In this study, we explored the relationship between concealing emotions at work and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean workers using data from a national, population-based survey. Data were obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey in 2011. We investigated the prevalence of three musculoskeletal symptoms (“back pain”, “pain in the upper extremities”, and “pain in the lower extremities”). Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed to determine odds ratios (ORs) for musculoskeletal symptoms according to concealing emotions at work, adjusting for socioeconomic factors. In both sexes, the emotion-concealing group showed a significantly higher prevalence of “pain in the upper extremities” and “pain in the lower extremities” than the non-emotion-concealing group. For back pain, male—but not female—workers who concealed their emotions showed a higher prevalence than their non-emotion-concealing counterparts; the difference was statistically significant. Adjusted ORs for musculoskeletal symptoms (excluding “back pain” for female workers) in the emotion-concealing group were significantly higher. Our study suggests that concealment of emotions is closely associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, and the work environment should operate in consideration not only of the physical health work condition of workers but also of their emotional efforts including concealing emotion at work.
The present study comprised 1,781 nurses who participated in an investigation about working conditions, sleep, and health. They answered a questionnaire about age, sex, marital status, children living at home, work hours per week, number of night shifts last year, and total sleep duration and that also included a validated instrument assessing workaholism. In addition, they were asked to report on eight items concerning negative work-related incidents (dozed off at work, dozed while driving, harmed or nearly harmed self, harmed or nearly harmed patients/others, and harmed or nearly harmed equipment). Logistic regression analyses identified several predictors of these specific incidents: Low age (dozed at work, harmed and nearly harmed self, harmed and nearly harmed equipment), male sex (harmed and nearly harmed self, nearly harmed equipment), not living with children (harmed patients/others), low percentage of full-time equivalent (nearly harmed self and harmed patients/others), number of night shifts last year (dozed off at work and while driving, nearly harmed patients/others) and sleep duration (inversely related to dozed off at work and while driving, nearly harmed self). However, the most consistent predictor of negative work-related incidents was workaholism which was positively and significantly associated with all the eight incidents.
Two hundred and thirty-three individuals read chest x-ray images (CXR) in the Asian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconiosis (AIR Pneumo) workshop. Their proficiency in reading CXR for pneumoconiosis was calculated using eight indices (X1–X8), as follows: sensitivity (X1) and specificity (X2) for pneumoconiosis; sensitivity (X3) and specificity (X4) for large opacities; sensitivity (X5) and specificity (X6) for pleural plaques; profusion increment consistency (X7); and consistency for shape differentiation (X8). For these eight indices, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s multiple comparison were conducted on six groups, based on the participants’ specialty: radiology, respiratory medicine, industrial medicine, public health, general internal medicine, and miscellaneous physicians. Our analysis revealed that radiologists had a significant difference in the mean scores of X3, X5, and X8, compared with those of all groups, excluding radiologists. In the factor analysis, X1, X3, X5, X7, and X8 constituted Factor 1, and X2, X4, and X6 constituted Factor 2. With regard to the factor scores of the six participant groups, the mean scores of Factor 1 of the radiologists were significantly higher than those of all groups, excluding radiologists. The two factors and the eight indices may be used to appropriately assess specialists’ proficiency in reading CXR.
Geotechnical site works are comprehensive, and they constitute the first step of the construction process. This study performs data mining of geotechnical works and analyzes the database for the root causes of accidents. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was chosen for the 1984–2013 time frame with 247 cases. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to discuss variables such as the end use of the work, project type and cost, soil type and condition, type and degree of injury, cause and type of accident, unsafe acts, and occupation and union status of the victim. The results showed that these accidents have a high frequency of recurrence and have a high severity level (54.3% fatalities). In addition, a total of 838 violations were recorded with penalties reaching 5 million US dollars. This study emphasizes that project-specific countermeasures should be taken regarding the root causes of accidents, leading to vigorous strategies to develop safety measures.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality among secondary school teachers in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. This was a cross sectional study, conducted in two phases. Phase I tested the reliability of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in the Malay language (M-PSQI), whereas Phase II determined the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality where a total of 1,871 secondary school teachers were studied. Participants were recruited using multistage sampling. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and teaching characteristics, comorbidities and characteristics of sleep. The M-PSQI was used to measure sleep quality. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 was used to measure mental health status. Results showed that the M-PSQI had a good internal consistency and moderate reliability. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61 (95% CI: 54–67)%. Total teaching hours/day, depression and stress were significantly associated with poor sleep quality in the univariate analysis, while only stress (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02–1.05%) remained significant in the multivariate analyses. In conclusion, stress level of the secondary school teachers should be reduced to improve sleep quality.
Many care workers at elderly care facilities in Japan suffer occupational low back pain (LBP) despite the utilization of welfare equipment. When introducing welfare equipment such as hoists and sliding boards, education on appropriate care methods using welfare equipment is usually conducted, but the effect of education diminishes with time. This intervention study aimed to examine the effect of re-education on appropriate care methods using welfare equipment on the prevention of care workers’ LBP at an elderly care facility. At the intervention facility, 49 care workers were enrolled in ergonomic education program for 1.5 yr in order to improve care methods using welfare equipment. At the non-intervention facility, 33 care workers were not enrolled in the program. Rates of severe LBP were not significantly different between the facilities. However, during the study period, the rate of severe LBP among care workers did not increase at the intervention facility, while it doubled among care workers at the non-intervention facility. The care workers at the intervention facility showed improvement in care methods using welfare equipment during the study period. Hence, we think that re-education regarding appropriate care methods using welfare equipment has the potential to prevent exacerbation of LBP.
Respiratory effects of long term exposure to low levels of ammonia have not been thoroughly investigated. In this cross sectional study, 124 male subjects (67 high exposed and 57 low exposed), occupationally exposed to low levels of ammonia and 120 male referent individuals were investigated. Airborne concentrations of ammonia were measured and subjects underwent spirometry tests prior to and at end of their daily work shift. Average concentrations of ammonia in the breathing zones of the high and low exposed employees were found to be 1.35 ± 4.59 and 0.29 ± 0.31 ppm, respectively. Additionally, mean baseline values of some parameters of pulmonary function such as Vital Capacity (VC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1) in the high exposed group were significantly lower than those of referent individuals. Similarly, significant reversible cross shift decrements were noted in FEV1, VC and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) of exposed employees. These findings indicate that exposure to low levels of ammonia is associated with significant chronic irreversible and acute reversible decrements in the lungs’ functional capacity.
The objective of this study was to identify health and education related predictors of employment/self-employment in the age between 60 and 69 yr in Europe. Data were obtained from Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) study-Wave 6. Our final sample (n=13,447) was retrieved from 16 European Union member states, Switzerland and Israel. We used logistic regression model including education level, physical and mental health parameters to predict employment/self-employment vs. retired. Employment/self-employment was associated with higher education status, increased risk for depression, and obesity, but with decreased risk for chronic diseases, loneliness and limitations in daily life activities. Age-appropriate working conditions, part-time options, and enhanced job characteristics may contribute to maintain a good health status and prevent negative aspects of work that can induce the risk for stress and depression.
There is no single agreed definition of workaholism. Most interventions proposed for people suffering from workaholism target individuals. There is a paucity of descriptions of workplace risk factors. Our study examines case reports of patients suffering from workaholism with a focus on the role of the workplace. We describe case reports from patients of the Occupational Disease Centre in Brest, France between 2013 and 2016. Consultations were conducted within the framework of clinical occupational medicine with a focus on real work situations. Diagnoses of workaholism were made according to Goodman’s criteria. The situations of four patients are reported. Three of these suffered from workaholism: a 41 yr-old sales representative, a 51 yr-old nurse in progressive care and a 30 yr-old saleswoman. The last case report concerns the situation of a 41 yr-old team leader who was first suspected to have workaholism, but later diagnosed with a bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorders and other addictive behaviours should be assessed. An exclusive variable remuneration and work organization that could induce confusion between the working and personal environment both constitute risk factors. Some patients were ambivalent to their condition and willing to go on working despite ill-health issues. These elements could be integrated into further research on workaholism.
Distinct differences exist between public-private sector organizations with respect to the market environment and operational objectives; furthermore, among private sector businesses, organizational structures and work conditions often vary between large- and small-sized companies. Despite these obvious structural distinctions, however, sectoral differences in employees’ psychosocial risks and burnout status in national level have rarely been systematically investigated. Based on 2013 national employee survey data, 15,000 full-time employees were studied. Sector types were classified into “public,” “private enterprise-large (LE),” and “private enterprise-small and medium (SME);” based on the definition of SMEs by Taiwan Ministry of Economic Affairs, and the associations of sector types with self-reported burnout status (measured by the Chinese version of Copenhagen Burnout Inventory) were examined, taking into account other work characteristics and job instability indicators. Significantly longer working hours and higher perceived job insecurity were found among private sector employees than their public sector counterparts. With further consideration of company size, greater dissatisfaction of job control and career prospect were found among SME employees than the other two sector type workers. This study explores the pattern of public-private differences in work conditions and employees’ stress-related problems to have policy implications for supporting mechanism for disadvantaged workers in private sectors.