The present study aimed to examine whether a single bout of percutaneous low-frequency electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) can attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia in human subjects. Ten obese and 4 pre-obese Japanese men participated in two experimental sessions, one involved 20 min of EMS just after a breakfast (EMS trial) and the other involved complete rest after a breakfast (Control trial). In each trial, blood samples were taken before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the meal. Blood lactate concentration and respiratory gas exchange were measured during EMS and at complete rest after a meal in the EMS and Control trials, respectively. The results showed that the postprandial hyperglycemia was significantly attenuated in the EMS trial (P<0.05). Also, the postprandial increase of blood insulin was significantly attenuated in the EMS trial (P<0.05). However, blood triglyceride was not affected by EMS. In addition, blood lactate significantly increased (P<0.05), and the respiratory quotient tended to elevate during EMS. These results demonstrate that EMS can be an effective method to attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia by enhancing glucose metabolism in contracted muscles.
Recently, some scholars confirm that the IOC officially approved the Intermediate Olympics of 1906 and made a decision to hold them. It has also been pointed out that the Intermediate Olympic Games contributed to restoring confidence in the IOC following the failures of the 1900 and 1904 Games, which were held as a part of the World Fair. Many IOC members approved the Intermediate Games despite the opposition by Coubertin, and this fact suggests that the Games had a concept with which most of the IOC members agreed with other than Greek nationalism. This research seeks to identify and clarify the concept of holding the Intermediate Olympic Games. The following conclusions were reached. Many of the members of the IOC in the initial stage supported holding the Olympic Games in Greece in the intermediate years. This was because it emphasized the continuity with the ancient Olympics as a historical presence. The Panathenaic Stadium was a symbol of the continuity with the ancient games. Also, many of the IOC members understood the relationship with the Greek Olympia Games held in the nineteenth century. Respect for Crown Prince Constantine, who supported the Olympia Games and devotedly worked for the 1896 Olympic Games, was also a reason for their approval. Because of the concept of continuity with the past Olympics, the 1901 IOC session unanimously approved holding the Intermediate Olympic Games in Greece, leading to the 1906 Olympic Games.
The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a physical activity intervention program and the relationship between physical activity and psychological adjustment in Japanese advanced lung cancer patients in chemotherapy. The study was designed as an intervention study and the sample was comprised of advanced lung cancer patients in chemotherapy, all of whom provided written informed consent. Physical activity was recorded by uniaxial accelerometry monitors (Lifecoder®, Suzuken, Co., Ltd), and psychological adjustment was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Each participant received 1) feedback about the data of their footsteps, 2) positive reinforcement for being physically active, 3) enhancement of autonomy for being physically active and 4) information about setting goals related to physical activity in the first, second, and fourth week. Drop out rate of participants was 33.3% (3/9). None of the variables changed over the four weeks of the study. Spearman's correlational analysis revealed that higher steps were correlated with lower depression (r= −.90, p<.05) at the start of the study. At four weeks, however, higher steps were not correlated with HADS score; similarly, the change of steps had no significant relationship with the change of HADS scores. The results from this study demonstrate that this manner of intervention was less than preferable. The present study partially suggests that high physical activity is related to psychological adjustment in Japanese advanced lung cancer participants in chemotherapy. In order to develop an effective physical activity program, future research should elaborate the method of intervention or increase the control of the variables.
This study examined the prospect of changing PE students' naive conception (the knowledge that students possess prior to learning) of a volleyball overhand pass skill and their performance of the skill. The participants were 38 seventh grade students who took part in a 10-hour PE volleyball unit, and each completed the Naive Conception Questionnaire to rate the degree of importance of various movements (DIM) in the overhand pass and to identify technical problems in skill performance (TPI). The questionnaire was administered pre- and post-unit, and the students' own performance was also filmed at those times. The results showed that DIM scores increased significantly in the post-unit on three elements of the overhand pass. However, the overall difference in TPI was not significant, despite a marked improvement in one section. This indicates that it was difficult to change the students' overall misconception of the skill's technical requirements. Nevertheless, when scores for DIM evaluations and TPI increased, the students' own performance also improved, but when they possessed incorrect images of the form of the hands, they performed the overhand pass more poorly than those with correct images. Future research should look at the specific ways in which naive conception affects learning and performance among PE students, and how teaching strategies can be tailored to the individual learner.
The present study examined relationships between hurdle running performance of elementary school students at various inter-hurdle distances and measurement items such as body characteristics and take-off distance. Subjects were 30 6th-grade students in an elementary school physical education class. Each student freely selected one of four inter-hurdle distances (4.5, 5.0, 5.5, or 6.0 m) based on their ability to run the inter-hurdle distances in a three-step rhythm, and hurdle running record was measured. Body height in the 6.0-m inter-hurdle distance group was significantly higher than that in the other groups, and hurdle running record, sprint record, and hurdle loss time in the 6.0-m group were significantly shorter than those in the other groups. In contrast, no significant differences in body height, weight, hurdle running record, sprint record, or hurdle loss time were observed in the 4.5-, 5.0-, and 5.5-m groups. These results suggest that the 6.0-m group comprised early-maturing students. Thus, subjects were reclassified into two groups: the 6.0-m group and the 4.5-5.5-m group. In the 4.5-5.5-m group, in which there were no differences in maturity level, hurdle running record was not significantly correlated with body height or weight, suggesting that the influence of body characteristics on hurdle running in elementary school PE classes can be reduced by shortening the inter-hurdle distance. In both the 6.0- and 4.5-5.5-m groups, hurdle loss time was not affected by take-off distance and landing distance. In addition, students did not attempt to lower hurdle clearance height in order to improve hurdle loss time.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity repetition training, consisting of 4 bouts of high-intensity exercise with long rest periods, on lactate metabolism. To achieve this goal, we compared effects of 3 weeks of two different exercise regimes: high-intensity repetition training (4×1 min run at 45-53 m/min with 19 min of recovery=total 36 running bouts of 1 min), and voluntary wheel running activity, which mimics endurance training. To evaluate the effects on lactate metabolism, we measured protein levels of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). We also measured citrate synthase activity as a marker of oxidative capacity in working muscle. After 3 weeks of training, repetition training, but not wheel running training, increased the levels of MCT1 protein, which contributes to lactate uptake into skeletal muscle, in soleus (p<0.05) and also muscular citrate synthase activity in tibialis anterior (p<0.05). MCT4 protein, which plays the role in the removal of lactate from muscle, did not change in plantaris or tibialis anterior following either training regime. These data suggest that short-term high-intensity repetition training is effective at increasing MCT1 and mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle compared to running wheel activity.
The aim of this study is to describe the effects of transcutaneous muscular electrical stimulation on vertical jump performance (jumping height). Electromyostimulation (30 min/day, 10 sessions during 4 weeks) was applied, using a symmetric and biphasic rectangular pulses, with ramp modulation of both pulse duration and stimulation frequency. Ten healthy young women received this electrical stimulation program of the two thigh muscles (Vastus Lateralis or Biceps Femoris) and five unstimulated women were in a control group. Effects of the functional electrical stimulation were evaluated before, during the stimulating protocol, then a 4-week follow-up was performed after the end of exercises and stimulations protocols. Two different vertical jumps were carried out (squat and counter movement jumps). Performances were increased in all electrostimulated groups from the first week. These gains were still observed 4 weeks after the end of the protocol when the Vastus Lateralis muscles were electrostimulated. These results suggest that chronic electrical stimulation induces durable changes on the motor unit recruitment and performance when appropriate muscles were stimulated, and stimulation of thigh muscles weakly involved in jump is followed by a temporarily increase in performance that decreases immediately after the end of electrostimulation, maybe due to placebo effect.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematic difference in the skiing motion of the diagonal technique between different slopes during classical style cross-country 10 km official race. Methods: Data were collected from two official men 10 km cross-country races of classical technique on the same 5 km circuit course. Skiers passing in the uphill sections of the course were videotaped with a VTR camera (60 Hz) positioned at 0.4 km point (3.8 degree slope) in one race, and at 1 km point (12.4 degree slope) in another race. To reconstruct the two dimensional coordinates of the motion of subjects, a two dimensional direct linear transformation technique was used. Seven skiers including national class junior and collegiate skiers of Japan were selected as subjects on each race. Results: The time from the instant of the heel contact on the ski to the instant of the ski detaching the snow on the moderate slope was almost same as that on the steep slope. However, the gliding length after heel contact on the ski on the moderate slope was larger than that on the steep slope. The length of ski gliding resulted in the large skiing speed on the moderate slope.
The move towards globalisation, the relative ease in the accessibility of knowledge and the identification of social problems of injustices, inequalities, rampant consumerism and anti-social behaviours brings into focus the need for education programmes throughout the world to question whether they are fit for ‘purpose’. In this regard, the philosophy of Olympism, which aspires to promote virtuous behaviours in order to contribute to building a more peaceful and better world through the ethical practice of physical education and sport, has a useful legitimacy. Yet, some scholars have suggested that present Olympic education has negligible learning and relevance, is not focussed on Olympism and is ‘apedagogical’ while others criticise Olympic education as ideological inscription. To address this, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) needs to take leadership in the promotion of Olympism through physical education and sport programmes. This article highlights a key point of difference from present Olympic education by fostering Olympism education that focuses on Olympism. Olympism education would need to adopt a pedagogy that is emancipatory in nature and socially transformative in action if it is to be effective. The adoption of a critical pedagogy for Olympism education, through physical education, is a complex arrangement but it does have the capacity to facilitate the confrontation of problems within a legitimate learning context. The article concludes by asserting that this arrangement would meet the aims of the IOC's education mandate and facilitate the achievement of the IOC's goal of a more peaceful and better world through physical education and sport.
The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported weight, height and the consequent BMI, among people who exercised in Greek fitness centers. One hundred and ten individuals (88 males and 22 females) aged 19 to 61 years old voluntarily participated in the study. Weight and height were self-reported without knowledge that these variables would be subsequently measured. Comparison between self-reported and measured data showed that participants tended to under-report their weight, over-report their height resulting in significant BMI bias. Despite however the significant results, calculation of the effect sizes showed that these differences (0.58 kg for weight, 0.86 cm for height and 0.44 points of BMI) were in fact trivial (Cohen's d ranged from .04 to .13). It was concluded that self-reported weight and height from individuals involving in physical exercise can be trusted to reliably estimate BMI.
The first purpose of this study was to examine relationships between psychological/physiological and behavioral variables when participants are placed under pressure in a golf-putting task. The second purpose was to examine the relationships between psychological/physiological variables and performance. Sixteen male novices performed 150 acquisition trials, followed by 10 test trials under pressure induced by performance-contingent distractors: a cash reward or a punishment. Following test trials, each participant answered a questionnaire concerning attentional focus, including self-reports of conscious movement control and effects of the distractors. Results indicated successful stress induction indexed by significant increases in state anxiety, negative emotions, and heart rate under pressure. The step-wise multiple regression analyses showed that attention to distractors decreased movement displacements of both the golf club and the participant's right elbow in the follow-through phase. Also during a back-swing, the movement speed of both the club and of a participant's elbow were more likely to increase with those participants whose heart rate increased under pressure. The other multiple-regression analysis showed that the participants who reported increased conscious control of movements under pressure exhibited a greater variability in the terminal locations of their putted balls. Previous studies concerning the conscious processing hypothesis and the distraction hypothesis have suggested that two types of changes in attention cause poor performance under pressure. The findings of this study indicate that under pressure both types of attention shifts were shown to be associated with poor performance or with kinematic changes during golf-putting. In addition, it can be assumed that physiological emotional responses are also associated with kinematic changes under pressure.
The purposes of this study were to recalibrate a new motion sensor wristband (ViM sports memory: ViM) to metabolic equivalents (METs) during walking and running, and to examine the cross-validity of the recalibration model. Forty-five healthy Japanese (23 males and 22 females) voluntarily participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: a recalibration group (16 males and14 females) and a cross-validity group (7 males and 8 females). The participants performed 5 min of treadmill walking at 3.6, 4.8, and 6.0 km/h, and treadmill running at 7.2, and 9.6 km/h. The ViM was placed on the non-dominant wrist. Simultaneous measurements of the ViM and an indirect calorimeter (IC) were continuously recorded during all exercises. The recalibration models were calculated for males and females from data of the recalibration group using general linear mixed model. The cross-validity was examined by correlation coefficients, repeated ANOVA, and paired t-test adjusted by Bonferroni's method. In the recalibration group, the recalibration models showed high determination coefficients (male: R2=0.74, SEE=1.51 METs; females: R2=0.84, SEE=1.16 METs). In the cross-validation group, there were significant correlation coefficients at 3.6, 4.8, 6.0, and 9.6 km/h (r>=0.56, p<0.001). Differences (−4 to 13%) between the IC measurements and the recalibration model estimations were not significant (p>0.185) at any speed. These results showed that the recalibration model improved the validity and accuracy of the ViM.
This paper seeks to deal an examination of circumstances surrounding the 2001 Baseball World Cup period, illustrates the political dynamics of the power struggles, and relationships between the state and other relevant actors such as government institutions, political parties, politicians, and the international sporting body within the governance system of baseball in Taiwan. An analysis of the strategic relations evidenced in part by a number of actors' perceptions are intended to make important contributions to our understanding of the governance form of this system. The paper finally allows us to characterize features of the political system of baseball in Taiwan and understand the practices of the actors in the system. It also identifies the dynamics of the power-relations among them in which the perspectives of specific groups of actors are evident for their behaviors such as utilizing different resources and access to achieve their preferred ends.
Two types of profiles of ski reaction forces during V2 skating have been reported by previous investigations. One of the differences between these two profiles is in the existence of the “flight phase,” i.e., the phase in between gliding and kicking off, in which the skis float above the snow while skiing. It has been suggested that the difference is caused by the skating velocity. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether or not there is a relationship between the occurrence of the flight phase and the increase in velocity during V2 skating. Seven elite male cross-country skiers performed two types of trials at different velocities (high and medium speeds). The high and medium speeds correspond to the competitive pace for a sprint race and a 10-km race, respectively. The kinematics was measured for each trial using two video cameras and a panning direct linear transformation technique. The flight phase was determined by the ski load data obtained from a sensor attached to the ski. No flight phase was confirmed during medium-speed skating, but a flight phase was confirmed during high-speed skating, indicating the existence of the flight phase is related to an increase in skating velocity. However, the hip- and knee-joint angles and the vertical displacement of the center of mass were not changed by an increase in skating velocity. These results suggested that the flight phase was a small change from the standpoint of kinematics, but it may cause changes in muscle activity since the leg muscle groups experience no ground reaction force.