Protective effects of three agents viz. metallic zinc, glutathione and vitamin B12 have been tested against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rat Rattus rattus albino taking few biochemical parameters. Induced protein synthesis has been correlated with increased transcriptional activity of DNA. Data on carbohydrates suggest the reversal of enzyme and coenzyme activities. However, the manner in which these drugs might have caused lipotropic effects remains elusive. Nevertheless, stabilization of biomembranes by zinc, lipid soluble character of vitamins and importance of glutathione as a SH product have been discussed.
The effects of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons on mitochondrial energy transfer reactions in the rat were examined. Of the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons examined, tetrachlorinated ones inhibited the respiratory control more strongly than trichlorinated ones with increasing state 4 respiration. The effect of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons on the respiratory ccntrol was in the order of tetrachloroethylene > 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrachloroethane > trichloroethylene > 1, 1, 1-trichloro-ethane. These results indicate that chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons act as un-couplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The difference between the effects of chlorinated aliphatic and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons on the energy transfer reactions of rat liver mitochondria is discussed.
To clarify the cross sensitivity between the fungicide benomyl and some other pesticides, an animal experiment and a field survey were undertaken. 1. About 20% of female farmers, who had not used benomyl, showed positive reactions to 1% benomyl in patch tests. From the results of patch tests, cross reactions between benomyl and such pesticides as Diazinon, Saturn, Daconil and Z-Bordeaux were considered to occur. 2. The results of guinea pig maximization tests suggested that cross reactions occurred between benomyl and such pesticides as Diazinon, Kitazin P, Daconil and Z-Bordeaux. It may be concluded that the fungicide benomyl shows contact allergic cross reactions with some other pesticides.
The role of infection (Candida albicans) in modifying the fibro-genesis caused by a fibrous platy silicate (talc) and a particulate silicate (kaolin) was studied in the lungs of guinea pigs over a period of 180 days. Kaolin was found to be more fibrogenic in the presence of Candida albicans than the talc. The enhanced fibrogenicity has been attributed to the adjuvant activity of kaolin with polysaccharide glucan component of candida.
A protein of low molecular weight (MW 12, 000) was detected in the urine of a rabbit given cadmium for 17 months, by polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. This protein was identified as β2-microglobulin by electrosyneresis using standard β2-microglobulin, a urine sample and anti rabbit β2-microglobulin mouse serum. The urinary concentration of β2-microglobulin in the rabbit fed a diet containing cadmium for 17 months was estimated to be 8-40 mg/l by staining the gel with silver and to be 10-20 mg/l (3.6-7.2 mg/day) by electrosyneresis.
Multi-point independent simultaneous force measurements were made to investigate the vibration force distribution on the palm and to determine one representative point on it for the purpose of field survey. The phase relationships between the force and the acceleration were also pursued. In connection with vibration force transmission, important effects such as vector, bypassing and me-chanical impedance effects were studied with a model hand by using a vibration table. The real force transmission characteristics were examined with the human hand. A force measurement field survey was finally attempted on a grinder, an impact wrench and a riveter. The results observed on the model hand are in good agreement with those derived from the vibration theory for the vector and the bypassing effects. On the other hand, the results on the human hand are extremely complicated, owing to the contact conditions between the palm and the force pickups, and the results could not be fully interpreted. It can be concluded that the vibration force measured at the palm near the hand joint, where the force level usually shows the largest values, is representative. The vibration force on the palm does not represent proportionally the total force transmitted to the hand, but only reflects the char-acteristics of a visco-elastic material influenced by the vibration force.
A technique utilizing hydride generation-atomic absorption spectro-photometry was established for the fractional determination of triethyllead (Et3Pb+), diethyllead (Et2Pb2+), inorganic lead (Pb2+) and total lead (total Pb) in the urine. The extraction of the target lead compounds from the urine required the pre-treatment of urine samples. Sample solutions were prepared by the use of 0.5 M DL-Malic acid for the generation of Et3Pb+, by the use of 0.75 M H202-0.004 M HCl04 for the generation of Et2Pb2+, and by the use of 1.6 M DL-Malic acid-0.05 M K2Cr207 for the genera-tion of Pb2+; and sodium borohydride was then added to the so treated sample solu-tions. The lead hydrides were once fixed in a U-trap cooled with liquid nitrogen beforehand, and the respective hydrides were then fractionated by volatization; and the fractions were atomized in a quartz cell heated to 1000°C for atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The recovery rates by this technique from 5 replications proved to be 99.7% for Et3Pb+, 97.3% for Et2Pb2+, 91.4% for Pb2+, and 95.9% for total Pb, with the coefficients of variation being 5.6% for Et3Pb+, 7.5% for Et2Pb2+, 2.1% for Pb2+ and 2.9% for total Pb. The detection limits of this technique also proved to be 0.005 μgPb for Et3Pb+ and Et2Pb2+ and 0.1 μgPb for Pb2+.
The fractional determination of triethyl lead, diethyl lead, inorganic lead and total lead in the urines of a patient with tetraethyl lead poisoning was performed by means of hydride generation-flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. The chemical species of lead in the urine 21 days after the exposure comprised about 50% diethyl lead, about 48% inorganic lead and about 2% triethyl lead. The fractional determination of triethyl lead, diethyl lead and inorganic lead in the urines of the patient after intravenous drip of 1000 mg of calcium ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (Ca-EDTA) only once (30 days after the exposure) was also performed. Compared with the lead output 2 days before the treatment (28 days after the exposure), the total lead output in the urine during the 12 hours after the intravenous drip of Ca-EDTA was increased to about 4 times, with inorganic lead accouting for about 98% of the increased output but with no increase in triethyl lead or diethyl lead output.
Four male students aged 20 to 21 years old were loaded with 182 watts exercise for 10 minutes on the bicycle ergometer. The plasma SOD activity increased significantly (45.3±1.75% of the inhibitory rate) after the exercise (P<0.05), while the SOD value before the exercise was 17.1 ± 3.9% of the inhibitory rate, of the pyrogallol reaction. The SOD increment went parallel with that of plasma noradrenaline concentration and the systolic blood pressure.