A wide range of job-related hazards and personal factors may be associated with injury occurrences at continuous miner worksites but their role has been little documented. To address this issue, a case-control study in India was conducted to compare 135 workers with an injury during the previous 2-yr period and 270 controls without injury during the previous 5-yr period (two controls for each injured worker, matched on age and occupation). Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaire and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. We found that the injury occurrences were multifactorial and associated with hand tool-related hazards (adjusted odds ratio/ORa=3.69, p<0.01), working condition-related hazards (ORa=3.11, p<0.01), continuous miner-related hazards (ORa=1.95, p<0.05), and shuttle car-related hazards (ORa=6.95, p<0.001), along with big family size, no-formal education, and presence of disease (adjusted odds ratios varying between 2 to 4). Stratified analyses showed that among the 36–60 yr-old workers, hand tool-related hazards, working condition-related hazards, and shuttle car-related hazards had significant ORa (6.62, 4.38 and 15.65, respectively with p<0.01,) while among the younger workers, only shuttle car-related hazards had significant ORa (4.25, p<0.05). These findings may help to understand the risk patterns of injuries and to implement appropriate prevention strategies.
Taking action in response to anthropometrics is important to respirator fit. We aimed to investigate the associations between the filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) fit and the head-face dimensions among Chinese people. We used data from 85 volunteers. We focused on fit factors and 8 head-facial dimensions of subjects. The fit factors from 4 respirator models with different protection levels and shapes were measured by a PortaCount fit tester. Each subject tested four respirator models, for a total of four quantitative fit tests per subject. Passing rate (PR) of each model was determined at fit factor level no less than 100. The data of 85 subjects aged 22–51 yr old were analyzed using χ2 test, one-way ANOVA test, t-test and non-conditional logistic regression model. The PRs for the 4 models were 52.9%, 61.2%, 40.0% and 63.5%, which were significantly different. We found the positive effect of morphological facial length and negative effect of bitragion-submandibular arc on fit factors. This confirms it is necessary to conduct fit test before using a respirator. PRs varied among 4 models regardless of their protection level and shape. Anthropometric dimension of the user, which had effects on FFR fit, should be considered when designing respirator.
This study measured the fume particle size distribution and fume generation rate during arc welding of cast iron and estimated the generation rate of respirable dust. In addition, the generation rate of particles with a diameter of 0.3 µm or less was estimated. In this experiment, three types of filler materials (mild steel wire, stainless steel wire, and mild steel covered electrodes) with main constituents of Fe or Fe-Cr-Ni, as proposed previously by the authors, were used. The welding methods were gas metal arc welding and shielded metal arc welding. The fumes measured in this research contained 73–91% respirable dust, and the fume generation rates were in the range of 1.96–12.2 mg/s. The results of this study were as follows: (i) the welding current affects the generation rate of respirable dust, and it is highly likely that the higher the fume generation rate, the more respirable dust is generated; (ii) the generation rates of respirable dust at low and high current were highest when mild steel covered electrodes and stainless steel wire was used, respectively; and (iii) the generation rate of particles with a diameter of 0.3 µm or less was highest when stainless steel wire is used.
Research has disregarded the boundary conditions of the effects of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) at work. Addressing this issue, the present study examines the moderating impact of the (shared vs. isolated) exposure to robbery on the relationship between PTSS and employee job satisfaction. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, we argue that PTSS would positively affect employee job satisfaction when the robbery is experienced collectively. To test our predictions, we conducted a two-wave study—with a lag of two months between measurements—on 140 employees from a national bank in Italy. Results from hierarchical regression analyses supported our prediction: the exposure to robbery moderated the relationship between PTSS and job satisfaction. While within the “isolated exposure” group the job satisfaction score was higher among less symptomatic victims, within the “shared exposure” group those with high PTSS reported higher job satisfaction levels than those with low PTSS. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice.
The present study aimed to verify the prevalence and association of sedentary behavior and its breaks with obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in teaching professionals. The sample was composed by 245 public school teachers (186 women and 59 men), with a mean age of 45 yr. Sedentary behavior was evaluated by self-reported screen time in different devices (television, computer, cellphone/tablet), and sedentary breaks at work and leisure were assessed by a Likert scale (never, rarely, sometimes, often, always). Cardiovascular risk factors (overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, blood pressure, and heart rate) were objectively collected by trained individuals in the work environment of the teachers. Logistic Binary Regression models were adjusted for confounding factors (age, sex, and socioeconomic status). The prevalence of sedentary behavior was 55.3% in the sample. High sedentary behavior was associated to abdominal obesity (OR=2.21 [CI=1.23–3.97]). No association was observed between sedentary breaks at work and independent variables, however teachers with high sedentary breaks at leisure time were less likely to present high blood pressure (OR=0.58 [CI=0.32–0.98]). In conclusion, high sedentary behavior was associated with abdominal obesity, and high sedentary breaks in leisure time were associated to lower chances of high blood pressure among public school teachers.
This study aimed to quantitatively grasp the structure of support for balancing cancer treatment and work among occupational health nurses (OHNs) with the current implementation status. The anonymous questionnaire was designed based on the findings of our previous qualitative study and distributed to OHNs. The degrees of support implementation for workers with cancer, superiors and colleagues, and human resource managers were assessed for each item. Factor analysis of support items was conducted, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was carried out to compare the support scores between the factors. Support for workers with cancer comprised six factors in which the factor, concerning the provision of information regarding resources inside and outside the company, showed the lowest score. Support for superiors and colleagues was divided into three factors, and that for human resource managers comprised two factors. By Mann-Whitney’s U-test, it was found that OHNs, who worked without full-time occupational health physicians for smaller companies, showed significantly higher implementation for several support factors, such as support to human resource managers. This study revealed the structure as well as implementation status of OHNs’ support for balancing cancer treatment and work, which will provide suggestions for developing training programs for OHNs to promote these activities.
A considerable proportion of shift workers have work schedule-related insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness, a phenomenon described as shift work disorder (SWD). There is yet a lack of evidence on whether or not employees recover from symptoms of SWD between work shifts. We studied whether SWD and its subtypes are associated with insomnia and excessive sleepiness during weekly non-work days and with 24-h sleep time. Hospital employees answered a survey on SWD, insomnia and excessive sleepiness on weekly non-work days, and 24-h sleep. To identify shift workers with night shifts (n=2,900, 18% with SWD) and SWD, we linked survey responses to employers’ register on working hours. SWD included three subtypes: insomnia only (SWD-I, 4%, n=102), excessive sleepiness only (SWD-Es, 8%, n=244), and both insomnia and excessive sleepiness (SWD-IEs, 6%, n=183). Based on regression analyses, SWD was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07–1.88) and with insomnia on non-work days (0.53, 0.31–0.91). SWD-I was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (2.25, 1.31–3.87) and with shorter sleep (7–7.5 h: 1.96, 1.06–3.63; ≤6.5h: 2.39, 1.24–4.59; reference: ≥8 h). The results suggest that especially employees with SWD-I may need longer time to overcome excessive sleepiness than allowed by their roster.
The aim of the study was to investigate test-retest reliability and construct validity of the World Mental Health Japan (WMHJ) version of World Health Organization Health and Performance Questionnaire (WHO-HPQ) short version according the COSMIN standard. We conducted two consecutive surveys of 102 full-time employees recruited through an Internet survey company in Japan, with a two-week interval in 2018. We calculated Pearson’s correlation (r) of measures of the WHO-HPQ with other presenteeism scales (Stanford Presenteeism Scale, Work Functioning Impairment Scale, and perceived relative presenteeism), health and psychosocial job conditions. We tested the test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation, ICC) among those who reported no change of job performance during the follow-up. Among 92 (90%) respondents, the absolute presenteeism significantly correlated with WFun and perceived relative presenteeism (r=−0.341 and −0.343, respectively, p=0.001) and psychological distress (r=−0.247, p=0.018). The absolute/relative absenteeism did not significantly correlate with the other covariates. The test-retest reliability over a two-week period was high for the WHO-HPQ absolute presenteeism (ICC, 0.73), while those for absolute/relative absenteeism measures were moderate. The study found an adequate level of test-retest reliability, but limited support for the construct validity of the absolute presenteeism measure of the WMHJ version of the WHO-HPQ. Further research is needed to investigate the construct validity of the WHO-HPQ measures in a larger sample.
Abstract: Occupational needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) affect healthcare workers’ (HCWs’) mental health, however, limited evidence is available on the psychological impact of NSSIs, especially in developing countries where most of NSSIs have been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the anxiety and psychological impact regarding NSSIs among HCWs at tertiary hospitals in Lao PDR. In this study, four among seven items of anxiety scale in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (Cronbach’s α=0.80) was applied. Participants who experienced NSSIs in the past 6 months showed significantly higher anxiety scores than those who did not experienced (p=0.004) and the average anxiety scores was high shortly after the NSSI. The 42.7% of them were more afraid of needles and sharp devices in the 2 wk after the NSSI than the time of the interview. The results encourage developing countries to adapt a comprehensive NSSI management policy including not only to take adequate precaution measures but psychological support and treatment for HCWs from immediately after NSSIs to improve safety for HCWs and patients. Further studies are needed to develop normative psychiatric scales with cultural adaptation in developing countries which provide convenient mental disorder assessment after NSSIs.