Injures are common in workers engaged in tactical occupations. Research suggests that the functional movement screen (FMS) may provide practitioners the ability to identify tactical athletes most at risk for injury. However, there exists controversy as to the effectiveness of the FMS as a tool for classifying injury risk. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to determine the predictive value of the FMS in determining injury risk in workers engaged in tactical occupations. We searched MEDLINE, Military & Government Collection (EBSCO), PubMed and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Technical Information Center databases for articles published between January 2007 and October 2017. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Multiple random-effects model meta-analyses were conducted, with an odds ratio as the effects metric. FMS cut-off score, occupation, injury type and sex were used as moderators for the analyses. The odds of injury were greatest for tactical athletes with FMS scores ≤14. Personnel scoring ≤14 had almost 2 times the odds of injury as compared to those scoring >14. However, the magnitude of the effects were small; thus the relationship between FMS cut scores and injury prediction does not support its use as a sole predictor of injury.
Shiftwork leads to altered eating patterns, with workers often eating foods at all times across the 24 h period. Strategies to reduce the burden of shiftwork on the workers should be prioritised and altering these eating patterns is an important area for change. This narrative review examines the current evidence on the individual and environmental factors influencing the eating behaviours of shiftworkers. A systematic search was conducted and yielded 62 articles. These were split into four themes that influence eating patterns; When shiftworkers eat, What type of foods shiftworkers eat, Where the food is sourced from, and Why shiftworkers choose to eat on shift. Irregular working hours was the biggest influence on when workers ate on shift, shift-type was the biggest influence on what workers ate, the majority of food was sourced from canteens and cafeterias, and socialising with colleagues was the biggest reason why workers chose to eat. While more research is needed to explore multiple industries and shift-types, and to investigate the ideal size, type and timing of food on shift, this review has highlighted that future research into shiftworker eating needs to adopt an integrative approach and consider the different individual and social contexts that influence eating patterns.
Recent reviews of musicians’ musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) have reported heterogeneity in the outcomes reported and data collection tools used, making it difficult to compare and synthesise findings. The purpose of this present review was to improve the consistency of future research, by documenting the outcomes reported in recent studies of musicians’ MSS and the data collection tools used. All English language, peer-reviewed studies, published 2007–2016 that reported musicians’ self-reported MSS outcomes were identified. Details of the types of outcomes reported and the tools used were extracted, and synthesised descriptively. A range of MSS outcomes were reported, including MSS with a temporal relationship to activities performed, and the consequences of symptoms. Only 24% of studies used standardised questionnaires, with the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) being the most commonly used. To improve the homogeneity of outcomes and data collection tools when investigating musicians’ MSS, we recommend using the NMQ, where appropriate. Recall periods of 12-months and 7-d are the most appropriate for prevalence, and 7-d recall periods for ratings. Importantly, outcomes and the tools used to collect data should be reported in sufficient detail to ensure that the study can be replicated, critiqued, and accurately interpreted.
The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for screening and diagnosis of occupational lung diseases. We evaluated the association of icoerd with the International Labor Organization (ILO) classification and respiratory functions in pneumoconiosis. Chest x-rays of patients with pneumoconiosis were classified with ilo and icoerd using hrct, irregular opacity, pleural pathology, and emphysema was detected in 78, 19, and 53 patients, and using chest x-rays in 47, 4, and 14 patients, respectively. There was a significant correlation between ILO categories and ICOERD grades. There was a negative correlation between ILO categories and FEV1% and FVC%, whereas, ICOERD grades were not correlated with FEV1% and FVC%. HRCT was superior to chest x-rays to detect pneumoconiosis in early stage, but not in evaluating pulmonary functions.
The majority of patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP) suffer from chronic pain. Psychosocial factors play an important role in the chronicity of LBP. To explore the risk factors for chronic disabling LBP in detail, we assessed its various risk factors in Japanese workers, using data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study. Data were drawn from a 1 yr follow-up of 20‒59 yr-old workers who participated in the CUPID study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed various factors, including individual characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related or other psychosocial factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between these factors and chronic disabling LBP. Of 198 participants, 35 (17.7%) had chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction effect of the two factors, expectation of LBP problems and excessive working hours (≥ 60 h per week), was associated with chronic disabling LBP. Chronic disabling LBP was present in 42.5% of participants with both of these two risk factors, whereas it was present in 11.8% of participants without these risk factors. In conclusion, among various factors, the combination of two psychosocial factors was particularly associated with chronic disabling LBP.
Disrupting sleepiness and fatigue during the post-lunch dip by environmental factors may result in a decrease in human errors and accidents, and enhance job performance. Recent studies have shown that both red white light as well as blue white light can have a positive effect on human alertness and mental functioning. In the present study, the light intervention was evaluated for its effectiveness on alleviating the post-lunch dip. Twenty healthy volunteers experienced 117 min of four light conditions preceded by a 13-min initial dim light while performing a continuous performance test (CPT) and undergoing recording of the electroencephalogram (EEG): blue-enriched white light (12,000 K, 500 lx, BWL), red saturated white light (2,700 K, 500 lx, RWL), normal white light (4,000 K, 500 lx, NWL), and dim light (<5 lx, DL) conditions. Other outcome measures were subjective sleepiness, mood, and performance tests (working memory, divided attention, and inhibitory capacity). We found that exposure to both BWL and RWL conditions decreased the lower alpha-band power compared to the NWL and DL conditions. No significant differences were observed in subjective sleepiness and mental performance during sustained attention, working memory, and inhibitory capacity tasks between NWL, RWL, and BWL conditions. The present findings suggest that both RWL and BWL, compared to NWL condition, can improve the physiological correlates of alertness in EEG measurements. However, these changes did not translate to improvements in task performance and subjective alertness.
This study aimed to examine quantitative relation between ethylbenzene (EB) in air (EB-A) and un-metabolized EB in urine (EB-U) for biological monitoring of occupational EB exposure by urinalysis for EB. In total, 49 men in furniture production factories participated in the study. Time-weighted average EB-A was monitored by diffusive sampling. Urinalysis for EB was conducted by head-space gas-chromatography with end-of-shift samples. Data were subjected to regression analysis for statistical evaluation. A geometric mean (GM) and the maximum (Max) EB-A levels were 2.1 and 45.5 ppm, respectively. A GM and the Max for EB-U (observed values) were 4.6 and 38.7 µg/l. A significant linear correlation was observed. The regression equation was Y=3.1+0.73X where X is EB-A (ppm) and Y is EB-U (μg/l) (r=0.91, p<0.01). The significant correlation between EB-A and EB-U coupled with a small intercept suggests that biological monitoring of occupational EB exposure is possible by analysis for un-metabolized EB in end-of-shift urine samples. Further validation studies (including those on applicability to women) are envisaged. The feasibility should be examined for biological monitoring and the applicability of the equation among the workers exposed to EB at low levels.
Sudden illness while driving has been identified as a major cause of vehicle collisions, particularly among taxi drivers. However, no previous studies have examined the factors contributing to the occurrence of health-related vehicle collisions. The current study aimed to identify the risk factors causing health-related vehicle collisions among taxi drivers, and to inform preventative interventions. A cross-sectional survey involving a written anonymous questionnaire was conducted for company-employed taxi drivers in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. A total of 1,739 drivers returned questionnaires. Drivers were classified into those who had experienced collisions or near-miss incidents caused by health problems (Event group), and those who had not (Non-event group). According to a multivariable logistic regression analysis, being unable to take vacation time (odds ratio [OR] 4.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2–9.58), having chronic diseases (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.02–2.27), taking insufficient vacation time (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.19–2.79), and difficulty reporting poor health conditions (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.36–3.87) were significant factors for the likelihood of an event. Support for drivers to maintain well-balanced control of illnesses and improvement of working environments could prevent health-related events while driving.
Taking action in response to health examination results is important to stay healthy. We aimed to investigate the associations between occupation, employment type and company size, and having a health examination and taking action in response to the results among Japanese employees. We focused on three particular actions by employees in response to health examination results: paying attention to one’s health, receiving health guidance, and visiting a medical institution. We used anonymous data from the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions of Japan, a self-administered nationwide questionnaire survey. The data of 23,963 employees (12,938 male and 11,025 female) aged 20–64 yr were analyzed using logistic regression models adjusted by covariates. There were significant changes in odds ratios for receiving a health examination by occupation, employment type and company size. We found significant odds ratios for receiving health guidance by occupation and company size, but there was almost no significant association with paying attention to one’s health and visiting a medical institution. These results confirmed that receiving a health examination was associated with occupational factors, and suggested that receiving health guidance after health examination results was associated with occupation and company size.
Flight attendants experience circadian misalignment and disrupted sleep and eating patterns. This survey study examined working time, sleep, and eating frequency in a sample (n=21, 4 males, 17 females) of Australian flight attendants (mean age=41.8 yr, SD=12.0 yr, mean BMI=23.8 kg/m2, SD=4.1 kg/m2). Respondents indicated frequencies of snack, meal, and caffeine consumption during their last shift. Reported sleep duration on workdays (mean=4.6 h, SD=1.9 h) was significantly lower than on days off (M=7.2 h, SD=1.2 h, p<0.001), and significantly lower than perceived sleep need (M=8.1 h, SD=0.8 h, p<0.001). Food intake was distributed throughout shifts and across the 24 h period, with eating patterns incongruent with biological eating periods. Time available, food available, and work breaks were the most endorsed reasons for food consumption. Caffeine use and reports of gastrointestinal disturbance were common. Working time disrupts sleep and temporal eating patterns in flight attendants and further research into nutritional and dietary-related countermeasures may be beneficial to improving worker health and reducing circadian disruption.