This study utilized the social exchange theory to examine motives of disciplinary officers participating in the Hong Kong 2005 Law Enforcement Torch Run®. Motive similarities were found between the 400 male and 103 female officers from the disciplinary forces of Police Force, Correctional Services, Customs and Excise Services, Fire Services, Government Flying Services, Immigration Department, and the Independent Commission Against Corruption. The nature of espoused motives, in their order of popularity was Purposive, Material, and Solidary in nature. However, among those participants who returned year after year, the primal motives were of the Purposive and Material in nature. Promotional strategies to encourage greater participation were developed according to the findings.
The effects of walking on muscle oxygen consumption in nonexercising forearm flexor muscles (nonexV·O2mus) during and after exercise were examined. Seven healthy male subjects performed treadmill walking for 30 min at 6 km/h. The nonexV·O2mus values at rest, during exercise, and during recovery after exercise were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. NonexV·O2mus was determined using the rate of decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin during arterial occlusion. The nonexV·O2mus during exercise significantly increased by 1.2(±0.1)-fold and 1.3(±0.1)-fold over the value at rest at 20 and 30 min during exercise, respectively. NonexV·O2mus returned to the value at rest after 1 min of recovery and then showed no significant change for 20 min after exercise. This study suggested that walking for 30 min induced an increase in nonexV·O2mus and that the increase of nonexV·O2mus was somewhat significant. In addition, the results suggested that increase nonexV·O2mus during walking required a duration of over 20 min.
This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using computer graphics (CG) animations to evaluate perceptual skills in tennis. In Experiment 1, we used video images or CG animations to examine the visual search behaviors and the accuracy of anticipating serve direction of 18 skilled tennis players. Participants viewed the racket area for a longer time during the 150 ms period immediately before the moment of racket–ball contact in the video image condition opposed to the CG animation condition. In addition, the participants made more accurate judgments in the video image condition than in the CG animation condition. In Experiment 2, we investigated the information pick-up patterns of 10 skilled players while they viewed either the video images or CG animations using a temporal occlusion. Consistent with the results of Experiment 1, participants made more accurate judgments during the 150 ms period immediately before the contact in the video image condition than in the CG animation condition. The results of both experiments showed that the perceptual information in the 150 ms period differed between the two film types. However, the anticipation accuracy of the CG animation condition in both experiments was over the chance level (50%), suggesting that the participants were able to pick up the anticipatory information of serve direction from the CG animations. This led to the conclusion that CG animations would be a valuable tool to examine perceptual skills in tennis.
The purpose of this study is to examine ideas concerning artistic competitions and the competition content at Greek national Olympia Games in the nineteenth century. The following conclusions were reached: The first Greek national Olympia Games in 1859 had athletic competitions and an industrial exposition. Some artistic products were found among the industrial products and prizes were awarded for some artistic works. In 1870, vice president of Olympia Committee suggested that artistic and intellectual competitions should be included in the Olympia program to unite body, intelligence and industry for the development of culture and society with worship of the Muses. Artistic competitions were staged as an element of industrial products competitions in the second and the third Greek national Olympia Games. These artistic competitions were in the architecture, painting, sculpture, literature and music categories. Artistic and intellectual competitions were staged at the fourth Olympia Games in 1888. It can be said that the artistic competitions were derived from the industrial products competitions and they developed widely. Greek people who lived in foreign countries supported these artistic competitions and they also supported the first international Olympic Games. During the first international Olympic Games in 1896, a music competition was announced and many kinds of artistic events were held by the Greek Organizing Committee. They became part of the Olympic legacy of the national Olympia Games. The revival of the Olympia Games by the Greek people was not limited to athletic competition but also included artistic competition. The principles of these artistic competitions sought a merger of the body and the mind.
The purpose of this research is first to determine the conditions of Olympic Education (OE) at model schools in the city of Beijing before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and second, to identify educational results and problems relating to OE in Beijing during different educational stages. The research methods included literature research, a questionnaire survey of students, and interviews with teachers. The results obtained are as follows: (1) A “reader book” was used as an OE material for physical education and other subjects at model schools; (2) Extracurricular activities at the model schools, such as traditional sports, mini Olympic Games, sporting events with local residents, and the installation of OE exhibits promoted understanding of Olympism; (3) OE at model schools was not conducted uniformly; and (4) OE programs were financially supported by trinity three-part structure system consisting of the government, municipal districts, and the model schools. The problems of the OE are summarized as follows: (1) Comprehension and satisfaction levels of junior and senior high school students were relatively low; (2) There is need for improvement in the methods of teaching about Olympism; (3) There should be more emphasis on Olympic knowledge as an important evaluation item; (4) The training system for teachers of other subjects is inadequate; and (5) The financial budgets of the government and the model schools were not disclosed, and this may make it difficult to develop OE programs at other schools in the future.
Sport participation has been growing worldwide and its potential benefits are well known. However, youth competitive sport is still a matter of debate. Competition is inherent to sport, but discussions abound when young athletes are involved. This is particularly the case in sports where early specialization and high training loads are the norm, such as artistic gymnastics. In the present study we interviewed 46 coaches, who are coaching developing elite gymnasts in Brazil, and attempted to understand their attitudes toward competition. Coaches expressed concern about the motivation, the ability of athletes to set their own goals, and providing extrinsic rewards. In contrast, some coaches saw extrinsic rewards as an effective strategy to keep their athletes committed. The study highlighted the need for both concern and understanding by coaches about individual differences due to maturation and growth.
This study examined how athletes new to autogenic training (AT) respond to autogenic feedback training (AFT) by comparing their psychological and physiological responses to AT and AFT. It focused on warmth sensation training (WST), a necessary component of AT. The two experimental conditions-the AT condition and AFT condition-were compared using psychological and physiological indices. Psychological indices included the Profile of Mood States (POMS) Brief Form, as well as participants' subjective ratings regarding motivation for WST and sensation of warmth. Physiological indices were skin temperature, respiration rate, and the electrocardiogram R-R interval. A Lorenz plot was constructed from the R-R interval to visualize the cardiac autonomic nervous activity. It was found that the POMS Brief Form value for vigor decreased after training under the AT condition, but it did not change under the AFT condition. The subjective evaluation score regarding motivation for WST was higher under the AFT condition than the AT condition. The subjective evaluation score regarding warmth sensation was higher under the AT condition than the AFT condition. Sympathetic nerve activity was more inhibited during and after training under the AT condition; in the AFT condition, it remained constant. Therefore, for athletes new to AT, AFT neither leads to greater relaxation nor a greater sensation of warmth compared to AT; nonetheless, AFT effectively increases athletes' motivation for AT.
The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a new motion sensor wristband (ViM sports memory: ViM), consisting of an accelerometer and a gyro-sensor, by comparing the accuracy with those of indirect calorimeter (IC) and a commonly used accelerometer (Lifecorder: LC). Twenty-five participants (13 males; 12 females) walked at 3.6, 4.8, and 6.0 km·h−1 and ran at 7.2 and 9.6 km·h−1 on a treadmill for 5 min. Then, another 10 males performed static stretching and hopscotch for 5 min each. Measured energy expenditure (EE) by the IC and estimations of the LC and ViM were compared by repeated measures ANOVA. During walking, differences between the IC and ViM (24 to 74%) were lager than those between the IC and LC (−16 to 0%). During running, differences between the IC and LC (−35 to −21%) were larger than those between the IC and ViM (−17 to 14%). During static stretch and hopscotch, differences between the IC and ViM (stretching, −21%; hopscotch −40%) were smaller than those between the IC and LC (stretching, −40%; hopscotch, −66%). The ViM is more suitable than the LC for the estimation of EE during running or static stretching; however, the accuracy of the ViM was far inferior to that of the LC during walking.
The present study examined the multidimensional correlates of sedentary behaviors among individuals with physical disabilities (e.g., cerebral vascular disorder, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury). One hundred thirty-nine individuals with physical disabilities using facilities for persons with physical disabilities completed a questionnaire measuring the following factors: demographic and biological factors (age, gender, presence of a spouse, BMI, onset age of disability, disability level, kinds of services, period of service), behavioral factors (smoking and alcohol consumption habits, exercise history), psychological factors (self-efficacy for exercise, enjoyment of exercise), social factors (social support for exercise, recommendation by medical professionals for exercise) and environment factors (perceived neighborhood or facility environment for exercise). Overall, mean time spent in sedentary behaviors was 9.5 hours per day. The following factors were significantly related to physical inactivity in multiple regression analyses: severity of the disability, the lack of an exercise history during adulthood, no recommendation by medical professionals for exercise, and poor neighborhood and facility environment for exercise. Accurately understanding the correlates of physical inactivity may be helpful for health care providers to improve physical activity promotion efforts among individuals with physical disabilities.
The purpose of this study was to consider the discrepancy between the trunk-based and the pelvis-based hip joint angles, and the difference between the MTC lengths estimated on the basis of the two types of hip joint angles during dynamic movement. Ten male athletes performed CMJ. Joint kinematics and the MTC length of long head of biceps femoris were compared between the trunk-based hip angle and the pelvis-based hip angle. In the CMJ, the angular displacements of the trunk-based were significantly higher than that of pelvis-based hip joints. There were no significant correlations between the two types of hip joint angles except at initial position. As for long head of biceps femoris, in contrast with the trunk-based-hip joint angle derived MTC length, which shows stretching in the descending phase and shortening in the ascending phase, the pelvis-based hip joint angle derived MTC length shows little changes. These results suggest that the trunk-based and pelvis-based hip joint angles have similar patterns of fluctuation; however, the angular displacement of each type is not equivalent. These results also suggest that we may misinterpret the type of muscle contraction because the definitions of hip joint angle are different even for the same muscle type.
This study examined the application of network theory to skilled passing behaviour in a team sport by considering small-world and scale-free network models. Using data obtained from a 2006 soccer game in Japan between Japan and Ghana, we counted the number of passes by each player within 5-minute intervals. The structural properties of the passing behaviour, which included a characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, and the degree of distribution were analysed. This showed that the structural property of the passing behaviour represented neither a complete graph nor a random graph; rather, it reflected a small-world or scale-free network. In addition, the probabilities of outgoing and incoming passes reflected links that followed a power-law distribution. Passing behaviour in a soccer match appeared to be similar to behaviour in social networks with smaller vertices in terms of the scale-free property and a self-organising mechanism.
The present study identified what kinds of activities Japanese adults perceived as activities for muscular fitness improvement and examined the relationship between age and the perception about such activities. The sample was 1,636 Japanese adults (40.2±12.2years) collected from the registrants of a Japanese social research company. The study design was cross-sectional study using an internet questionnaire. The respondents selected all activities which they perceived as activities for muscular fitness improvement from 14 activities: push-ups, sit-ups, cleaning room, swimming, playing with child, going up and down stairs and slope, yoga, machines exercise, dumbbells exercise, stretching exercise, squat, jogging, rubber bands and tubes exercise, and walking. A chi-square test was utilized for examining the association between the perception and age groups. More than half of respondents treated sit-ups (82.1%), push-ups (72.3%), dumbbells exercise (66.4%), machines exercise (62.1%), squat (58.2%), rubber bands and tubes exercise (55.7%), and swimming (55.6%) as activities for muscular fitness improvement. On the other hand, 30-49% of them also perceived going up and down stairs and slope (46.7%), walking (32.5%), stretching exercise (31.7%), and jogging (30.4%) asactivities for muscular fitness improvement. Compared with younger people, older people were more likely to perceive walking and going up and down stairs and slopes as activities for muscular fitness improvement (p<0.05). It was concluded that the perception of activities for muscular fitness improvement in Japanese adults would be different from the activities for muscular fitness improvement recommended by current guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
Judging from annual trends in physical growth and development, human physiques are becoming larger and growth is occurring earlier worldwide. However, in conventional analysis methods growth distance curves are analyzed in nearly all cases, and analysis of velocity curves is done by analyzing the difference in the amount of annual growth. This method may show that young people are becoming taller, but there is no guarantee that it objectively demonstrates early maturation. The present study applied the wavelet interpolation method and specified the age of maximum peak velocity (MPV) in growth during puberty from the described physical growth velocity curve. Then, from an investigation of annual changes in age at MPV and the MPV, it was demonstrated that annual trends in physical growth are accompanied by earlier ages at MPV. This study used height growth data for boys and girls from the 2004 School Health Statistical Survey Report. In the analysis of annual trends in particular, there is a need to treat data by the same year of birth. Therefore, height cohort data were established as data sets. The wavelet interpolation method was applied to these height cohort data, and the annual trends in growth in height were obtained. First, a triphasic pattern was taken for MPV age for boys, and quadratic, cubic and cubic least squares approximation polynomials were applied to each phase. quintic least squares approximation polynomials were applied to all years for girls. The tendency was for MPV age among boys to rapidly become earlier from 1925 to 1937, after which the most delayed convex point was seen in 1944. There was then another trend for rapidly earlier MPV age until 1953. Afterward, there was a gradual trend toward earlier MPV age until 1992. Among girls, the most delayed convex point for MPV age was in 1942, after which MPV age became earlier each year until 1971, remained steady until 1977, and then again tended to be earlier until 1992. A triphasic pattern was taken for the annual transition of MPV in both boys and girls, and age at MPV and annual changes in MPV were considered together. Among boys, age at MPV was the latest at the end of World War II (around 1945), whereas MPV was the maximum. MPV in girls reached a maximum earlier than in boys, but the tendency for MPV to reach a maximum in the period when MPV age was most delayed is assumed to have been a growth mechanism that resulted from the increasing MPV during puberty amid the poor living and health conditions during the war, so that people approached the adult height they would naturally reach genetically.