Industrial Health
Online ISSN : 1880-8026
Print ISSN : 0019-8366
ISSN-L : 0019-8366
Volume 49 , Issue 5
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
Editorial
Original Articles
  • Anna ANUND, Christer AHLSTRÖM, Göran KECKLUND, Torbjörn ...
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 549-558
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of sleep loss on behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness on a road containing a milled rumble strip in the centre of the lane. Particular attention was paid to behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness when using the centre lane rumble strip, and to possible erratic driving behaviour when hitting a rumble strip. In total 9 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift and after a full night sleep. The order was balanced. The experiment was conducted in a moving base driving simulator on rural roads with a road width of 6.5 and 9 meters. Out of the 1,636 rumble strip hits that occurred during the study, no indications of erratic driving behaviour associated with the jolt caused by making contact with the centre lane rumble strip could be found. Comparing the alert condition with the sleep deprived condition, both the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) increased for sleepy drivers. For the two road widths, the drivers drove closer to the centre line on the 6.5-meter road. The KSS and the SDLP increased with time on task. This simulator study indicates that rumble strips in the centre of the lane may be an alternative to centreline and edgeline rumble strips on narrow roads.
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  • Takeshi MORITA, Kaoru MORIKAWA
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 559-565
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Intoxication as a result of chemical accidents is a major issue in industrial health. The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) provides a framework for hazard communication on chemicals using labelling or safety data sheets. The GHS will be expected to reduce the number of chemical accidents by communicating the hazards posed and prompting safety measures to be taken. One of the issues which may be a barrier to effective implementation of the GHS results from discrepancies in GHS classifications of chemicals across countries/regions. The main reasons are the differences in information sources used and in the expertise of people making the classification (Classifiers). The GHS requests expert judgment in a weight of evidence (WOE) approach in the application of the criteria of classification. A WOE approach is an assessment method that considers all available information bearing on the determination of toxicity. The quality and consistency of the data, study design, mechanism or mode of action, dose-effect relationships and biological relevance should be taken into account. Therefore, expert review should be necessary to classify chemicals accurately. However, the GHS does not provide any information on the required level of expertise of the Classifiers, definition of who qualifies as an expert, evaluation methods of WOE or data quality, and the timing of expert judgment and the need for updating/re-classification as new information becomes available. In this paper, key methods and issues in expert reviews are discussed. Examples of expert reviews and recommendations for harmonized classification are also presented.
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  • Mi Kyong PARK, Noriaki SATOH, Masaharu KUMASHIRO
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 566-574
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study examined the differences in psychophysiological responses during mental task performance between women with (Group S) and without (Group A) menopausal hot flashes. Twelve women who reported experiencing daily moderate or severe menopausal hot flashes (Group S) and twelve women who reported having no hot flashes (Group A) participated in a mental arithmetic (Task) and a control (Non-task) experiment that occurred twice during 30 min. Although Group S experienced frequent hot flashes during mental arithmetic task, no significant differences between the two groups emerged for the percentage of correct responses and reaction time, and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses. However, the STAI state anxiety score was significantly higher in Group S than in Group A during both rest and mental tasks, and stress-related cortisol secretion showed a tendency to increase in Group S compared with Group A after task. The present study indicates that there were no significant differences in physiological responses and cognitive performance between women with and without menopausal hot flashes during mental arithmetic, but women with menopausal hot flashes might perceive higher psychological stress during rest and mental arithmetic tasks than asymptomatic women.
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  • In-Gyu YOO, Jin LEE, Min-Ye JUNG, Joo-Hyun LEE
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 575-581
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was performed to determine the changes in electromyographic activities in the shoulder and forearm muscles when using the bare hands, well-fitting gloves, and gloves that are one size smaller or one size larger for simulated assembly operations. Sixteen asymptomatic seated workers with normal hands and no obvious deformities, skin diseases, or allergies were recruited. The subjects were asked to simulate assembly operations using their bare hands, well-fitting gloves, and one size smaller or one size larger. This study showed that wearing the wrong glove size led to a decrease in forceful activation of the forearm muscle and a compensatory increase in shoulder movement. In contrast, use of the bare hands or wearing well-fitting gloves led to effective forearm muscle activation, which decreased inefficient shoulder movement. These data indicate that wearing the wrong glove size will lead to continuous inefficient use of the forearm and shoulder muscles, and result in overuse of the shoulder.
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  • Ariunsanaa BAGAAJAV, Sugarmaa MYAGMARJAV, Khuderchuluun NANJID, Saranc ...
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 582-588
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Due to the inherent demands of their profession, doctors and nurses are at great risk of suffering from burnout caused by job stress. This study examined the prevalence of burnout among doctors and nurses in Mongolia and identified the factors influencing their burnout. A self-administered questionnaire of 180 doctors (45.9%) and 212 nurses (54.1%) resulted in a response rate of 87%. Burnout was measured by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) in three scales: personal burnout, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout. Job stress was measured by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Compared with the prior studies of hospital staffs in other countries, doctors and nurses in Mongolia had relatively higher burnout rates, with personal, work-related and client-related average scores of 45.39, 44.45, and 32.46, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ERI significantly influenced all dimensions of burnout but over-commitment significantly influenced only personal and work-related burnout. Both ERI and over-commitment were different among professions.
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  • Min-Huey CHUNG, Terry BJ KUO, Nanly HSU, Kuei-Ru CHUO, Hsin CHU, Chery ...
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 589-596
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to explore whether sleep-related cardiac sympathetic activity is significantly lower in rotating shift workers than in permanent night shift workers, in order to evaluate whether shift work is preferable to permanent night work. Our sample comprised of twelve permanent night shift nurses and twelve rotating three-shift nurses. All female nurses slept in their dormitories, where they were allowed to sleep and wake spontaneously. All sleep parameters were recorded and analyzed using an ambulatory polysomnographic recorder. No significant differences were identified between permanent night shift (PNS) nurses and rotating three-shift (RTS) nurses in terms of basic demographics and sleep patterns. The low frequency (LF) of PNS nurses was significantly higher than that of RTS nurses during both daytime sleep and wakefulness, as was the low-to-high frequency ratio (LF/HF) during both nighttime sleep and wakefulness. PNS nurses also exhibited significantly higher LF and LF/HF during the first to third episode of non-rapid eye movement (NREM1-3) sleep, and the first episode of rapid-eye movement (REM1) sleep. PNS nurses had higher sympathetic activity during nighttime and daytime sleep than did RTS nurses. These results suggest that a rotating three-shift schedule may be preferable to permanent night work in terms of cardiac autonomic regulation.
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  • Alfredo COPERTARO, Massimo BRACCI, Rosaria GESUITA, Flavia CARLE, Moni ...
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 597-604
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Shift-work, particularly night-work, interferes with the physiological circadian rhythm and has the potential to induce psycho-physiological disturbances. A nurse population was investigated to establish whether shift-work can induce changes in a number of immune variables. Lymphocyte immunophenotype and proliferative response, NK cytotoxicity, cytokines and cortisol were determined in 68 shift-working and 28 daytime nurses at baseline and at 12 months. None of the variables studied differed significantly between shift and daytime workers, either at baseline or at 12 months, except IL-1β and TNF-α, which were significantly higher among daytime nurses at baseline, but not at follow-up. No effect of shift-work on immune variable and cortisol levels was seen at 12 months after adjustment for baseline values and job seniority. The specific work schedule as well as job type likely influenced our results, suggesting that rotational shift-work does not necessarily affect the immune system adversely. The immune changes reported by other studies in shift-workers should not be generalized.
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  • Hiroe MATSUZUKI, Akiyoshi ITO, Makoto AYABE, Yasuo HARUYAMA, Shigeru T ...
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 605-613
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of working environments of different kinds of commercial kitchens on the thermal strain of kitchen workers. This study design was cross-sectional study, and data collection was performed during busy time in commercial kitchen from August to September 2006. The research subjects were 8 institutions, involving 7 cookers, and 16 men. Measured environmental variables were air temperature, radiant heat index, wet bulb globe thermometer index (WBGT) in front of the cookers, ambient temperature, and estimated ambient WBGT around the workers. The thermal strain on workers was evaluated by fluid loss, body temperatures, heart rate and amount of physical activity (METs). All average estimated ambient WBGTs in front of cookers were less than 27.5℃. The average heart rate was 107 ± 10 bpm, and average METs was 2.0 ± 0.6. The peak values of upper arm skin temperature and auditory canal temperature were less than 37.5℃. The work environments were affected by the kitchen spaces, cooling devices, heating methods, and heat sources. Even in the midsummer, if environmental temperatures were controlled adequately, estimated ambient WBGTs around workers were below the occupational exposure limit. Work environments and thermal strain on workers in commercial kitchen were not severe.
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  • Shunji SAKAGUCHI, Nobuyuki MIYAI, Shigeki TAKEMURA, Jin FUKUMOTO, Taro ...
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 614-618
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the morphologic classification of nailfold capillary microscopy and the clinical and demographic findings in workers exposed to hand-arm vibration. The subjects were 44 male forestry workers (average age; 51.9 ± 14.8 yr). The nailfold capillaries (NC) and the mean blood flow velocity were measured on the middle finger of the dominant side by a peripheral capillary observer. The analyses were made using 39 subjects after excluding five subjects who received medication for hypertension. The observed NC were classified into 5 types according to Kusumoto’s classification: Type I, n=5; Type II, n=15; Type III, n=8; Type IV, n=5; and Type V, n=6. After excluding the subjects in the Type V, we divided the subjects into two groups: Type I/II group, n=20; and Type III/IV group, n=13. In the Type III/IV group, the operating year of handheld vibrating tools was relatively longer, the mean blood flow velocity was significantly slower, and the body mass index was relatively higher as compared to the Type I/II group. These results suggested that the nailfold capillary microscopy may reflect the effect of the vibration exposure.
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  • Guodong DING, Shufang ZHOU, Ying TIAN, Yu GAO, Rong SHI
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 619-625
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 09, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Trichlorfon (TCF) is a widely used broad-spectrum agricultural organophosphate (OP) pesticide. Few studies have evaluated the effects of TCF on reproductive toxicity after low-level exposure, especially after long-term exposure. This study assessed the direct effects of TCF on estrous cycle, oocyte maturation in female mice, and developmental outcome in near-term fetuses after 30 consecutive days of maternal exposure to 2, 10, or 50 mg/kg body weight/d TCF via drinking water. Both male and female fetuses in the 50 mg/kg/d TCF-treated group had significantly reduced body weights; but this did not occur in the 2 mg/kg/d and 10 mg/kg/d TCF-treated groups. No difference in oocyte maturation, including the percentages of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and first polar body (PB1) extrusion, or in estrous cycle was found between the control and TCF-treated groups. No increased incidence of fetal external malformations was observed in the TCF-treated groups. Significant decreases in maternal liver weights occurred in the 10 and 50 mg/kg/d TCF-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. No significant changes were found in the weight of organs such as the ovaries, thymus, kidneys, spleen, lungs, heart or brain. The lack of effects of 2 mg/kg/d and 10 mg/kg/d TCF on any in vivo reproductive and developmental endpoints examined suggest that no TCF reproductive toxicity occurs at exposures less than 10 mg/kg/d.
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  • Momen ELSHAZLEY, Eiji SHIBATA, Naomi HISANAGA, Gaku ICHIHARA, Ashraf A ...
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 626-633
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 09, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pleural plaques are asymptomatic focal thickenings of the pleura and considered the hallmark of asbestos exposure. However, it is often difficult to detect pleural plaques on chest x-rays (CXR). In a retrospective study, using chest CT scans of 140 Japanese asbestos-exposed construction workers who have probable or definite findings of pleural plaque on CXR; firstly, we proposed plaque morphology-based classification for CXR findings, and then we examined if those classified findings could be confirmed as pleural plaques on CT scans. Our morphology-based classification of pleural plaque findings included nine types. The percentages of confirmed pleural plaques on CT scans by type (number of confirmed pleural plaque on CT/number of observed on CXR) were 93% (40/43) for straight, 89% (56/63) for diamond, 88% (7/8) for double, 83% (19/23) for tapered medially, 80% (20/25) for parallel, 77% (23/30) for crescent, 79% (11/14) for tenting, 72% (18/25) for tapered-laterally (long type), and 0% (0/9) for tapered-laterally (short type). When added to the ILO classification, morphology-based classification of CXR pleural plaque findings makes its detection easier and hence chest radiograph continues to be a suitable tool for screening asbestos-related pleural plaques based on its simplicity, low radiation exposure, wide availability and cost-effectiveness.
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  • Takayuki KAGEYAMA, Toshio KOBAYASHI, Ayano ABE-GOTOH
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 634-641
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 09, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of sleepiness during night shift (SNS) in male shiftworkers with nonpharmacological self-management (nPSM) practices to facilitate good day sleep, and also with job stress. Sleepiness on the job and possible correlates to SNS among 157 male shiftworkers in a rotating three-shift schedule at a chemical plant were cross-sectionally investigated using a self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate analyses revealed that SNS was positively associated with drinking alcoholic beverages before day sleep, but inversely associated with subjective health status, being of the evening type, abstaining from caffeine before day sleep, having a bath before day sleep, job control, reward from work, feeling suited to the job, and support from colleagues. SNS correlated with certain nPSM practices and also with possible modifiers of job stress. These findings provide clues to developing countermeasures against SNS among shiftworkers. The effects of nPSM practices and job stress management on their day sleep and SNS should be examined in detail.
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  • Heer VYAS, Subir DAS, Shashank MEHTA
    Type: Original Article
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 642-651
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 09, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.
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Short Communications
  • Rolf HANOA, Valborg BASTE, Arne KOOIJ, Linda SOMMERVOLD, Bente Elisabe ...
    Type: Short Communication
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 652-657
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was performed among coal miners in the remote location Svea, Spitsbergen. The shift schedule used to be 7 d on and 7 d off. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes in health after a voluntary implementation of a new shift schedule, with periods of 14 d on and 14 d off, for 74 percent of the workers in 2007. A questionnaire was distributed to all employees before and two times after the new shift schedule, comprising questions on type of work, shift schedule, pain, sleep, stress and coping. Ninety nine percent of the employees responded; 274 in 2006, 307 in 2007 and 312 in 2008. Work neither in the 14/14 shift nor 7/7 shift was related to any change in the health after these two years. The coping index for workers in the 14/14 shift improved.
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  • Hiroaki ITOH, Zuquan WENG, Hiroyuki SAITO, Yasutaka OGAWA, Kunio NAKAY ...
    Type: Short Communication
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 658-662
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Although low vitamin D status resulting from night work is a suspected cause of various health disorders, few studies have investigated the association between night-shift work and vitamin D status. Here, we examined serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in 19 Japanese indoor workers, including night-shift workers, in blood samples collected at the annual medical checkup (late July) in a metal tool factory. Analyses were finally restricted to 14 male workers (33-59 yr) in 3 groups: fixed daytime work (n=6), and rotating shift work with (n=4) and without (n=4) night shifts. No significant differences in serum 25OHD levels were observed among the three groups (p=0.98, Kruskal-Wallis test). One to two participants in each group had 25OHD levels lower than the 20 ng/ml reference value for vitamin D deficiency even in summer. These results clearly indicate the need for large-scale studies to test the hypothesis that night-shift work is associated with lower 25OHD levels.
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Field Report
  • Nobuhiro NISHIO, Hideo TANAKA, Junko NISHIO, Katsuyasu KOUDA, Tatsuya ...
    Type: Field Report
    2011 Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 663-671
    Published: 2011
    Released: October 15, 2011
    [Advance publication] Released: August 01, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dentists are exposed to carcinogenic metals during their work. It has been speculated that dentists are also at high risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne viruses such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C. We suspected that Japanese dentists were at increased risk for lung and liver cancer. To assess this question, we compared the number of pathological diagnoses of lung cancer and liver cancer among autopsy cases of male dentists (n=225) with that among autopsy cases of male medical doctors (n=1,296), based on data from the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan from 1992 to 1999. We calculated the mortality odds ratio of lung cancer and liver cancer, using stomach cancer as the control. No difference between the dentist group and the medical doctor group was observed in the pathological diagnoses of lung cancer among all autopsy cases (p=0.703, Odds Ratio: 0.846, 95% confidence interval: 0.461-1.554). Liver cancer was observed less often among dentists than among medical doctors (p=0.047, Odds Ratio: 0.474, 95% confidence interval: 0.239-0.941). Based on the results of this study, we suggest that Japanese male dentists do not have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than male medical doctors, and have a lower risk of developing liver cancer.
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