The purpose of this study was to explore the mental health conditions and related factors among 155 visually impaired massage practitioners chosen from alumni lists of ten schools for the visually impaired in Japan. It was thought massage practitioners with visual impairment did not suffer burnout and depression because their mean scores indicated "no problem". However, their mean score for anxiety was high compared with previous studies. Gender and level of education showed no significant differences on anxiety and depression. Higher scores for anxiety and depression correlated inversely with age. Scores of depersonalization, anxiety, and depression were significantly higher and those of personal accomplishment lower for unmarried subjects compared to those who were married. Scores of emotional exhaustion, anxiety, and depression were significantly higher in persons who were able to read written text compared to those who read Braille only. Massage practitioners with visual impairment working at hospitals, medical clinics, and nursing homes revealed significantly higher daily client turnover, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization compared to those who established their own massage clinics. It was thought that massage practitioners who were young and unmarried, had slight visual impairment, high client turnover, hectic relationships between clients, little autonomy at work, and worked at medical-related workplaces were prone to burnout. It is suggested that this group of massage practitioner requires periodic education about stress management techniques and more social support.
In order to speculate the physical mechanisms of contaminant leakage during sash movement and walk-bys through a laboratory fume cupboard, the complicated three-dimensional flow patterns and the real-time tracer gas leakage are studied via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the standard gas sampling technique, respectively, over a transparent, full scale chemical fume cupboard. Through the flow visualization, the evolution of drastic changes of the flow pattern is demonstrated. The highly turbulent jet-like currents are induced by the unsteady flow motion near the cupboard face. Large-scale turbulent eddies accompanied with the jet-like currents obviously bring large amount of in-cupboard smoke out to the atmosphere. The turbulent mixing extends the size and the strength of the large-scale eddy circulations, and predominantly contributes to the mechanism that causes the severe spread of contaminant leakage in few seconds. The tracer gas tests that are conducted by employing pr-EN 14175:2003 method show consistent containment results with the flow visualization findings. The temporally evolving large-scale turbulent eddies induced by the sash movement and the walk-bys cause substantially high contaminant leakage to the environment and the breathing zone of the operator.
Owners of small manufacturing businesses from twelve industrial sectors (n=40) participated in focus groups. They most frequently read trade and local business publications; few regularly read or receive health and safety materials. They select business-related materials that are specific to their business, give them new ideas, or have information that is easy to use. Insurance companies and business associations are the most frequently mentioned sources of health and safety information. The most important aspects of a prototype newsletter are sponsorship, color and graphics, length and relevance. Most are positive about a university logo, because it indicates a trusted source. The front page should have a table of contents with short descriptions of articles and catchy headlines. A newsletter should take no more than ten minutes to read. Owners did not like articles that were written in first person, used quotes, were too personal or gave no solutions. Owners think a newsletter will be successful if it is targeted to their industry, shows costs, includes case studies about local businesses, isn't too academic, focuses on a different topic with each issue, and gives readers an opportunity to provide feedback.
To investigate the relationships between whole-body vibration and changes in wakefulness, We measured the change of a subjective wakefulness level and electroencephalogram (EEG). Subjects are ten healthy male university students. The subjects were exposed to whole-body vibration with frequency (10 Hz) and acceleration level (0.6 ms-2 r.m.s.) for 12 min in the seated position. Subjective wakefulness level was evaluated using the questionnaire of VASS (Visual Analog Sleepiness Scale) and KSS (The Kwansei Gakuin Sleepiness Scale). For the electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement, AAT (Alpha Attenuation Test) which repeats three times each opened and closed eye for 1 min was conducted. Wakefulness levels were defined as the ratio of mean alpha-wave power during eyes closed versus eyes opened. VASS and KSS increased and subjective level of wakefulness decreased from pre- to post exposure in all subjects, regardless of vibration exposure. The objective wakefulness levels of AAT were reduced at the post-exposure test in all subjects. In the case with exposure to whole-body vibration was a significant difference from the case without exposure to whole-body vibration. It is suggested that a short-term exposure to whole-body vibration may cause a reduction of wakefulness level.
Associations between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 833 daytime workers. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding psychosocial work factors using the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (job control, quantitative workload, cognitive demands, variance in workload, intragroup conflict, intergroup conflict, supervisor support, coworker support, family support, job satisfaction and depressive symptoms) and the number of days of sickness absence within the previous year. Multivariate analyses of covariance with age and occupation as covariates (MANCOVA) were used to test the relationships between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence stratified by sex. In men, the age-adjusted MANCOVA showed that, quantitative workload was highest in the 0.5-4.5 d of sickness absence group (p<0.001). However, the levels of stress reactions (job satisfaction and depressive symptoms) in this group were almost identical to the levels recorded in the no sickness absence group. In contrast, low levels of job control (p<0.01), supervisor support (p<0.05), and job satisfaction (p<0.01) and higher symptoms of depression (p<0.001) were associated with 5 d or more sickness absence. In women, only high job satisfaction was associated with 5 d or more sickness absence (p<0.10). This study suggests that appropriate use of sickness absence at times of being exposed to high quantitative workload may help male workers to recover from stressful situations.
The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior based on "stages of change" model of the workers and to assess the effectiveness of a education program at a workplace. The first step was descriptive and the second step was an experimental study. The intervention group received an smoking cessation education. Before intervention 36% of the intervention group were at precontemplation stage. Six months after the intervention decline the percentage of those at precontemplation stage was significantly lower. In the control group there was not a significant reduction in the percentages of smokers at precontemplation stage before and after the intervention. After the 6 months the "maintenance" stage rates were 6% and 2% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The study showed that the education in factory for workers could not be successful in quiting, however it impacted the intention and preparation of to quit in the future.
To ascertain the usefulness of a 21-item checklist that assesses accumulated fatigue due to overwork, we examined (1) the associations between overtime work, job stressors, or the quantity of sleep/rest and subjective symptoms of fatigue, and (2) whether sleeping hours and monthly days off are associated with the accumulated fatigue parameter using the checklist. Questionnaire surveys were administered twice to Japanese workers at a plant of a manufacturing company. Among the 390 registered workers, 383 workers (284 males and 99 females) in the first survey and 350 workers (260 males and 90 females) in the second survey responded. The subjective symptoms score significantly increased according to the order of grade of overtime work, other job stressors, and sleep/rest subscales in both sexes by ANOVA. The subjective symptoms grade was significantly associated with the other job stressors grade and sleep/rest grade, but not with overtime work. The accumulated fatigue parameter was negatively correlated with daily sleeping hours (significant Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs) =-0.318 and -0.340 in the 1st and 2nd surveys) and with monthly days off (rs=-0.250 and -0.151) among all of the subjects. It may be possible to assess overwork by the accumulated fatigue parameter.
The aim of the present study was to identify relations between occupational stress and occupational class in Japanese civil servants, using two occupational stress models-the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model and the Job Demand-Control (JDC) Model. The subjects were employees of three local public organizations. We distributed self-administered questionnaires and assessed occupational stress by ERI and JDC. We used seven occupational categories based on the Standard Occupational Classification for Japan. The data of 6,423 male and 1,606 female subjects were analyzed by logistic regression analysis to obtain odds ratios (OR) for relations between occupational stress and occupational class. In JDC, male clerical workers, transport/communication workers and protective service workers showed a significantly higher OR of being in the high occupational stress group, compared to managers. In ERI, male professionals/technicians, transport/communication workers, clerical workers and protective service workers showed a significantly higher prevalence OR, compared to managers, the two models giving different results. In ERI, female production workers/laborers and clerical workers had a significantly lower prevalence OR, compared to managers. The results of this study showed that occupational stress differed by occupational class and the two occupational stress models gave different results for occupational classes with high occupational stress.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published a new Technical Specification (TS), ISO/TS 20646-1 `Ergonomic procedures for the improvement of local muscular workloads (LMWL) -Part 1: Guidelines for reducing local muscular workloads' in 2004. However, little is known about whether the ISO/TS is really effective in taking action to improve the work conditions in real workplaces. This paper discussed the impact of preventive activities planned and carried out according to the ISO/TS in 17 enterprises. Results indicated that 61 improvements (96%) had already been implemented (63%) or in progress (33%) within 6 months of the start of the activities. Besides the initial improvements, new improvements added within one year reached 84 cases and 10 cases were in progress in 15 enterprises. Comprehensive risk analysis, which consisted of a series of applications of action oriented checklist and group discussions, contributed to the detection of widely diversified risks in each local workplace, and this seems to lead to sustainable activities for prevention of WMSDs. These results suggest that the ISO/TS 20646-1 help managers and workers to control multiple work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risks on their own initiative and promote sustainable activities.
To determine the risk factors associated with complain of low back pain. A cross sectional study was done from June 2004 until August 2005. Seven hundred and sixty commercial vehicle drivers from 11 bus companies in central, northern and eastern regions in Malaysia participated in this study. Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain; Maestro human vibration meter was used to measure the personal R.M.S values of lateral, anterior-posterior and vertical axes. Modified Owas was used to assess the awkward posture of the driver torso namely, bending forward movement, leaning, sitting straight and twisting. Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used to evaluate the mood states of bus drivers with complain of low back pain. A high prevalence of low back pain (60.4%) among Malaysian commercial vehicle drivers was found. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, income, education level and non occupational activities revealed that the following factors were related to low back pain: Tension-anxiety [1.080, 95% CI 1.041-1.121], depression dejection [1.047, 95% CI 1.023-1.072], anger-hostility [1.053, 95% CI 1.027-1.081], fatigue [1.132, 95% CI 1.089-1.177] and confusion [1.114, 95% CI 1.061-1.169] of POMS, length of employment [1.001, 95% CI 1.0-1.003], steering wheel adjustment [1.521, 95% CI 1.101-2.101], perception of exposing to vibration [1.943, 95% CI 1.389-2.719]. In conclusion, combinations of risks lead to high increase of low back pain complain among Malaysian bus drivers.
The aim of the study was to study the effects of a flexible shift system (based on self-determined work hours) with respect to sleep/wake complaints and subjective health. The comparison group was a rapidly rotating shift system, with frequently occurring quick returns. A secondary aim was to examine the relation between work hour characteristics indicating compressed or difficult rosters (e.g. number of workdays in a row, frequency of quick returns and long work shifts) and subjective sleep and sleepiness, within the flexible shift system group. The sample of the analysis included 533 randomly selected police officers, of which 26% were females. The participants answered a questionnaire. The results showed that the flexible shift system group did not differ with respect to sleep/wake complaints and subjective health. However, the flexible shift group obtained more sleep in connection with the shifts, probably because of longer rest time between shifts. Thus, they worked less quick returns and long work shifts. The association between work hour characteristics and sleep/wake complaints was weak in the flexible shift group. Instead, sleep/wake problems were mainly associated with the attitude to work hours.
Glutaraldehyde is a potential sensitizer and has been implicated in the literature as a cause of respiratory irritation and asthma among health care workers. In order to evaluate the effect of work practices and general ventilation system on employees' peak exposure to glutaraldehyde, 42 breathing zone personal air samples were taken in five hospitals. In addition, work practices were observed and recorded during the course of sampling and were classified into three categories. Presence of local or general ventilation system, air change per hour, and quantity of glutaraldehyde used were also recorded. Geometric mean concentration of all samples was 0.025 ppm (GSD=3.05). Statistical analysis indicated that work practice was the most important factor affecting the level of exposure to glutaraldehyde. In locations where "poor" or "unsafe" work practices were employed, the geometric mean concentrations were much higher (GM=0.05, GSD=2.11 and GM 0.08, GSD=1.52, respectively). The result has indicated higher prevalence of headache and itchy eyes among employees who worked where unsafe work practices were observed. Employing proper work practices can significantly reduce exposure to glutaraldehyde among health care workers. It has been recently proposed that the current occupational exposure limit of 0.2 ppm shall be reduced to either 0.1 or 0.05 ppm in the province of Québec (Canada). In this case, it is likely that concentration levels higher than these levels be experienced in some workplaces. Therefore, it is imperative that employers initiate necessary corrective action immediately.
Sleep deprivation has been shown to be associated with an increase in inflammatory makers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between subjective poor sleep and white blood cell (WBC) count, an inflammatory marker. The subjects were 208 male Japanese workers in a synthetic fiber-manufacturing plant, who responded to a cross-sectional survey of a questionnaire on basic attributes, life style, and sleep. All male workers in the plant took an annual health checkup. WBC count was also examined in the checkup. The WBC count was greater in shift workers than in daytime workers. Shift workers complained of poor sleep more frequently, though their sleeping hours were longer. Multiple regression analysis showed that poor sleep as well as smoking habit, BMI and age were independent factors for an increase in WBC count, while sleeping hours and work pattern (shift work) were not significant factors. The present finding that poor sleep was associated with higher WBC count in male workers might suggest the importance of quality of sleep, particularly among shift workers.
While the effects of a short nap on performance and arousal level have been well investigated, less attention has been paid to its effects on mood status. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a short nap and natural bright light exposure on mood status. Participants were 16 healthy females who were on average 38.1 (SD = 2.68) yr old. From 11:00 to 12:00, the participants carried out a set of tasks twice with baseline lighting (<100 lux). From 12:40 to 13:10, they were subjected to three experimental conditions: control (<100 lux), natural bright light (>2,000 lux), and a 20-min nap. From 13:10 to 16:10, the tasks were repeated six times with the baseline lighting. To measure mood status, multiple visual analogue scales (to measure anxiety, sadness, anger, confusion, apathy, fatigue, and sleepiness) and the Mood Check List 3 (MCL-3) (to derive "pleasantness", "satisfaction" and "relaxation") were employed. The results showed that brief (30 min) natural bright light exposure improved one dimension of mood status, "pleasantness". A short nap also improved dimensions of mood status ("pleasantness", "satisfaction", and "relaxation"). These results suggest that the proper application of both natural light and a short nap shifts the mood status to the positive/favorable side.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of laser Doppler imaging (LDPI) of the skin blood flow for assessing peripheral vascular impairment in the hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The subjects were 46 male patients with HAVS, aged 50 to 69 yr, and 31 healthy male volunteers of similar age as controls. A cold provocation test was carried out by immersing a subject's hand on his more severely affected side into cold water at a temperature of 10°C for 10 min. Repeated image scanning of skin blood flow of the index, middle, and ring fingers was performed every 2 min before, during, and after the cold water immersion using a PMI-II laser Doppler perfusion imager. The mean blood perfusion values in the distal phalanx area of the fingers were calculated on each image. The patients suffering from vibration-induced white finger (VWF, n=20) demonstrated significantly lower skin blood perfusion at each interval of the test as compared with those without VWF (n=26) and the controls (p<0.01, ANOVA). The blood perfusions in the HAVS patients were associated with the severity of the symptoms as classified by the Stockholm Workshop scale for vascular staging. When a subject was considered to be positive if any of the tested fingers showing a decreased blood perfusion and/or a delayed recovery pattern, the sensitivity was 80.0%, and the specificity was 84.6% and 93.5% for patients without VWF and the controls, respectively. These results suggest that the LDPI technique could provide detailed and accurate information that may help detect the existence of impaired vascular regulation to cold exposure in the fingers of workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration.
Noise and whole-body vibration measurements were made in the following Canadian Forces vehicles: LAV III, Bison and M113A2 ADATS (air defence anti-tank system). Measurements were made at different crew positions while the vehicles were driven at different speeds over rough terrain and paved roads. The participants completed a questionnaire at the end of each measurement session on their reactions to the noise and vibration. Noise levels were as high as 115 dBA in the ADATS, 102 dBA in the Bison and 96 dBA in the LAV III, exceeding the Canada Labour Code exposure limit of 87 dBA for 8 h1). A communications headset was found to be sufficient to reduce the noise exposure to safe levels in most cases. The vector sum vibration magnitudes for the LAV III and Bison were relatively low during highway driving (0.3 m/s2 for both vehicles) compared to rough terrain (0.71 and 1.36 m/s2, respectively). The ADATS vibration increased with driving speed (0.62 m/s2 at 8 km/h and 1.26 m/s2 at 32 km/h). The questionnaire responses indicated that half the crewmembers had difficulty communicating in vehicle noise, but were generally unaffected physically by vibration. The latter result may have been due to the relatively short exposure duration.
The present study examined the relationship of work duration or physical symptoms to the mental health of visual display terminal (VDT) workers in Japan. The mental health status of 2,327 VDT users at an administrative office was investigated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Subjects were asked about their age, sex, hours of daily VDT use, rest and breaks during VDT work, eyestrain, and musculoskeletal pain. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations with mental health status (GHQ-12 scores). The mean age of subjects was 39.5 yr (SD=10.3). Among all subjects, 36.7% could rest during VDT work and 66.9% received breaks during VDT work. The proportion of subjects who reported eyestrain and musculoskeletal pain were 19.6% and 25.7%, respectively. Eighteen percent of subjects were classified into a GHQ-12 high score group. Logistic regression analysis showed that age less than 40 yr, not receiving breaks during VDT work, and the presence of eyestrain and musculoskeletal pain were significantly associated with poor mental health status (high GHQ-12 scores). Using a VDT for more than 5 h/d and being female were also marginally associated with high GHQ scores (p<0.1). In conclusion, the management of physical health as well as work duration is important for good mental health status among VDT users.
Due to the present evidence for reproductive toxicity of nitrous oxide (N2O) among female personnel in health care, exposure of 17 female workers employed in two post-anesthesia care units was evaluated. Geometric mean concentration of nitrous oxide for six recovery room personnel was 3.1 ppm versus 1.17 ppm for eleven employees in surgical nursing units. The longest time needed to reach zero concentration of nitrous oxide in postoperative nursing units was 9.5 h. The result of correlation analysis did neither show any association between duration of nitrous oxide exhaled from patients and patient-related factors. It is very unlikely that these low exposure levels can cause any adverse health effect among pregnant PACU employees. However, for those institutions that seek extra protective measures, reassignment of pregnant employees needs to be extended for several hours after a patient is admitted in the PACU units.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was widely used as a wood preservative in Germany until 1989, when it was prohibited by law. Within a cross-sectional study we investigated the internal PCP exposure of painters and bricklayers between one year and four years after the ban. PCP was analysed in post-shift urine samples of 189 painters and 148 bricklayers by gas chromatography and electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The median PCP concentration in the urine of painters was 2.4 μg/g creatinine (range: 0.2-52 μg/g creatinine). For the bricklayers a range of 0.1-25 μg/g creatinine (median: 1.8 μg/g creatinine) was determined. The difference between both groups was statistically significant, pointing to a small additional uptake of PCP by the painters probably from an exposure to contaminated wood surfaces or residual PCP containing preservatives. The biomonitoring results for both groups coincided with background values of the general population at that time.
Analysis of micronuclei (MN) in preimplantation embryos is a good method for the evaluation of cytogenetic damage induced by occupational and environmental mutagen during early pregnancy. To examine whether conventional Giemsa staining produced the same accuracy of micronuclei as the DNA-specific 4', 6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining in preimplantation embryo induced by maternal exposure to chlorpyrifos, we conducted assays on 469 mouse (3 groups) preimplantation embryos micronucleus. Slides were stained with DAPI. After DAPI staining, the slides were de-stained and restained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining showed similar frequencies in MN to DNA-specific DAPI staining in all three groups. Both staining techniques revealed significant increases in frequency of MN in the treated group in comparison to the control group. Both methods showed a statistically significant correlation between MN frequency and the dose of chlorpyrifos. Compared with DAPI staining, the sensitivity of Giemsa staining was 85.0%, 86.0% and 90.9% for control, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg chlorpyrifos treated group, respectively. The specificity was 97.9%, 91.4% and 96.5% for control, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg chlorpyrifos treated group, respectively. Thus, we recommend that Giemsa staining technique be a standard staining method in detecting MN of preimplantation embryos induced by occupational or environmental hazards.
Long term sickness absence (LTSA) is a major public health problem. We examined the impact of four, potentially modifiable, health behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity, and the associated variable of body mass index on the risk of subsequent LTSA. This was done by following a representative population sample of 5,020 Danish employees aged 18-69 for 18 months in a national register on social transfer payments. Risk estimates for onset of LTSA and etiologic fractions were computed. In women, ex-smokers and heavy smokers had an increased risk of LTSA of 1.61 and 2.05 respectively after adjustment for age, family status, socio economic status, school education, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures and diagnosed disease. In men, effect estimates were smaller and only borderline significant in the fully-adjusted model. The etiologic fraction of smoking was 17.4% in men and 25.5% in women.
This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries (adjusted ORs vs. JT 0-1: 2.21, 95%CI 1.27-3.86 for JT 2-6 and 3.82, 2.14-6.82 for JT≥7), and significant ORs≥1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.
The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of finger blanching among the workers in a shipyard of Korea using the dose-response relationship suggested by ISO 5349. The characteristics of vibration exposure produced by six types of grinders were investigated. Vibration measurement was made under the real work conditions. Exposure time was estimated by questionnaire and direct observation. In addition, cold provocation tests were performed, and the results from the tests were compared with the estimated prevalence. As a result, 4 hour-energy-equivalent frequency-weighted accelerations of the finishing grinding (FG) and the prepainting grinding (PG) jobs were 6.23 m/s2 and 13.39 m/s2, respectively. The mean exposure time for holding the grinders was 4.64 h per day. Using the ISO 5349 method, it was predicted that after exposure to vibration for 10.79 yr, about a half of the FG workers could develop finger blanching. For the PG workers, the corresponding predicted latency was 5.02 yr. A discrepancy was found between the results from the ISO relationship and those from the cold provocation tests. A linear regression model was suggested employing vibration acceleration and vibration exposure time as explanatory variables for vascular dysfunction.
Brass metal work is one of the oldest cottage industries in West Bengal, India. Workers performing rigorous hand intensive jobs are likely to suffer from MSD affecting the upper limbs. The present investigation was intended to establish the prevalence of upper limb MSD among the brass metal workers and to identify the causative factors behind its development. In this study, 50 male brass metal workers (Experimental Group) and 50 male office workers (Comparison Group) were selected. For the symptom survey, a questionnaire on discomfort symptoms was performed. Repetitiveness of work and Hand Grip Strength of both the groups were measured. It was revealed that upper limb MSD was a major problem among brass metal workers, primarily involving the hand, wrist, fingers and shoulder. Among the workers reporting subjective discomfort, most of them felt pain, followed by tingling and numbness in their hands. Many complained of swelling, warmth and tenderness in their wrists. Their activities were highly repetitive and the handgrip strength of these workers was significantly less than that of the comparison group. Based on these findings, it appears that high repetitiveness, prolonged work activity (10.5 h of work per day with 8.4 h spent on hammering) and decreased handgrip strength may be causative factors in the occurrence of upper limb MSD among brass metal workers in West Bengal, India.
A male welder who had been working in an industrial machine plant for more than 20 years experienced acute intense pain in his left eye with continuous lacrimation while performing arc welding in 1997. Later in 1997, at the age of 39 yr, macular edema was found in his left eye. He was diagnosed with macular degeneration (MD) of the left eye in 2002, and with right eye MD in 2004. Radiation in the visible and near infrared (IR) spectra penetrates the eye and is absorbed by the retina, possibly causing thermal or photochemical damage. Such retinal damage may be permanent and, therefore, sight-threatening. The young age and history of an acute painful eye injury are not consistent with age related macular degeneration (AMD) but rather is likely maculopathy caused by welding arc exposure.