 389 boys (12 yr: 85, 13 yr: 72, 14 yr: 60, 15 yr: 53, 16 yr: 57 and 17 & 18 yr: 62) conducted counter movement jump (CMJ) and five-repeated rebound jump (5RJ). CMJ and 5RJ abilities were evaluated by jump height and RJ-index (=jump height/contact time), respectively. Fundamental running and footwork abilities were assessed 50 m run, 20 m shuttle run and lateral side-step. Division of jumping ability types were as follows: CMJ ability corresponded to RJ ability (Even type), RJ ability was superior to CMJ ability (RJ type) and CMJ ability was superior to RJ ability (CMJ type). 50 m run, 20 m shuttle run and lateral side-step in RJ type were significantly higher performances than those in CMJ type and Even type. This result revealed that fundamental running and footwork abilities in RJ type developed at a high level compared with CMJ type and Even type after the onset of growth spurt and suggest that the assessment of jumping ability using CMJ and RJ is useful to evaluate the physical fitness and motor ability for children.
This study was conducted to elucidate the development and gender differences in dynamic and kinetic visual acuities in children from 8 to 17 years of age. The subjects were 867 boys and girls. The test parameters were static visual acuity, kinetic visual acuity, and dynamic visual acuity and the test was done using a method that allowed evaluation of many subjects in a short time. The speed at which the target moved started at 40 rpm and was reduced gradually thereafter in measurement of dynamic visual acuity. In measurement of kinetic visual acuity, the target moved at 30 kilometers per hour. The results indicated that the dynamic visual acuity improved gradually with age and a significant (p<0.01) gender difference was noted. However, there were no changes or gender difference in kinetic visual acuity. Therefore it was understood that there was a difference in the developmental patterns for dynamic and kinetic visual acuities.
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive utility of self-image congruence in spectator sport consumption. Specifically, the effects of self/team follower image congruence (STFIC) were investigated on various types of behavior by spectator-sport consumers and on team loyalty. The theory of self-image congruence posits that consumers make decisions depending on the degree of congruence between their self-image and the perceived stereotypical image of the users of a specific product or brand. Spectators (N=260) at two professional basketball games completed a questionnaire that included STFIC, consumption behavior (i.e., attendance frequency and media consumption) and team loyalty. A set of regression analyses suggested that attendance frequency, media consumption (i.e., watching televised games and visiting teams' Websites), and team loyalty (i.e., re-attend intention, word-of-mouth intention, and ticket-price resistance) were, significantly, functions of STFIC. Study results implicated the significance of self-image congruence in predicting spectators' varying team-relevant consumption behavior and team loyalty. For sport managers, the matching of consumers' self-concept and a team personality could be critical in enhancing attendance and team loyalty.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to identify the determinants of the participation in walking program with the E-mail function of cellular phone. METHODS: The sample was collected from the registrants of Japanese social research company. The company sent their registrants (30-49 years old) the requests for answering the questionnaire. The recruitment of the program was in the end of the questionnaire. In about 13,000 registrants receiving the requests, 4935 who answered all questions were identified as the subjects in the present investigation. The intervention program with e-mail newsletter was offered to all applicants. Signal detection analysis was used for selecting predictor of applicant from potential variables (gender, age, marital status, number of family, educational background, occupation, family income, hour per day spent in television watching, and hour per day spent in internet using, stage of change for walking behavior, and self-efficacy for regular walking). RESULTS: 1,268 of the subjects (25.7%) applied for the program. Signal detection analysis revealed that the predictors of applicant were stage of change, self-efficacy, and hour in internet using. As these variables, people were classified 6 groups. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that those who engage in walking, have higher self-efficacy for regular walking, or use internet more frequently tends to participate in the walking program using information technology.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the running speed (vHRmax.pred) corresponding to a HRmax predicted by the formula [220-age (yrs)], is a useful physiologic index of endurance among trained young runners in a specified age group (12-20 yrs). Correlations were analyzed between vHRmax.pred and V̇o2max, vV̇o2max (running speed corresponding to V̇o2max,), vLT (running speed at a blood lactate level of 4 mmol·L−1), vHRmax.meas (running speed at the measured HRmax), and competitive 1500 and 3000-m performance times in 43 endurance-trained, teenaged runners (25 males, 18 females). Methods: Physiological variables (V̇o2, HR, and La) were measured during progressive sub-maximal and maximal treadmill running. Running speeds corresponding to V̇o2max, HRmax.meas, and HRmax.pred were estimated from regressions relating each individual's running speed to V̇o2 and HR. Results: With a few exceptions, gender-specific correlation coefficients were significant between V̇o2max, vV̇o2max, vLT, vHRmax.meas, and vHRmax.pred, with values ranging from 0.41 to 0.93 (p<0.05). vHRmax.pred was a significant predictor of running performance for both 1500 and 3000-m events (r=−0.62 and −0.52 in males, and −0.66 and −0.80 in females, respectively). Conclusion: The results suggested that vHRmax.pred is a useful predictor of endurance running performance in trained teenaged runners. This fact also suggested the possibility of developing an index of endurance running performance in untrained teenagers.
This study aimed to determine the elastic properties of human triceps brachii (TB) tendon. The elongation of the TB tendon was directly measured in 9 healthy males using ultrasonography during ramp isometric elbow-extension up to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The slope of the regression line for the relationship between the estimated muscle force and the angular rotation-corrected tendon elongation above 50%MVC was defined as stiffness. The stiffness of the TB tendon, 83±22 N/mm, was comparable with that of the gastrocnemius tendon reported previously. The relationship between the stiffness and the tendon length (TL) showed a negatively significant correlation, suggesting that the stiffness of TB tendon is influenced by its dimensions.
The present study aimed to clarify age and gender differences in the electromyographic (EMG) activity levels of lower limb muscles during daily physical actions. Forty young and 22 elderly individuals performed five physical actions, i.e. normal walking, ascending and descending stairs, standing up from and sitting onto a chair, and a calf raise exercise. The surface electromyograms (EMGs) during these actions were recorded from the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus latelalis, lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles using a portable EMG recording apparatus. For the prescribed actions, the mean activity levels of the quadriceps femoris (QF%EMG) and triceps surae (TS%EMG) muscles were quantified and expressed as the relative values (%EMG) to that during the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). The %EMG values of QF and TS significantly differed among actions, with significant influences of age and gender. The %EMG of each of QF and TS was negatively correlated to MVC torque relative to body weight, developed in knee extension and ankle plantar flexion, suggesting that the observed age and gender differences in %EMG could be partially attributed to those in torque generation capabilities. Thus, the present findings indicate that the individuals with lower maximal isometric joint torque per body weight demonstrate higher muscular activity levels during daily physical actions. For these populations, the daily physical actions examined here may be resistance exercises for improving the torque generation capability of lower limb muscles.
The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to participation in an exercise program for nursing home residents. Logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the effects of sex, age, length of residence, required nursing care and commitment to group activities. Subjects were 80 residents older than 60 years of age living in a nursing home. Of these, 38 residents participated in the program and 42 residents did not. Logistic regression analysis results revealed significant effects due to age, length of residence, and commitment to group activities outside the exercise program. Furthermore, effects were stronger for younger participants and for participants whose length of residence in the nursing home was shorter.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between regular exercise levels and social capital among residents in Japanese communities. The present study had a cross-sectional design and was done from November 2006 to January 2007. Questionnaires were distributed to people aged 30 and older who visited dispensing pharmacies. It was explained that returning the questionnaire would be regarded as consent for participation though the participants to return the questionnaires anonymously. Out of the 655 questionnaires returned (response rate was 21.37%), 617 (male: 236, female: 381, mean age=63.26±13.50) were valid for statistical analyses. Demographic data and data on regular exercise levels and on four items (i.e. acquaintances in the community, reciprocal cooperation in their community, contact with community residents, and participation in social activities) which rated social capital were collected. From the results of analyses of covariance, adjusting for age, male residents who were more active had more contact with community residents. On the other hand, it was found that active female residents participated more in social activities. The present study concludes that regular exercise levels relate to some aspects of social capital among residents in Japanese communities.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the snatch techniques of Japanese and international female weightlifters using kinematic analysis. Motion analysis of the snatch techniques conducted using videos recorded at the 2006 Women's Junior World Weightlifting Championship. The results indicated no significant differences between the snatch techniques of Japanese and international weightlifters in terms of the kinematic parameters expressed by the barbell trajectory and joint angles. However, the interval of time between the peak velocity of the hip joint and peak vertical velocity of the barbell was longer for Japanese weightlifters, while the power applied to the barbell was 35% greater for international weightlifters. These findings indicate that differences in strength and power production affected the performances of Japanese and international weightlifters.
The purposes of this study were: 1) to measure the movement distances and the movement speeds of each player or the ball in a regular basketball game: and 2) to propose effective coaching material about players' physical conditioning through the cross-sectional comparative method of that game performance. Three basketball games were analyzed. They were the xxth All-Japan Inter-High School Basketball Championship women's semifinal (A-high school vs. B-high school in which A-high school won, 74-68), the xxth Western Collegiate Basketball Championship women's consolation match to decide third place (C-college vs. D-college in which C college won, 75-68), and the 200x-x+1 W-League Playoff Final 1st game (E-team vs. F-team in which E-team won, 98-73). In this study, the movement distances/speeds of all the players and the ball were calculated by 3-dimensional photography analysis in which the DLT method was used. Main results were as follows. 1) The average and standard deviation (S.D.) of the movement distance of all players were: high school players, 5587±171 m; college players, 5576±202 m; and WJBL players, 6177±264 m. Moreover, the average and standard deviation of the movement distance per 1 minute were: high school players, 93.4±3.1 m; college players, 100.4±4.1 m; and WJBL players, 94.2±3.5 m. 2) The average and S.D. of the fastest movement speed were: high school players, 7.03±0.51 m/s; college players, 7.41±0.26 m/s; WJBL players, 8.01±0.46 m/s. 3) From calculation of the frequency distribution for the speed ratio to the fastest movement speed, the ratio of the movement intensity in a game was high : middle : low=1 : 4 : 5. These finding revealed although the quantity of motion and movement intensity in the game did not differ much by age, each player's individual capability differed clearly.
INTRODUCTION. This study investigated whether the amplitude of the first heart sound (AHS-1) and the diastolic time (DT) recorded immediately after exercising could be related to those values during exercise. METHODS. Nine male volunteers (24.6±2.9 years old) participated in this study. A discontinuous graded exercise test was performed on an electrically braked cycle ergometer. The external phonocardiograms were recorded during the test. The 10 highest AHS-1 during the last 30 sec at each stages and 10 consecutive AHS-1 immediately after each stage of exertion were measured. The DT was calculated as the systolic time subtracted from the cardiac cycle time interval assessed by the waveform of the heart sounds in the same time range as the above analysis. RESULTS. The change of AHS-1 during exercise and immediately after exercise at each stage demonstrated a significant correlation (r=0.979, p<0.01). The workloads at the breaking point during and immediately after exercise were the same. There were significant correlations between the DT during exercise and immediately after exercise in all (r=0.951 to 0.993, p<0.01). CONCLUSION. The results of this study clarified that AHS-1 and DT during exercise can be estimated from the phonocardiogram that is recorded immediately after exercise.
Theravada Buddhism is the official religion in Laos and the ethnic Lao have been denying, theologically and historically, spirit cults (phi). However, many researchers have found that the spirit cults remain strong in practice, and are sometimes mingled strongly with Buddhism. Even in Luang Prabang, the royal capital of Laos until 1975, where supremacy of Buddhism, as the official religion of the kingdom, was and still is especially emphasized and where residents express negative attitude toward spirit cults, some aspects of the cults can be noticed in their rituals. Specifically, influence of the spirit cults is observed in the Buddhist rituals related to ceremonial boat races, including the “boat spirit” worship deriving from the sacred tree from which the boats are manufactured, the rite of Phou Ngeu Nya Ngeu deities, and veneration of the Naga (mythological river deity). These are carefully integrated into Buddhism through justifying procedures and are considered to be separated from general spirit cults.
It is well known that visual feedback of exerted force enhances muscle force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Based on the previous reports on the force exertion tasks and the other tasks using the visual feedback paradigm, we hypothesized that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is related to the enhancement of voluntary contraction force. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis and to identify the detail active regions in the PFC that correlates with the muscle force enhancement with visual feedback of exerted force, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The cerebral blood flow of 11 male subjects was measured by NIRS during the MVC tasks with visual feedback of exerted torque (VFB) and without visual feedback (nVFB). As a result, both the elbow flexion torque during MVC and cerebral blood flow of the right PFC significantly increased under the VFB condition (p<0.05). In addition, the increased cerebral blood flow of the right PFC was correlated with the torque enhancement (p<0.05). The present results suggest that the right PFC is related to the increase of torque under the VFB condition. Since the PFC has a significant role in motivation, the enhancement of torque with visual feedback may be associated with such a function.
The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for a proposed physical fitness estimation method for middle-aged and elderly persons that could be easily applied to many subjects. The estimation method uses computerized adaptive testing (CAT) based on item response theory (IRT). The questionnaire on physical fitness was carried out among healthy males and females aged 30 to 88 years (n=485). Moreover, in order to validate the questionnaire, a physical performance test consisting of 6 items was done on males and females aged 30 to 79 years (n=128). An algorithm was written for the CAT-based IRT. Using CAT, an average of 10.5 questions needed to be answered for the physical fitness evaluation. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the physical fitness evaluation from CAT and physical fitness evaluation from a 63-item questionnaire was r=0.96 (p<0.001). The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the physical fitness evaluation from CAT and measured physical fitness score was r=0.60 (p<0.001). Results suggest that the proposed physical fitness estimation method using CAT is effective for many people. CAT can be carried out in a short time, anywhere the respondents have a PC and internet access, and it is relevant to performance tests.
The stages of change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, and Maintenance) are a key concept of the transtheoretical model. The present study, designed as a cross-sectional study using an Internet questionnaire, was intended to identify characteristics of stages of change for strength training behavior and to examine the relationship between them and self-efficacy for strength training behavior. Measured variables included stages of change for strength training behavior, moderate-vigorous physical activity, type of strength training, self-efficacy for strength training behavior, and socio-demographic variables. Subjects (5,177 Japanese adults; 40.1±12.0 years; recruited from registrants of a social research company) were in the following stages: 39.5% in Precontemplation; 25.1% in Contemplation; 21.0% in Preparation; 5.6% in Action; and 8.8% in Maintenance. The most common types of strength training activities were done at home (74.3%), used the subject's own body weight (60.4%), and were done in the subject's own way (85.1%). ANCOVA results showed a significant association between stages of change and moderate-vigorous physical activity. Subjects who were women, older, unemployed, with lower education levels, or with lower income significantly tended to be classified into the two earlier stages with the χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. In multiple logistic regression analysis, self-efficacy predicted stages of change. Approaches to promote strength training such as enhancement of self-efficacy targeting those who were in earlier stages (e.g. older women) would be needed.
This study examined whether a walking program encouraged using the e-mail function of participants' cellular phones promotes behavior changes. Study participants were persons who wanted to join a walking program for their health. The experimental group had 1,111 members (male: n=554, female: n=557, 30-49 yrs) and the control group had 1,190 members (male: n=598, female: n=592, 30-49 yrs). The participants in the experimental group were encouraged to execute a walk behavior with e-mails using their cellular phones twice a week for one month . The contents of the e-mails depended on the level of walking as determined before the study for each participant. The main points studied were the time (in minutes) of walking per week and the extent of changes in the walking behavior. The analysis of results after receiving encouraging e-mail messages for one month showed more time spent walking for the experimental group in comparison with the time of the control group [Mean inter-group difference in change: 70.1 min/week, (p<0.05)]. The extent of changes in walking behavior (expressed as a percentage) was higher in the experimental group (38.5%) than in the control group (22.3%) (χ2=61.19, p<0.05). These results indicates that the walking program, encouraged by e-mail messages received on a cellular phone, promotes walking behavior in people.