Objective: Good and sufficient sleep is crucial for a good quality of life. We investigated the associations between sleep patterns, work, and strain among students of hospitality and tourism. Methods: 92 students completed psychological and sleep-related questionnaires, and a sleep/work log for one week. Results: Sleeping hours were inversely correlated with working hours. Decreased sleep quality was associated with increased scores of strain, depression and anxiety. Participants with increased working hours were 3.2 times more likely to report heightened insomnia scores than those with lower weekly working hours. Working on weekends was associated with increased strain with family life and peers. Conclusions: In hospitality and tourism, the employees’ ‘personal costs’ for a 24/7 service may be underestimated; unfavourable work schedules are linked with decreased sleep quality, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and with social problems.
Carbosulfan an acaricide was orally administrated at 48 mg/kg body weight/day to female swiss albino mice for 5, 10, 20 and 30 d. Daily vaginal smear and body weight was recorded. The mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 24 h of terminal exposure to carbosulfan. The results of the present study indicated that there was a significant decrease in the number of estrous cycle and phases with a concomitant increase in the length of the estrous cycle and diestrus phase with carbosulfan treatment for 10, 20, and 30 d. There was a significant decrease in the weight of the ovary, uterus, number of healthy follicles and increase in the number of atretic follicles with 20 and 30 d carbosulfan treatment when compared with the control. There was a significant decrease in the level of sialic acid with an increase in the level of cholesterol by carbosulfan treatment for 20 and 30 d. The decreased level of sialic acid indicates the decreased level of circulating FSH/LH. The ovary 3β HSD activity decreased significantly with 20 and 30 d carbosulfan exposure mice indicating its effect on steroidogenesis, when compared to controls. The above findings may be due to direct effect on the ovary or on the gonadotrophins secretion via central nervous mechanism in mice.
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is an important measure of health outcome in working and healthy populations. Here, we investigated the impact of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), a representative work-stress model, on HRQL of Japanese working men. The study targeted 1,096 employees from a manufacturing plant in Japan. To assess HRQL and ERI, participants were surveyed using the Japanese version of the Short-Form 8 Health Survey (SF-8) and effort-reward imbalance model. Of the 1,096 employees, 1,057 provided valid responses to the questionnaire. For physical summary scores, the adjusted effort-reward imbalance odds ratios of middle vs. bottom and top vs. bottom tertiles were 0.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.70) and 0.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.28), respectively. For mental summary scores, ratios were 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.63) and 0.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.25), respectively. These findings demonstrate that effort-reward imbalance is independently associated with HRQL among Japanese employees.
In Japan, the Industrial Safety and Health Law obliges all workers to undergo annual health checkups in their workplaces. At the plant for this study, workers who have one or more abnormal findings pointed out in their annual health checkups are summoned by occupational health staff and subsequently attend health consultations conducted by occupational health nurses each year. We investigated what kinds of health consultations have improved the workers' use of the results of their annual health checkups by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey. In addition, we discussed the associations with the multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) and the degree of the workers' use of these results. A total of 837 questionnaires were analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 47.9 yr (range: 19-68 yr). The main results suggest that it is necessary for occupational health staff to give workers practical advice to improve their lifestyle habits and convey to them the effectiveness of preventive health behaviors. Workers with high scores in the belief in the "internal health locus of control (IHLC)" and low scores in the "chance health locus of control (CHLC)" use the results of their health checkups to help them manage their own health.
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is the major determinants of hypertension. Recent studies indicated sleep duration, in addition to shift work, were also associated with hypertension. But very little attention has been paid to these two factors when looking at the effects of SDB on blood pressure. We conducted the present study to evaluate the relationship between SDB and hypertension adjusting for sleep duration and shift work in a sample of Japanese steel workers. In this cross-sectional study, we measured blood pressure and oxygen desaturations index (ODI) by nocturnal pulse oximetry of 249 male workers aged 20 to 65 yr. SDB was defined by 3%ODI level of 15 or more events per hour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations of SDB with hypertension after adjustment for age, body mass index, alcohol intake, smoking, usual sleep duration, shift work, and occupation. The prevalence of SDB was 18.1%. The adjusted odds ratio of hypertension for high (≥15) vs. low (<15) category of 3%ODI level was 2.86 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-6.66). The significant association between SDB and hypertension suggests that screening for SDB among steel workers is useful for prevention of hypertension.
The study was designed to investigate characteristics of work-related hand injuries (WRHI) referred to a University hospital emergency department (ED) in an industrialized region as well as to supply data for preventive strategies. All patients with WRHI referred to the University-based ED in the two-year period were investigated. Sociodemographic and injury-related clinical information were analyzed. Out of 746 patients who were admitted to the ED due to occupational injuries within the two-year study period, 244 (32.7%) with isolated wrist, hand and finger injuries were included in the study. Male patients constituted the majority 87.2% (n=213) and 57.0% (n=139) of the patients were between 25 and 34 yr of age. WRHI recorded in industries involving metal and machinery constituted 41.4% (n=101) of all injuries. The sites of injuries were not significantly affected by differences in age, social security status and sectors. The most common types of injury were lacerations, punctures, and abrasions (40.2%, n=98). There was a statistically insignificant rise in amputation injuries with increasing age. Incidences, etiologies and characteristics of WRHI should be highlighted and preventive strategies based on these facts be implemented due to higher level of suffering and more serious consequences attributed to this specific injury.
The aim of this study was to document dentists' self-perceived mental health complaints and job satisfaction, and to assess any correlations between the two. A postal questionnaire survey was mailed to all (N=2,449) licensed dentists registered with the Lithuanian Dental Association. The questionnaire investigated dentists' mental health and job satisfaction during the previous year (overall response rate: 68.2%). The majority of respondents (80.7%) reported being satisfied with their job. Self-perceived lack of self-esteem (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.43-0.82), loneliness (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53-0.98), and especially depression (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35-0.77) had a high negative impact on dentists' job satisfaction. Nervousness (89.2%) and burnout (83.6%) were the most prevalent mental complaints and they also tended to be the most chronic of all reported mental disorders. Increasing age significantly reduced the possibility of nervousness or depression and increased the possibility of being satisfied with dental practice. Increasing working hours increased the risk of burnout, anxiety and loneliness. Overall, this study suggests that the majority of Lithuanian dentists are satisfied with their job and also enjoy their professional lives. However, a considerable proportion still reported impairment of mental health which influenced their levels of job satisfaction.
This study aimed to examine the effects on working memory of the postmenstrual and premenstrual phases. The subjects were 12 female students. Computer-based tasks formulated by the authors, using the working memory that actively retains the information as the index, were used for experiments of 60 min during the premenstrual and postmenstrual phases. Session order was counter-balanced. The results showed that there was a significantly lower error rate for working memory tasks in the premenstrual phase, suggesting that task performance was good. Mild premenstrual symptoms had no effect on working memory function of the premenstrual phase. Further, no clear difference in terms of phase was found for mental workload or change in heart rate variability, which are used to evaluate workload. For this reason, the estrogen sex hormone secreted from the ovaries in relation to the menstrual cycle is thought to be involved in the working memory function rather than the indefinite menstrual complaint.
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between mental workload and occurrence of hot flashes. Twelve women with moderate to severe menopausal hot flashes participated in the study. Subjects participated in both a mental arithmetic task (Task) and control (Non-task) experiments. We measured heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure, near infrared spectroscopy, skin temperature, and skin potential level. The incidence of hot flashes was greater in Task than in Non-task. No significant differences between before, during and after hot flashes emerged for the percentage of correct responses and reaction time. However, the percentage of correct responses for two subjects among the ten who experienced hot flashes in Task substantially declined during hot flashes. Chest skin temperatures increased in both Task and Non-task during hot flashes, and regional oxygen saturation was significantly higher in Non-task than in Task. The present study suggested that mental workload under time pressure might be a risk factor for menopausal hot flashes, and the performance of most people who experienced hot flashes was not affected by hot flashes, however, work-related difficulties due to cognitive disturbance during hot flashes might arise in some people.
It is hypothesized that quantitative overload impacts psycho-physiological attributes of data-entry operators, although previous research has focused primarily on different aspects of VDT work, such as working time and environment, work station, keyboards and so forth. The objective of this study was to examine the influence on psycho-physiological responses of time pressure, task demand and their combined effect as underlying causes of quantitative overload while typing. A total of 12 subjects completed four 1-h typing tasks representing two levels of time pressure and task demand. Levels were manipulated by requiring participants to achieve a least number of character strings during each block, and by changing the number of letters in the character strings. Outcomes were measured in subjective assessment of workload, performance-related and physiological measures. Overall, increased time pressure increased perceived workload, productivity rate and heart rate, and decreased initial response time and typing duration. However, increased task demand increased error rate and initial response time with no change in heart rate. Heart rate variability did not indicate increased levels of time pressure or task demand. Quantitative overload as a consequence of time pressure and task demand influenced the subjective and psycho-physiological measures of data-entry operators to some extent.
Occurrence of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive hepatocytes was examined, using 15 Wistar rats of both sexes each orally administered 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD) by gavage at a single dose of 0, 10, 30, 100 or 300 μg/kg body weight. Liver tissues were stained with anti-GST-P antibody. Two different types of GST-P-positive hepatocytes were found in the TBDD-dosed rat. One type was of the hepatocytes stained homogeneously with anti-GST-P antibody and clearly distinguishable from the surrounding normal tissue. The foci were composed of 2 to 60 hepatocytes exhibiting morphologically focal and clonal proliferation. The GST-P-positive hepatocellular foci occurred at two higher dose levels and only on Day 36 after the single administration. Another type was of the area occupied by the positively but heterogeneously stained hepatocytes appearing predominantly in the centrilobular region, at lower dose levels and persistently on Day 2 through 36. The stained hepatocytes appeared to be neither focally nor clonally proliferating. Females were more susceptible to formation of the two differently stained hepatocytes than males. It is suggested that the GST-P-positive foci represent an early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis, while the GST-P-positive area is associated with the induction of detoxifying Phase II GSTs.
This study was designed to elucidate the effects of a ball-backrest at different heights on the head and shoulder posture and neck and trunk muscles of visual display terminal (VDT) workers who adopted a forward head posture when working at a VDT. Twenty-three VDT workers with forward head posture performed the keyboard typing work at a VDT without and with a ball-backrest at the L3, T10, and T4 levels. Surface electromyograms were recorded from the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles, and the forward head angle and forward shoulder angle were analyzed using a 3-D motion analysis system. The significance of differences for the ball-backrest at different heights was tested by repeated one-way ANOVA, with the significance cutoff set at p=0.05. The mean forward head angle and forward shoulder angle decreased in the order of no backrest, T10-level ball-backrest, T4-level ball-backrest. Compared with not using a backrest, the activity of midcervical muscles was significantly lower and that of the lower trapezius was significantly higher when using a T4-level ball-backrest, and the activity of the internal oblique abdominal muscle was significantly higher when using a T10-level ball-backrest. We suggested that using T4 and T10-level ball-backrests would produce similar effects to active exercise, such as ball exercise for trunk stabilization, and that a ball-backrest would prevent kinematics changes. Therefore, the height of the backrest must be determined on the basis of the characteristics of work-related musculoskeletal disorders when applying a ball-backrest to VDT workers with such disorders.
The aim of the study is to evaluate if occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) in traffic police compared to a control group. 694 subjects were included in the study: 347 traffic police and 347 controls matched by sex, age and length of service after excluding the subjects with the principal confounding factors. The levels of RBC, HGB, HCT were significantly higher in male (respectively p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.01) and in female (respectively p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.01) traffic police than in controls. The authors hypothesise that occupational exposure to urban stressors in traffic police can alter hemopoietic system.