The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 30-m sprint running time and muscle cross-sectional areas of the psoas major and lower limb muscles. In sixteen male college short and middle distance runners, the muscle anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the psoas major, the quadriceps femoris, the hip adductors (ADD), the hamstrings, the triceps surae, and the tibialis anterior and extensor digtrum longus complex (DF) were measured using a magnetic resonance imaging system. In addition, the relative values of CSA to the two-thirds power of body weight (CSA-to-BW2/3) were calculated. A stepwise multiple regression analysis produced a prediction equation (R2=0.605) of 30-m sprint running time with explanatory variables of ADD CSA-to-BW2/3 and DF CSA. The ADD CSA-to-BW2/3 had a negative partial regression coefficient (r=−0.768, p<0.01) and the DF CSA had a positive partial regression coefficient (r=0.526, p<0.05). From the present results, it is concluded that to have greater hip adductor muscles relative to the body size and smaller dorsiflexors is advantageous for achieving higher performance in 30-m sprint running.
The purpose of this study was to examine how a leisure activity (i.e., judo) affected the assimilation of Brazilian immigrants in Japan. Researchers hypothesized that judo participation would affect the processes of assimilation, particularly acculturation and structural assimilation. Based on the results of observations, informal interviews, and questionnaires conducted with Brazilian judo participants and their parents as well as the results of formal interviews held with the judo instructors, the hypothesis was confirmed. This result suggests that there are multiple ways in which leisure organizations can work with immigrants to help them adjust to a new society. This study contributes to the growing, yet still understudied, area of immigrant leisure research, and it provides a unique perspective by examining the experiences of Brazilian immigrants living in Japan.
In this study, we elucidated the shooting plays of women handball players in the middle area by comparing notational analysis of world-class players with that of Japanese elite players. Recent world-class players Anita Görbicz, Ludmila Postnova, and Mariama Signate were selected for comparison with 3 Japanese elite players. Results revealed the following: (a) Shooting plays by the world-class players were classified into three types consisting of various choices before shooting, various choices when shooting, and no choices when shooting, and (b) the Japanese elite players had a tendency to run toward their dominant arm and use an additional step when running following possession of the ball. They also combined the phases of the back swing and the forward swing.
The acromial-sensor-tracking protocol with an electromagnetic tracking device is a non-invasive measurement protocol for recording the three-dimensional scapular movement continuously. In the present study, the orientations of motionless scapula were determined with the acromial-sensor-tracking protocol and the magnitude of the measurement error attributable to the skin-movement was assessed non-invasively by the landmark-digitizing protocol with the digitizer. Three sensors of the electromagnetic tracking device were attached to the skin overlaying the sternum, acromion and humerus, and three or more bony landmarks for each segment were manually digitized with the stylus to define the anatomical meaningful orientation. After the initial digitizing, the subject was asked to maintain the arm at five positions. While the subject was maintaining the arm, the orientation of the scapula was determined simultaneously by the attached sensors and by the directly digitizing of the scapular bony landmarks (the landmark-digitizing protocol). The mean values for the root mean square (RMS) errors representing the differences in the measured scapular orientation between the acromial-sensor-tracking protocol and the landmark-digitizing protocol across the five humeral abduction angles were found to be <5.2°. The magnitude of the measurement error exhibited in acromial-sensor-tracking protocol was substantially smaller than the range of the scapular movement exhibited during the humeral abduction. The results demonstrate that the acromial-sensor-tracking protocol is a valid measurement protocol to describe the three-dimensional continuous scapular movement with sufficient accuracy.
We aim to investigate the differences in physiological characterization between Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) in Japanese college soccer players. Eighty-two Japanese college soccer players (elite, n=40; non-elite, n=42) participated in the study. All subjects took part in three tests Yo-Yo IR1, Yo-Yo IR2, and laboratory treadmill tests. The order of the three tests was randomized across subjects. The Yo-Yo IR1 test was not significantly different between elite (2369.0±319.2 m) and non-elite (2315.2±346.3 m) players. In contrast, the Yo-Yo IR2 test was significantly different between elite (1035.0±147.5 m) and non-elite (919.0±119.3 m) players. Anaerobic threshold (AT) was significantly correlated with both Yo-Yo IR1 and Yo-Yo IR2, although the correlation was stronger for Yo-Yo IR2. Our findings suggest that the Yo-Yo IR2 test will probably be a better tool than Yo-Yo IR1 in measuring endurance capacity in Japanese college soccer players.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a group-based walking program on physical activity and mediators of activity in middle-aged and older adults. Fifty-six community residents (mean age = 60.3 years) participated in either a walking program (WP: n = 39) or health information program (IP: n = 17) for 2 months. The WP included: 1) instruction in walking technique; 2) participating in group walks; and 3) practicing behavioral skills. The IP consisted of: 1) information about the importance of diet and physical activity; 2) participating in easy exercise; and 3) practicing behavioral skills. After the programs, participants were provided a daily self monitoring and goal setting sheet to be completed over a 4-month period. Letters were sent to participants four times during the follow-up period. Physical activity and mediators of activity were assessed at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. For the WP participants, daily step count and moderate and vigorous physical activity significantly increased during the 6-month period. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for physical activity, but no interaction for mediators of activity. These results suggest that the group-based walking program played an important role in increasing daily physical activity.
To examine the functional properties of the arteries in person with tetraplegia playing a type of wheelchair basketball called twin basketball. Ten trained persons with tetraplegia (TT) and ten non-trained persons with tetraplegia (T), and ten able-bodied (A) participated in this study. The diameter and compliance of the brachial artery (BA) and common femoral artery (CFA) were measured using a noninvasive ultrasound technique. Compliance defines a volume of change in cross-sectional area relative to pulse pressure. The diameters of the BA showed no significant difference between the 3 groups, the trained person with tetraplegia (3.09±0.44 mm/m2) the untrained person with tetraplegia (2.98±0.24 mm/m2) and able-bodied (2.71±0.21 mm/m2) (Figure 1). The diameters of the CFA were significantly higher in the able-bodied (5.31±8.20 mm/m2) than in TT (3.88±9.58 mm/m2) and T (4.28±5.68 mm/m2) (p<0.01). The BA compliance in TT (0.127±0.05 mm2/mmHg) was significantly higher than in A (0.067±0.03 mm2/mmHg, p<0.01) and T (0.059±0.04 mm2/mmHg, p<0.05). The CFA compliance was higher (p<0.01) in A (0.09±0.03 mm2/mmHg) than in TT (0.07±0.04 mm2/mmHg) and T (0.06±0.02 mm2/mmHg). The trained persons with tetraplegia manifested functional adaptation of the BA, which is an upper extremity artery participated in the drive of the wheelchair.
Physical education in New Zealand has been subject to a number of significant changes over the last decade. New school curriculum and senior school qualification requirements have necessitated changes to physical education/teacher education programmes (PETE). Inherent in this change has been the need to ensure that PETE's pedagogical work actually develops appropriate knowledge and facilitates graduating students' preparedness to teach. Reforms have seen the emergence of strong socio-cultural and socio-critical curriculum perspectives and corresponding developments in the utilisation of alternative pedagogies. However there appears to be little if any base-line data relating to the exercise sciences in PETE contexts. This study set out to determine the curriculum content of the exercise sciences in PETE contexts, what pedagogical models are being used and students' preparedness to teach the exercise sciences. Results from the research has identified broad content areas in the exercise sciences PETE curriculum, an absence of the utilisation of coherent and specific pedagogical models and that student's preparedness to teach is dependent on authentic learning contexts. As a result of these finding a series of recommendation are made and discussed.
This study investigated whether the drift in oxygen consumption (VO2 drift) during prolonged cycling exercise at the lactate threshold (LT) is smaller in endurance-trained subjects than in sedentary subjects, and whether the change in muscle activity assessed using electromyography (EMG) during prolonged exercise is affected by training status and corresponds with VO2 drift. Seven sedentary (mean(SD), VO2max, 41.8(5.9) ml·kg·min−1) and eight endurance-trained men (VO2max, 58.7(5.4) ml·kg·min−1) performed prolonged cycling exercise for 70 min at the LT. During the prolonged exercises, VO2, VCO2, and the electrical activity of four muscles (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius medialis) were measured continuously. During 70 min exercise at the LT, the absolute VO2 drift in endurance-trained group was higher than sedentary group (469(189) ml vs 309(77) ml, respectively), whereas the relative VO2 drift was not differed between the sedentary and endurance-trained groups (1.20(0.04) times vs 1.21(0.08) times, respectively). Additionally, RMS and iEMG did not change during prolonged exercise. These results suggest that the relative VO2 drift during 70 min exercise at the LT was not differed between with the subject groups with the different training status and endurance capacity. The VO2 drift during 70 min exercise at the LT did not correspond with the changes in muscle activity of leg muscles, EMGs of which did not change throughout the experiments.
A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the physical activity level among 201 adults with abdominal obesity at the Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipoprotein-lipid profiles were collected. Steps/day and energy expenditure were determined by Lifecorder e-Step accelerometer. Mean steps/day of the subjects was 6420±2283. The total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) averaged 2015±307 kcal. Based on step counts, 91.5% of the subjects fell below the “active” category but based on physical activity level (PAL), 97.0% fell under the “low active” or “sedentary”. Individuals with abdominal obesity in this study were relatively sedentary. Significant positive correlations were found between TDEE and body mass index (men: r=0.428, p=0.0001; women: r=0.556, p=0.0001), waist circumference (men: r=0.508, p=0.0001; women: r=0.340, p=0.0001) and percentage of body fat (men: r=0.261, 0.028; women: r=0.414, 0.0001). There was an inverse relationship between physical activity level and the odds of having metabolic syndrome. However, most of the variables studied did not vary between physical activity categories.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the motions during the airborne phase and their relations with single-legged landing position in elite male volleyball players during official games, and gain insights into techniques for safe landing. The spike-landing motions of four male world-level right-handed volleyball players were recorded with two high-speed video cameras during official games for a three-dimensional analysis. The results indicated a large trunk twist and a trunk left lean during the airborne phase of single-legged landings. The lower limbs reacted to the upper body motion differently for the left and right legs. The left hip extended during the last portion of the airborne phase to prepare for landing while the right hip continuously flexed and abducted, elevating the right leg, which resulted in left-legged landings. The results of one double-legged landing of a skilled player indicated that a compact trunk twist with a small left lean may have been why a straight body configuration was maintained and the right leg did not elevate as in the single-legged landings.
The study investigated the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 and level 2 tests (YYIR1 and YYIR2) performed by soccer players at puberty (U-13) and post-puberty (U-17) and related the YYIR1 and YYIR2 results to anaerobic and aerobic fitness. The subjects were sixteen male pubescent players aged 13.3(0.2) yrs (U-13) and fifteen male post-pubescent players aged 17.0(0.6) yrs (U-17). The subjects performed YYIR1 and YYIR2 on artificial turf and were also measured for fat-free mass (FFM), Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max during treadmill running in a laboratory. The results in YYIR1 and YYIR2 (2365 and 843 m) for the U-17 were significantly higher than the U-13 (1963 and 550 m). Results from YYIR1 and YYIR2 in the U-17 correlated significantly with VO2max (r=0.76 and 0.53) but not with Wingate anaerobic test, whereas YYIR1 and YYIR2 results in the U-13 correlated significantly with Wingate anaerobic test (r=0.61 and 0.64) but not with VO2max even though they showed high VO2max levels. The correlation coefficient of VO2max with YYIR1 and YYIR2 in the U-17 was equivalent to those reported in adult players and indicated that VO2max determined YYIR1 and YYIR2 performances moderately and highly in post-pubescent players. However, neither of the YYIR1 and YYIR2 performances in the U-13 reflected aerobic fitness but did reflect anaerobic fitness.
This paper explores professional coach and player perceptions of effective coaching, closely scrutinising what coaches do (behaviours) and what coaches think (perceptions). A unique range of professional coaches and players from Australian team sport contexts were observed and interviewed regarding the topic of effective coaching. Qualitative data analyses lead to the creation of an ‘Effective Coaching Model’ (ECM) for professional sport with three major concepts that represent the professional coaches'/players' perceptions and strategies of effective coaching: (a) The Coach, (b) Coaching Skills, and (c) The Environment. After presenting the key features of the ECM and how they were applied in these professional contexts, the ECM is critiqued in relation to the various eminent models of sport coaching.
This study examined the relationships between longitudinal changes in data obtained in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and leg muscle size and function in pubescent soccer players. Forty-four soccer players with a mean age of 12.8±0.2 years participated, and were classified into three maturational groups (Late, Average and Early) according to their peak height velocity age. The Yo-Yo IR2 and five-jump tests along with measurement of VO2max and thigh muscle volume were conducted on two occasions 6 months apart. Performances in the Yo-Yo IR2 for the Late, Average and Early groups were 311±61, 371±88 and 411±72 meters at the first measurement, and 389±73, 509±117 and 621±69 meters 6 months later. Consequently, two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction whereby the improvement in Yo-Yo IR2 performance was larger in the Early group (51.3%) than in the Late group (24.8%). Greater increases of thigh muscle volume and the result of the five-jump test were found in the Early group, and these were correlated significantly (r=0.52, p<0.05; r=0.39, p<0.05) with improvement of Yo-Yo IR2 performance. In contrast, there was no relationship (r=−0.02, n.s.) between the increments of VO2max and Yo-Yo IR2 performance. These results suggest that performance in the Yo-Yo IR2 is affected by maturity to a great extent, early-maturing players having an advantage in terms of leg muscle development.
Recently, aquatic exercise has been more widely performed as it reduces the effects of weight-bearing on the lower extremities and leg joints. Moreover, decrease in trunk muscle strength is an important factor in chronic low-back pain in obese women. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of aquatic exercise training using new water-resistance equipment on abdominal circumference measurements, trunk muscles strength, and ADL (Activity of Daily Living) in older women. Subjects were divided into a resistance training group (those using the equipment) and a non-resistance training group (those without the equipment). The aquatic exercise training mostly consisted of abdominal muscle activity. All subjects underwent physical testing. In the resistance training group, abdominal circumference, abdominal muscle strength, and ADL measurement were significantly improved. Additionally, a low negative correlation was found between the degree of change in abdominal circumference and ADL scores. As it became easier to maintain posture, stand, and move, activities in everyday life improved with the increase in strength of the lower extremities and trunk muscles. These results demonstrated improvements in abdominal and back muscle endurance and suggested that, as abdominal circumference decreased, ADL improved. This aquatic exercise training using the new water-resistance equipment may be used by the elderly to improve abdominal and back muscle endurance.