The increasing involvement of women in the paid-labor market has led to multifactorial exposure towards the development of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This review aims to identify the prevalence of NCDs and the associated risk factors among working women. A systematic review was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases. Twelve articles published between 2015 and 2019 satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were selected for qualitative synthesis. Among working women, the prevalence of NCDs was as follows: coronary heart disease, 0.3%–5.9%; metabolic syndrome, 52.0%; diabetes mellitus, 8.9%–16.0%; hypertension, 16.6%–66.4%; non-skin cancer, 3.7%. The prevalence of NCD risk factors was as follows: overweight/obesity, 33.8%–77.0%; low physical activity, 51.0%; unhealthy diet, 44.9%–69.9%; dyslipidemia, 27.8%–44.0%. The factors associated with NCDs were long working hours, double work burden, and stress. NCD is an important burden of working women that will lead to reduced work quality and affect family well-being. Disease prevention approaches, such as the intervention of common workplace risk factors and specific work schedule design, are among the strategies for improving the situation.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate upper-limb cooling following (treadmill) exercise performed in the heat (33℃, 70% relative humidity) at each of three speeds: light (6 km.h–1), intermediate (8 km.h–1) and moderate intensity (10 km.h–1). In all trials, exercise ceased when rectal temperature reached 39.0℃. Participants adopted a sitting position for a 20-min recovery, and liquid-cooling sleeves with cold water (6.3℃ were immediately positioned. The chosen work rates resulted in a two-fold difference in exercise duration across those trials, which terminated without significant between-trial differences within either auditory canal or rectal temperatures. Auditory canal temperature elevation rates became progressively faster as the work rate increased: 0.03℃.min–1 (light), 0.05℃.min–1 (intermediate) and 0.07℃.min–1 (moderate) (p<0.05). However, heat extraction during recovery did not differ among those treatments: –11.2 W (SE 0.5; light), –11.8 W (0.6; intermediate) and –12.3 W (0.5; moderate; p>0.05). That outcome was reflected in auditory canal cooling rates (0.03℃.min–1 [light], 0.04℃.min–1 [intermediate] and 0.05℃.min–1 [moderate]). Nevertheless, rectal temperatures continued to rise throughout recovery. It is concluded that heat extraction from moderately hyperthermic individuals, using upper-limb cooling sleeves, appears to be equally rapid, regardless of heating speed, providing the same level of hyperthermia was attained prior to initiating treatment.
To continue to work healthily, health practices are necessary. This study assessed the impact of health literacy (HL) on health practices in the working life of young Japanese nurses and care workers, occupations with heavy physical and psychological burdens. A web-based survey was conducted with 500 women (330 nurses and 170 care workers) under the age of 30 in 2019. Data regarding their demographic characteristics, HL and health practices in their working life were collected. A significant association was found between high HL and better health practices, such as being likely to rest when tired, working at their own pace maintaining a good work-life balance and regularly performing self-check-ups, which were common to nurses and care workers. In addition, sub-analysis among the high-HL group revealed that the attendance of lectures regarding working life and health for new employees was effective for taking rest when needed, working when not overtired and a good work-life balance. The results of this study suggest that high HL relates to healthy practices in the working life of young Japanese nurses and care workers. Increasing HL or fundamentally enhancing attitudes towards their own health or both may, therefore, have some benefits for healthy working practices.
The study investigated relationships between exposure to bullying behaviours, return to work self-efficacy (RTW-SE) and resilience, and if resilience moderates the bullying-RTW-SE relationship among patients on sick leave or at risk of sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMD). A sample of 675 patients treated in an outpatient clinic was analysed using regressions and moderation analyses by employing SPSS and the Process macro SPSS supplement. The results showed a negative relationship between exposure to bullying behaviours and RTW-SE. There was also a positive main effect for resilience, as patients with high resilience score significantly higher on RTW-SE than patients with low resilience irrespective of levels of bullying. Further, the resilience sub-dimension personal resilience moderated the bullying-RTW-SE relationship, while the sub-dimension interpersonal resilience did not. Patients high on personal resilience showed relatively lower RTW-SE scores when exposed to bullying behaviours, compared to those that were not bullied with high personal resilience levels. Hence, one should take note of the fact that even if resilience may strengthen RTW-SE, bullying is an adverse event which particularly affects individuals who present with relatively high levels of resilience resources, at least when it comes to RTW-SE.
Globally, ILO estimates 374 million non-fatal and 380,500 fatal by occupational accidents annually. Slips, trips, falls and contact with objects are the leading mode of injury, with extremities being the most common body part involved. Occupational accidents are of major concern for high risk occupational groups such as migrant workers, or work areas e.g. construction, manufacturing, wholesale, and retail industries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of non-fatal occupational injuries and its trends among industry workers in Brunei Darussalam. A retrospective cross-sectional review of occupational accidents notified to the Occupational Health Division, Ministry of Health, over a five-year period from January 2014 until December 2018 was conducted. A total of 424 non-fatal occupational accidents were notified, with increasing trend from 44 in 2014 to 132 in 2018. Accidents were more common in males (98%), migrant workers (86%), in the 30–39 age group (42.5%), and in the construction industry (56.4%). Struck by object (37.7%) was the commonest cause and upper limb (43.9%) was the commonest body part involved. There is a need for workplaces to develop capabilities and support mechanisms for risk assessments, as well as auditing and reviewing performances to minimize occurrence of preventable occupational injuries.