The mining environment is hazardous for worker’s health. It can affect the mental health, triggering symptoms and diseases, such as anxiety, job stress, depression, sleep disorders, mental fatigue and other. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the scientific literature about the mental health in mine workers and to summarize the findings. The method used was scoping review. The principal outcomes were the following: evidence in the last 12 years in the topic was focused in four themes 1) Psychological problems & personal factors (38.2%); 2) Psychosocial problems & health related factor (23.6%); 3) Well-being (21.1%) and 4) Physical problems & organization factors (17.1%). Several affections, symptoms, characteristics or disorders were inquired about mine worker’s mental health, such as job strain, unsafety experiences, poor quality of sleep, non-subjective well-being, job unsatisfaction, social-relations conflict, risk of accidents and injuries, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), substance abuse, dangerous working conditions and demanding job organization, and so on. For those factors, Mining could expose to serious mental health problems to a part of their workers. It’s necessary to deepen the elaboration of international policies and carry out more scientific research and suggestions to make programs on the topic.
This study aimed to develop a questionnaire on the quality of working life among female medical and healthcare professionals and examine its validity and reliability. The questionnaire was developed from an item pool drawing on the literature. The four trait scales included 40 items, covering female-specific stress in continuing a career, stress of lifestyle in maintaining personal values, job satisfaction and social support network. The questionnaire’s validity and reliability were assessed using data from 1,784 female doctors, dentists, and nurses. Validity was examined using exploratory factor analysis on each trait for construct validity, and multitrait scaling analysis for convergent and discriminant validity. Reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha for trait subscales and scales. Exploratory factor analysis on each trait was convergent. One trait derived three subscales, and another two. The remaining two traits were convergent for one factor. Multitrait scaling analysis showed that all scales and subscales were independent. The questionnaire was therefore internally consistent and had construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.85 for the total and between 0.72 and 0.83 for the subscales. These results validate the four-trait combination questionnaire and suggest that it would be suitable for use in future research, perhaps in combination with other existing scales.
2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (2EH) is a volatile organic compound known to cause sick building syndrome. However, 2EH-induced hepatotoxicity has been mainly evaluated in experiments orally administering 2EH as a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. To evaluate the hepatotoxicity risk of 2EH as an indoor air pollutant, we exposed 10-wk-old male ICR mice to 2EH by inhalation for 8 h/d, 5 d/wk for 3 months (0, 20, 60, or 150 ppm) or 6 months (0, 0.5, 10, or 100 ppm). In both experiments, relative liver weights significantly increased in the highest exposure groups. The 3-month exposure increased histopathological lipid droplets in the liver in a dose-dependent manner, hepatic triglyceride at all exposure levels, hepatic phospholipid at 150 ppm, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein at 60 and 150 ppm; however, these changes were not observed following the 6-month of exposure. Following the 3-month exposure, alanine transaminase and peroxisomal bifunctional proteins, known markers of liver injury and peroxisome proliferation, respectively, remained unaltered. Therefore, in the present study, the inhalation concentration range of 2EH induced a toxic hypertrophic change, revealing a limited role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The liver weights may have presumably increased via a mechanism independent of PPARα activation.
A nighttime nap is expected to mitigate melatonin suppression during night work by blocking light input to the retina, but it is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a nap break on melatonin level, subjective sleepiness, and vigilance performance during simulated night work. Eleven healthy young males (mean ± SD age: 22.2 ± 4.1 years) participated in counterbalanced crossover design experiments with two conditions (nap vs. no nap). The subjects performed 12-hour simulated night work from 21:00 to 09:00 h (illuminance: ~500 lx). Subjects with a nap condition took a nap for 2 hours in a dark room from 03:00, while subjects with a no nap condition continued the simulated night work. The results showed that immediately after the 2-h nap break, the melatonin level at 05:00 h temporarily recovered from light-induced melatonin suppression during the simulated night work but significantly suppressed again at 07:00 and 09:00 h. Subjective alertness and vigilance performance were impaired immediately after the nap break but subsequently enhanced. The results suggest that a single nap break for 2 hours could be a strategy to enhance alertness during the last part of night shift but inadequate for mitigating melatonin suppression.
This study was conducted to evaluate the exposure of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) and oxidative stress among tank maintenance workers in the Republic of Korea Army. Airborne concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and metals were measured at two units. Urine analysis for 1-hydroxypyrene and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was performed for tank maintenance workers from one unit (n=17). To compare the level of 8-OHdG, the analysis was performed in 17 unexposed controls. The airborne EC concentration was 8.6–24.3 μg/m3 in indoor unit. EC was not detected in the outdoor unit. As for the PAHs, trace –0.0004 mg/m3 of naphthalene was detected. ITWA for 26 metals was calculated to be 0.009–0.027. The geometric mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was 0.08 μg/g creatinine. The geometric mean of 8-OHdG was 1.04 μg/g for the maintenance workers, while 0.45 μg/g for controls. The level of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly higher among maintenance workers in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, tank maintenance workers are exposed to various by-products from diesel engine combustion during work, and their level of oxidative stress marker was increased. Countermeasures for reducing hazardous substances in the military workplace are necessary.
The aim of the present study was to first fabricate an electrospun PVC nanofiber web and then assess its applicability in sampling and measuring the concentration of airborne crystalline silica by comparing analysis results with a commercial PVC membrane filter under different ranges of airborne silica concentration. A filtration performance comparison was also made between an electrospun PVC web with nano-sized fibers and a commercial PVC membrane filter. Overall, the measured concentration of silica by the electrospun webs was 1.022 times higher than that of the commercial PVC filter in all studied ranges of silica concentration and the nanofiber media had higher filtration efficiency and lower pressure drop compared to the PVC membrane filter. This can be considered to be due to the lower fiber diameter and greater porosity (obtained from the 2D SEM image) of the electrospun nanofiber webs. This makes them suited for air pollutant sampling and determining its airborne concentration.
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the sleep quality of psychiatric nurses in China and explore the risk factors affecting it. This study used the stratified random sampling method. The general data questionnaire was conducted using the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of sleep quality among 812 psychiatric nurses in China. There were statistically significant differences in sleep quality among different shift frequency. Surveys demonstrated that sleep quality among psychiatric nurses was positively correlated with psychological distress and job burnout. Multiple logistics regression analysis showed that high psychological distress (odds ratio, OR=0.907, p<0.001, 95% confidence interval, CI=0.885–0.931), high emotional exhaustion (OR=0.946, p<0.001, 95% CI=0.921–0.972), low depersonalization (OR=1.061, p=0.004, 95% CI=1.019–1.104), and low personal accomplishment (OR=0.972, p=0.018, 95% CI=0.949–0.995) were the contributing factors of sleep quality. Future studies should investigate effective measures to relieve psychological distress and alleviate burnout, particularly for psychiatric nurses with poor sleep quality.
Despite Italy banning use and production of asbestos in 1992, it continues to represent a risk to human health due to its permanence in the places where it was located. The aim of this work is to estimate how many schools in Rome (Italy) have asbestos containing materials (ACM), and to assess whether the location, condition and nature of ACM can influence the level of risk for student health. 3,672 schools were contacted and 1,451 participated to asbestos survey. 692 bulk samples were collected and analyzed by optical and electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. About 16% of the surveyed schools had ACM. Most of the ACM were not accessible to students (water tanks, boiler thermal insulations). Asbestos-cement materials and vinyl floor tiles were the most common non-friable materials found in schools and equipment insulation linings and Bunsen burner gauze mats were the friable ACM found in science laboratories. Measures to prevent or reduce asbestos hazards were applied where necessary. This study allowed to develop the awareness of the asbestos health hazard among headteachers and the need to manage these hazards appropriately. It represents the beginning of a larger study leading to ACM national mapping in schools.