This study aimed to develop the Chinese version of the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ) and investigate its reliability and validity. The survey was administered at two time-points separated by a two-week interval among Chinese workers. The Chinese version of the New BJSQ was developed according to the international guidelines. Cronbach’s alpha, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated to assess the reliability. A variance explained by the first factor was calculated to examine factor-based validity, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed (CFA) to determine the construct validity. Baseline and follow-up analyses included 516 and 52 workers, respectively. In most scales, sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability were observed, and principal component analyses demonstrated that the first factor explained more than 50% proportion of the variance. CFA showed that the four-factor model (Job demands, Task-level job resources, Workgroup-level job resources, and Organizational-level job resources) demonstrated a moderate fit, similar to the original version. The Chinese version of New BJSQ showed good reliability and moderate validity. Future studies should explore content and construct validities and the factor structure of the Chinese version of the New BJSQ in more detail.
To prevent the spread of infection, it is necessary for each individual to adopt infection prevention behavior. We investigated the effect of infection control measures implemented in the workplace on personal infection prevention behavior. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey through the Internet from December 22 to 25, 2020, during which period coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was spreading. Among respondents aged 20 to 65 years (n=27,036), 21,915 workers were included in the analysis. The results showed that as the number of infection control measures in the workplace increased, implementation of infection prevention behavior by individuals also significantly increased. However, the relationship differed depending on the type of personal infection prevention behavior. Specifically, infection control measures against COVID-19 in the workplace may affect personal infection prevention behavior. Implementation of infection control measures in the workplace increases awareness of the importance of individual infection prevention behavior and its implementation by all individuals. These findings may be applicable not only to COVID-19 measures but also to responses to other emerging infections and seasonal influenza.
The requirement for compensation for diffuse pleural thickening in benign asbestos pleural effusion include five computed tomography findings of organized pleural effusion:  heterogeneity in the pleural effusion,  declined chest capacity,  “crow’s feet” sign at the pleura,  immobilization of effusion volume, and  air in the effusion. Pleural effusion is diagnosed as organized, immobilized, and in the state of diffuse pleural thickening if at least three of these items are fulfilled, ( and  compulsory + one of the remaining items). This retrospective study investigated whether the requirement to confirm no organized pleural effusion changes after a follow-up of >3 months were available for cases fulfilling three of the five items; i.e., the confirmation of only  with  and . Of 302 cases recognized by the Japanese laws, 105 cases with diffuse pleural thickening with organized effusion were enrolled. The number of subjects who fulfilled the diagnostic requirement for organized pleural effusion was confirmed. Eight subjects had a full score of 5 points, 82 subjects scored 4 points, and only 15 subjects scored 3 points. Furthermore, no changes were observed in the organized pleural effusion volume after a follow-up of >3 months.
Although an increasing number of studies on psychological safety at workplaces has been conducted in both western and eastern countries, there are few empirically validated measures in Japan. Our purpose was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Psychological Safety Scale. Japanese workers were invited to participate in online surveys at baseline and at one-month follow-up (N=320). The Psychological Safety Scale was translated into Japanese according to international guidelines. Social support at workplace, work engagement, organization-based self-esteem, organizational justice, and job satisfaction were measured. Cronbach’s alphas and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were examined for reliability, and its validity was tested by confirmatory factor analysis and correlational analyses. The results of the survey showed that respondents were 287 at baseline and 236 at follow-up. Cronbach’s alphas of the Psychological Safety Scale were 0.91 (baseline) and 0.88 (follow-up), and ICC was 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a marginally acceptable fit. Overall, the Japanese Psychological Safety Scale had moderate to strong correlations with other scales. In conclusion, the Japanese version of the Psychological Safety Scale had acceptable levels of reliability and validity, and may be applicable for use in Japanese workers.
Heatstroke is defined as severe symptoms of heat-related illness, which could lead to death. Sugarcane farmers are at high risk of heatstroke under extremely hot outdoor working conditions. We explored the prevalence of heat-related illness symptoms and risk factors related to heat-related illness among sugarcane farmers working in the summer. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaire interviews among 200 sugarcane farmers in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand. The questionnaire addressed demographics, heat-related symptoms experienced during summer at work, and occupational factors. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess body mass index and body fat percentage. Watson formula equations were used to estimate total body water. The prevalence of heat-related illness symptoms was 48%; symptoms included heavy sweating, weakness/fatigue, dizziness, muscle cramps, headache, and vertigo. Factors associated with heat-related illness included women and clothing. Sugarcane farmers wearing two-layer shirts had a higher risk of heat-related illness. Farmers with fluid intake 3.1–5.0 liters per day had a 79% lower risk of heat-related illness. Our findings demonstrated that sugarcane farmers are at risk of heat-related illness. We confirmed that working conditions, including wearing proper clothing and water-drinking habits, can reduce this risk.
This study examined inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy in classifying radiographs for pneumoconiosis among Asian physicians taking the AIR Pneumo examination. We compared agreement and diagnostic accuracy for parenchymal and pleural lesions across residing countries, specialty training, and work experience using data on 93 physicians. Physicians demonstrated fair to good agreement with kappa values 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20–0.40), 0.29 (95% CI: 0.23–0.36), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.52–0.67), and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55–0.74) in classifying pleural plaques, small opacity shapes, small opacity profusion, and large opacities, respectively. Kappa values among Asian countries ranging from 0.25 to 0.55 (pleural plaques), 0.47 to 0.73 (small opacity profusion), and 0.55 to 0.69 (large opacity size). The median Youden’s J index (interquartile range) for classifying pleural plaque, small opacity, and large opacity was 61.1 (25.5), 76.8 (29.3), and 88.9 (23.3), respectively. Radiologists and recent graduates showed superior performance than other groups regarding agreement and accuracy in classifying all types of lesions. In conclusion, Asian physicians taking the AIR Pneumo examination were better at classifying parenchymal lesions than pleural plaques using the ILO classification. The degree of agreement and accuracy was different among countries and was associated with background specialty training.
Shiftworkers are more likely to suffer from gastrointestinal disease and Type 2 Diabetes than the general population, likely due to their altered dietary intakes. Previous research has suggested that coping strategies and health behaviours may be linked, however, questions remain regarding these relationships in shiftworking populations. The Standard Shiftwork Index and Food Frequency Questionnaire were completed by nurses/midwives working forward rotating shifts (N=27, female=24, age=38.4 ± 13.1 y). Greater engaged coping strategy usage was associated with lower total energy, fat, carbohydrate and sugar intake (ρs>−0.1). Greater disengaged coping strategy usage was associated with greater intake of these nutrients (ρs>0.1). Results suggest that engaged coping strategies may contribute to healthier dietary choices. A greater focus on coping styles, particularly during nursing education, may improve shiftworkers’ health.
The VOCs and metabolites in urine for exposed VOCs were evaluated for firefighters who participated in the actual fire fighting to determine whether firefighters were exposed to hazardous chemicals, which is the basic data on cancer risk of firefighters. When the fire extinguishing time is long, the concentration of benzene, PHEMA, and toluene among VOCs and metabolites in the case of fire suppression, rescue, and fire investigation work, which is estimated that the exposure of hazardous substances generated from the fire site at the time of fire suppression was large, significantly increased. In the case where the number of urination is 2 or less, the concentration of TZCA, toluene, and benzene among VOCs and metabolites was significantly increased compared to the number of urinating more than 2 times. In the concentration of VOCs and metabolites in urine corrected with creatinine, the concentrations of toluene and PHEMA in urine were significantly higher. The concentration of PHEMA in urine was higher in the group who participated in the fire suppression for more than 11 hours (long time) than the group who participated in the fire suppression for a short time.
This study examined whether interventions through barrier-free home environment improvements could reduce family caregivers’ care stress, improve their family functions, and increase their quality of life. This study recruited family caregivers of older people with disabilities from a long-term care management center in central Taiwan. These older people required improvements related to a barrier-free home environment. A pretest was conducted before and a post-test was conducted 2 months after the improvements. The content of the pretest and the post-test questionnaires included: demographic characteristics, Caregiver stress scale, Family functions scale, World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire. This study recruited 72 family caregivers; the average age was 56.25 ± 12.99 years. The results indicated that interventions through barrier-free home environment improvements could significantly reduce the family caregivers’ care stress, improve their family functions (e.g., reducing conflicts), and enhance their quality of life. Additionally, after intervention, the family cohesion of family caregivers caring for those with mild disability improved to a greater extent than did that of those caring for people with other disease severities. This study revealed that interventions involving barrier-free home environment improvements have positive effects on family caregivers.