Law enforcement is inherently stressful, and police officers are particularly vulnerable to mental and physical disorders. As such, researchers are currently assessing intervention strategies that may combat or manage these psychological, physical and mental issues. To review most recent information regarding anxiety, PTSD, and sleepiness and fatigue and identify the interventions and treatments proposed to overcome work related stressors and associated mental illnesses inflicting law enforcement officers. The EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were canvassed for articles investigating anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleepiness, and fatigue. Initial article selections were made based on title, whilst final inclusion was informed by a full critical appraisal with respect to the primary and secondary effects. The systematic search returned 363 records, of which 183 were unique. Following screening, 43 records were included in the final review. The included literature assessed the efficacy of several interventions, and provided a number of recommendations regarding interventions, and policy. Moreover, literature indicates that police officers benefit from interventions targeting work-related stress and potential psychological disorders, if these interventions are continuous. Furthermore, larger controlled studies are required to further elucidate the benefits of psychosocial intervention in law enforcement.
Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) represent a frequent complication for hospitalized patients and more rarely for workers. In recent years, substantial scientific evidence has been reached regarding the role played by the inanimate surfaces, especially those touched in patient-care areas, in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, it is essential to find new collective protective measures to minimize microbial contamination in healthcare facilities, thereby preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria. We present an overview of the major nano-enabled AntiMicrobial Coatings (AMCs) which may be used as collective protective measures in healthcare setting, discussing also some aspects related to their effectiveness and safety. AMCs may be classified within three groups on base of their mechanism of action: surfaces releasing active compound, contact-killing surfaces and anti-adhesive surfaces. To date, little information is available on the effectiveness of AMCs to reduce the risk of HAIs since the most of studies do not reach conclusive results on their beneficial effects. Moreover, the lack of standard protocols for assessing antimicrobial efficacy and poor data about the interaction between AMCs and disinfectants prevent their placing on the market. Further studies are needed for assessing risks and benefits of AMCs as collective protective measures in healthcare setting.
Workplace incivility is a low-intensity, counterproductive work behavior associated with negative health outcomes and organizational consequences (e.g., turnover intention). In the present study, I used a daily diary design to investigate the short-term within-person effects of workplace incivility on work-related rumination. Time pressure was included in the present study to underline the importance of workplace incivility for off-work ruminative thoughts beyond the known effects of a stressful workday. Additionally, I propose mood at the end of the workday as a mediator for the proposed relationships. The results of my study corroborate the existence of the daily within-person and the more stable weekly between-person effect of workplace incivility on off-work ruminative thoughts. These results suggest that the experience of short-term and fluctuating workplace incivility has an impact on off-work ruminative thinking even when controlling for the known effects of time pressure. With regard to my proposed mediational effect, my hypothesis was not confirmed. In an additional analysis, however, mediation was confirmed when time pressure was excluded from the model. Further, the within-person relationship between time pressure and work-related rumination was mediated by mood.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in train drivers is associated with health conditions that can result in sudden incapacity. Drivers are at high risk on several CVD risk factors with research suggesting that sleep may predict CVD risk, however this relationship has not yet been explored. This study investigated the link between sleep and CVD risk, in relation to hours of work day and days off sleep. N=309 Australian drivers completed a cross-sectional survey. A CVD risk score was calculated by summing scores from behavioural and biomedical risk factors. Sleep was most frequently cited as the main reason for decline in perceived health status. Main analyses showed that shorter work day sleep (M=5.79 h) was a significant predictor of increased CVD risk (p=0.013). This relationship was moderated by days off sleep, such that when days off sleep (M=8.17 h) was higher, the effect of work day sleep on CVD risk was weaker (p=0.047). Findings indicate the amount of sleep a driver obtains on non-work days may compensate for adverse health outcomes. Successful management of fatigue in safety critical occupations appears essential not only for the prevention of safety hazards, but also for the long-term health of shift workers. Further investigation is warranted.
This study examined whether employment category was associated with insomnia-related symptoms (IRS). We analyzed the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions in Japan. The anonymous data of 43,865 people ranging from 20–59 yr of age were analyzed. We defined six employment categories: regularly employed, non-regularly employed, self-employed, others, unemployed and not in the labor force. Sex-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of IRS were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted for confounding factors. We further conducted stratified analyses by mental illness, smoking status, and age. For men, the multivariable ORs (95% CI) of IRS for the unemployed and those who were not in the labor force were 2.5 (1.8–3.4) and 2.1 (1.2–3.7). For women, the multivariable ORs (95% CI) for the unemployed was 1.9 (1.5–2.5). After being stratified by mental illness, we found that the associations were not significant in persons with mental illness, and were more evident in persons without mental illness. Smoking and age did not modify the associations. In conclusion, we found a significantly higher OR of IRS for the unemployed, and men who were not in the labor force. These associations were particularly more evident for individuals without mental illness.
Our primary objective in this study was to design and implement the FAME Lab PHS Calculator software (PHSFL) (www.famelab.gr/research/downloads), a free tool to calculate the predicted heat strain of an individual based on ISO 7933:2018. Our secondary objective was to optimize the practicality of the PHSFL by incorporating knowledge from other ISO standards and published literature. The third objective of this study was to assess: (i) the criterion-related validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained using the original ISO 7933:2018 code; and (ii) the construct validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained via field experiments performed in human participants during work in the heat. Our analysis for criterion validity demonstrates that PHSFL provides valid results within the required computational accuracy, according to Annex F of ISO 7933:2018. The construct validity showed that root mean square errors (RMSE) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were minimal between measured and predicted core temperature (RMSE: 0.3°C; LOA: 0.06 ± 0.58°C) and small between measured and predicted mean skin temperature (RMSE: 1.1°C; LOA: 0.59 ± 1.83°C). In conclusion, the PHSFL software demonstrated strong criterion-related and construct-related validity.
While the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders has recently increased among Korean workers employed in highly physically and psychologically demanding jobs, the relation among these domains remains relatively unexplored. We examined 2,037 subway workers in Seoul, that collected data via questionnaire survey on musculoskeletal symptoms and the work environment, administered in 2009, 2012, and 2015. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used for statistical analysis. After conducting GEE analysis by adjusting for the sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, we found the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms significantly increased in cases with high Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) scores compared with low DASS scores, especially on shift workers. An integrated management method that considers ergonomic and mental health factors, should be used to better manage musculoskeletal symptoms in subway workers.
This study was to investigate the impact of job satisfaction as the independent variable and the type of shift as the moderator variable on the sleep quality of female shift-working nurses. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) short form and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used as evaluation tools. The subjects in the study were female shift-working nurses from teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan. A total of 178 valid questionnaires were recovered. A hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) was used to test for the moderating effect of shift type. The results demonstrated that there was a negative correlation between the total score for general job satisfaction and the Global PSQI scores. The Global PSQI scores were higher for nurses working night shifts than for those working day and evening shifts. HMR showed significant variances in the interaction between general job satisfaction of female shift-working nurses and the day/night shift as well as the evening/night shift. The type of shift had a moderating effect on the ways in which general job satisfaction impacts sleep quality. Furthermore, the moderating effect of night shift on the impact of job satisfaction on sleep quality was weaker in nurses working the night shift.
The aim of this study was to ascertain whether long-term occupational exposure to nanoparticles would affect relative leukocyte telomere length (LrTL). We analysed occupational exposure to size-resolved aerosol particles, with special emphasis on nanoparticles at two workshops: i/ the production of nanocomposites containing metal oxides; ii/ laboratory to test experimental exposure of nano-CuO to rodents. Thirty five exposed researchers (age 39.5 ± 12.6 yr; exposure duration 6.0 ± 3.7 yr) and 43 controls (40.4 ± 10.5 yr) were examined. LrTL did not significantly (p=0.14) differ between the exposed researchers (0.92 ± 0.13) and controls (0.86 ± 0.15). In addition, no significant correlation (r=−0.22, p=0.22) was detected between the duration of occupational exposure and LrTL. The results remained non-significant after multiple adjustments for age, sex and smoking status. Our pilot results suggest that relative leukocyte telomere length is not affected by occupational exposure to nanoparticles.
Health practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the work-relatedness of burnout. To gather the most reliable information regarding burnout diagnosis and recognition in Europe, we used an 8-item standard questionnaire sent by e-mail to occupational health specialists identified via the Network on the Coordination and Harmonization of European Occupational Cohorts (OMEGA-NET) within the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action. Participation rate was 100%, and the questionnaire was completed for 37 countries. In 14 (38%) countries burnout syndrome can be acknowledged as an occupational disease. However, only one country included burnout on the list of occupational diseases. The results showed a high variability in burnout diagnosis, in assessment of its work-relatedness, and in conditions allowing compensation of patients. These results reflect a lack of graded evidence on burnout and its determinants. The ongoing research on burnout conducted in the frame of the OMEGA-NET COST Action should be helpful through facilitating standardization of both existing and new data on burnout, a priority outcome requiring harmonization.