Urinary metabolites of styrene, i.e., mandelic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid and hippuric acid, were determined by high performance liquid chromato-graphy. Female Wistar rats were administered various amounts of styrene intraperitoneally, and the metabolites in the urine were determined at suitable intervals after the injection. The amounts of urinary mandelic and phenyl-glyoxylic acids were in proportion to the amount of administered styrene. The amount of urinary metabolites per body weight per hour reached a maximum level in the urine from the 10-24 hr period. In another experiment, tetrachlo-romethane was injected intramuscularly into rats prior to the administration of styrene. The amounts of urinary mandelic, phenylglyoxylic and hippuric acids in the tetrachloromethane-administered group were much less than those of the control group.
Histopathological changes in adrenal and spleen have been observed insquirrels after i. p. injections of cadmium acetate at a daily dose of 1.0 mg Cd/Kg of body weight. Adrenals revealed dilatation of sinusoids together with fatty change in the cells of cortex, hyaline-like mass in medulla, haemorrhage just adjacent to medulla, circumscribed haemorrhage in cortex and congested blood vessels after different intervals of exposure time. Whereas, spleen showed congestion in blood vessels alongwith thickness of vessel wall and congestion and dilatation of sinusoids. Final body weight gain of cadmium treated squirrels was significantly (P<0.05) different from the controls. The rise in spleen weight was also significantly higher (P.<0.05).
In a survey of rayon factories where CS2 in air was 37-56 mg/m3, female spinners exposed to CS2 showed higher incidence of menstrual disturbance and pregnancy toxemia than the non-exposed finishers. The umbilical blood obtained from a spinner contained 5 μg/100 ml of CS2. Milk from 13 breast-feeding spinners during working hours also contained 2.8-18.6 μg/100 ml of CS2. CS2 was further detected in the milk at the end of work, before the work in the morning, or even 23 to 56 days off the job. Correspondingly, CS2, 1.6 to 7.1 μg/100 ml, was present in the urine in 5 cases out of 10 breast-fed babies whose mothers were exposed to CS2. These findings indicate that the exposure to CS2 can affect the maternal function of female workers if CS2 concentration in air is considerably high, and that CS2 can reach the fetuses through the placenta or babies via mother milk when the pregnant or breast-feeding workwomen are exposed to CS2. Close attention should be paid to the possible effect of CS2 on fetuses and breast-fed babies in addition to the health of the CS2-exposed working mothers.
The effects of chlorinated mono aromatic hydrocarbons on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in rats were investigated. Of the chlorinated mono aromatic hydrocarbons examined, the tetra-and trichlorinated compounds strongly inhibited respiratory control with increasing state 4 respiration and decreasing state 3 respiration. The effect of the chlorinated mono aromatic hydro-carbons on the respiratory control of mitochondria was in the order of tetra ?? tri> di> mono chlorinated mono aromatic hydrocarbons, and the effect of isomers of the dichlorinated compounds was in the order of o-> m-> p-dichlorinated hydrocarbons. Chlorinated mono aromatic hydrocarbons also induced K+ release from mitochondria in the same order as the inhibitory effect on respiratory control, suggesting its interaction with the mitochondrial membrane and induction of a change in permeability to ions. It is concluded that chlorinated mono aromatic hydrocarbons act primarily as an uncoupler of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation rather than as an electron transport or an energy transfer inhibitor. The destructive effect of the chlorinated mono aromatic hydrocarbons on the mitochondrial membrane was also demonstrated by the K+ release.
Cytogenetic changes and cell-cycle kinetics were examined in cultured lymphocytes of 16 workers occupationally exposed to styrene in two styrene workshops, where the styrene concentrations in the air were 2-211 ppm in one and about 30 ppm in the other. The styrene-exposed workers showed no increase in chromosomal aberrations or sister-chromatid exchange frequencies, while a slight decrease in the mitotic index and a slight inhibition of cell growth were detected. No correlation was evident between the cytogenetic findings and styrene exposure intensity as examined by the repeated air analysis, the personal sampling method or the urinalysis for metabolites.
Metallic cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were more easily dissolved in albumin and glycine water solution than in water. The solubility of these metals in albumin and glycine solution increased with increase of the concentration. The tested Co and Zn samples apart from cobalt oxide (CoO) were more soluble in fetal calf serum than in water. In the case of Pb, the tested Pb samples apart from lead dioxide (PbO2) were less soluble in serum and Tyrode's solution than in water. In the case of Co and Zn samples, there were no significant differences in solubility between water and Tyrode's solution. When Co or Zn dissolved in protein-, amino acid-or disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaEDTA)-Tyrode's solution was added to the cultures, the dissolved Co or Zn did not exert a toxic action on FM3A cells in proportion to the amount of Co or Zn. On the other hand, Pb dissolved in protein or amino acid water solution showed a toxic action on FM3A cells in proportion to the amount of Pb, but Pb dissolved in NaEDTA water solution did not exhibit a toxic action on FM3A cells.