Healthcare services provided by registered dietitians and dietitians have been changing because of evolving lifestyles and population dynamics, leading to subsequent changes in the occupational status and experiences of these professionals. However, few studies have examined occupational stress among registered dietitians and dietitians. This study involved a cross-sectional survey to investigate the status and associated factors of work engagement among registered dietitians and dietitians, whose professions differ based on licensing processes and scope of work. A total of 3,593 questionnaires were distributed, 1,890 responses were received, and 1,654 valid questionnaires were analyzed. Work engagement was measured using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between work engagement and each factor. The work engagement scores of dietitians were significantly lower than those of registered dietitians. Further, work engagement was associated with age, workplace, coworker support, and effort-reward ratio for both registered dietitians and dietitians. However, exercise habit was a significant factor associated with work engagement only among dietitians. Work engagement among registered dietitians was comparable to that of typical Japanese workers, whereas it was lower among dietitians. The findings highlight the importance of considering associated factors to improve work engagement further, especially among dietitians.
Long commuting times can induce work-related low back pain (LBP), which can be exacerbated by reduced sports and leisure activities. However, there is a lack of empirical research on commuting time and work-related LBP in Korea. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between commuting time and work-related LBP as well as the effect of sports and leisure activities on Korean workers. We utilized data from the sixth Korean Working Conditions Survey to analyze the relationship between commuting time and work-related LBP using multivariable logistic regression. The total number of included workers was 28,202. Workers without sports and leisure activities, and long commuting times (40–59, 60–79, and ≥80 min) showed significantly higher odds ratios for work-related LBP (1.29 [95% Confidence intervals=1.12–1.49], 1.42 [1.22–1.65], and 1.96 [1.68–2.28], respectively). However, in workers with sports and leisure activities, the results were significant only for commuting times of 60–79 and ≥80 min (1.41 [1.13–1.75], 1.60 [1.28–1.99], respectively). Long commuting times were associated with work-related LBP, and engagement in sports and leisure activities was found to play a role in mitigating the impact among Korean wage workers.
The introduction and implementation of chemical risk assessment is difficult, especially at small and medium-sized manufacturing and construction companies. This study aimed to identify the factors that inhibit or facilitate such assessment. Twelve individuals in charge of risk assessment at one medium-sized client company and eight small and medium-sized contract companies and responsible for innovation in the manufacturing and construction industries were interviewed. The interview transcripts were analyzed via text mining using KH Corder ver. 3 and a co-occurrence network was used to identify the keywords’ connections and each factor in consideration of the interviews. Six factors inhibited or facilitated risk assessment: (1) education on hazardous work in the workplace, (2) improvement suggestions and reduction measures from client and staff, (3) cooperation between employees and contractors in the workplace, (4) thoroughly explanation of SDS content for better understanding, (5) risk awareness based on accident examples, and (6) difficulties imagining the hazards of chemical substances. Factors (1), (2), (3), and (5) were positive, facilitating factors; (4) and (6) were negative, inhibiting factors. This study highlights that it is necessary to educate workers about chemical substance risks using safety data sheets and accident examples in chemical risk assessment.
This report focuses on the occupational health risks associated with the use of artificial stones containing high levels of crystalline silica in the production of kitchen countertops. It presents the case of a 43-yr-old man who developed severe silicosis due to his occupation involving cutting and polishing quartz stone raw materials. A retrospective analysis of the patient’s medical records and occupational history was conducted. The diagnosis of severe silicosis, moderate restrictive lung disease, and bilateral pneumothorax was based on clinical manifestations, pulmonary function test, radiological findings, and histological reports. The patient underwent lung transplantation, and his pulmonary function improved post-surgery. The study highlights the significant health risks associated with procedures involving artificial stones and emphasizes the importance of awareness and protective measures for employees and workers. Clinicians should be cautious when diagnosing respiratory symptoms in patients with a history of occupational exposure to artificial stones containing high levels of crystalline silica.
Understanding the effects of lifestyle and radiation on health is important for the health management of disaster recovery workers. International research has demonstrated the relationship between natural disasters and diseases. The lifestyle and working conditions following the Great East Japan Earthquake potentially increased the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity among affected individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the body mass index (BMI) of 1,341 emergency workers who responded to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The BMI of each emergency worker was measured immediately after the accident and compared with that measured at the initial survey conducted 5 years later to determine the effect of lifestyle habits on BMI. Awareness of the frequency of eating out and caloric intake helped maintain their BMI, while evacuation contributed to the increase in BMI. Prevention of obesity, which can trigger or exacerbate certain health conditions, such as heat exhaustion, infection, and cerebro-cardiovascular disease, requires diet counseling, with a focus on maintaining adequate caloric intake; moreover, special consideration should be provided to evacuated workers.
This study aimed to demonstrate the empirical distinctiveness of boredom at work and work engagement in relation to their potential antecedents (job demands and job resources) and consequences (psychological distress and turnover intention) based on the Job Demands-Resources model. A three-wave longitudinal survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for boredom at work, work engagement, psychological distress, and turnover intention as well as participants’ job characteristics and demographic variables. The hypothesized model was evaluated via structural equation modeling with 1,019 participants who were employed full-time. As expected, boredom at work was negatively associated with quantitative job demands and job resources and positively associated with psychological distress and turnover intention. In contrast, work engagement was positively associated with job resources and negatively associated with turnover intention. Thus, boredom at work and work engagement had different potential antecedents and were inversely related to employee well-being and organizational outcomes. However, contrary to expectations, qualitative job demands were not significantly associated with boredom at work. Further investigation is needed to understand the relationship between boredom and qualitative job demands, which require sustained cognitive load and the use of higher skills.
Mental health problems are prevalent among the working population and must be resolved. We conducted a web-based large-scale study of workers, including a baseline survey and two follow-up surveys, to investigate the associations between self-care behaviors in daily life (e.g., stress coping, sleep, diet, and exercise), work environment improvements, and mental health among Japanese employees from various industries. In this protocol, we demonstrate the study design and demographic data of the participants in the baseline survey. Invitations to participate in this study were sent to 421,825 internet monitor registrants in February 2022. Overall, 20,000 registrants who met the inclusion criteria participated in the survey. There were large variations in occupations and working styles (e.g., physical work, night work, and teleworking) among the participants, and we also found significant differences between male and female participants in the demographic data. An overview of the survey data suggests that the demographic characteristics of the participants in this study are comparable to those reported in previous studies on Japanese employees. We plan to use these survey data in the future to examine the associations of daily lifestyles and work environments with the mental health of Japanese employees.
This study aimed to validate the Indonesian version of the Recovery Experience Questionnaire (REQ-I) to assess how individuals unwind and recuperate from work during their off-job times, specifically in terms of psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control. The translated and back-translated REQ, which has gone through semantic and face validation processes, was administered through an internet survey using 740 Indonesian workers from various backgrounds. Furthermore, confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate factorial validity. Construct validity was evaluated based on the correlation coefficients between recovery experience and potential consequences variables, while internal consistency and test-retest reliability were investigated to evaluate the reliability. The result of CFA showed that the hypothesized four-factor model was the most suitable for the data. Meanwhile, construct validity was supported by expected correlations of recovery experiences with possible consequences. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for each of the four subscales was sufficient at 0.85-0.92. Test-retest reliability of each of the four subscales with three months intervals was confirmed with sufficient intraclass correlation coefficients at 0.60-0.66. This current study confirmed that REQ-I was an adequate measure of recovery experiences used in the Indonesian context.
Blue light emitted during arc welding is known to potentially cause photoretinopathy. To help prevent retinal injury, it is important to identify the hazards associated with various welding conditions. The present work conducted experiments involving gas metal arc welding of mild steel under various conditions, and measured the spectral radiance of the arcs. The effective radiance values, as used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) to quantify exposure level of blue light, were subsequently calculated from the data. The resulting values were in the range of 5.0–118 W/cm2/sr, corresponding to hazardous levels according to ACGIH guidelines. The effective radiance was increased at higher welding currents and when pulsed currents were used rather than steady currents. The blue light hazard was also affected by the type of shielding gas employed. These data confirm that it is very hazardous to stare at arcs during gas metal arc welding of mild steel. As such, appropriate eye protection is necessary during arc welding, and directly staring at the arc should be avoided.
This study examined physicians’ participation and performance in the examinations administered by the Asian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconiosis (AIR Pneumo) program from 2008 to 2020 and compared radiograph readings of physicians who passed with those who failed the examinations. Demography of the participants, participation trends, pass/fail rates, and proficiency scores were summarized; differences in reading the radiographs for pneumoconiosis of physicians who passed the examinations and those who failed were evaluated.By December 2020, 555 physicians from 20 countries had taken certification examinations; the number of participants increased in recent years. Reported background specialty training and work experience varied widely. Passing rate and mean proficiency score for participants who passed were 83.4% and 77.6 ± 9.4 in certification, and 76.8% and 88.1 ± 4.5 in recertification examinations. Compared with physicians who passed the examinations, physicians who failed tended to classify test radiographs as positive for pneumoconiosis and read a higher profusion; they likely missed large opacities and pleural plaques and had a lower accuracy in recognizing the shape of small opacities. Findings suggest that physicians who failed the examination tend to over-diagnose radiographs as positive for pneumoconiosis with higher profusion and have difficulty in correctly identifying small opacity shape.
Slips, trips, and falls (STFs) represent a main source of injury among farm workers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between farm operations and STFs among corn farm workers.We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among corn farm workers in Nan and Saraburi provinces, Thailand from July 5 to 23, 2022. Poisson regression analysis was used.Among 338 participants, 122 (36.1%) had experienced an STF in the previous 6 months. Conducting very frequent, frequent, or occasional pest management was associated with a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR) of STFs than never or rarely pest management (adjusted IRR 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 3.04, p=0.004). People with marginal or unsatisfactory work break lengths had a higher incidence rate of STFs than those with satisfactory work breaks (adjusted IRR 1.40, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.89, p=0.030).We found that corn farm workers in our study often experienced STFs, which was associated with a high frequency of pest management practices and inadequate work breaks. Reducing the physical burden of pest management may be effective as an STF prevention strategy.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of occupational pushing and pulling combined with improper working posture on work-related low back pain (LBP) among workers. A web-based survey was conducted in 2022 to collect data from 15,623 workers, who were categorized into proper and improper working posture groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association between pushing and pulling loads and LBP in each group. In the proper working posture group, the odds ratios (ORs) of LBP for workers who pushed and pulled were not significantly different compared with those of no-handling workers. However, in the improper working posture group, the ORs of LBP were significantly greater among workers who pushed and pulled compared with those of no-handling workers, and this association became stronger with increasing weights. Therefore, improper working posture combined with pushing and pulling were strongly associated with LBP among workers, particularly with heavier weights.
This study investigated teachers’ occupational stress using a comprehensive job stress questionnaire, or the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, while considering gender differences. A total of 1,825 elementary and junior high school teachers participated in the study. The results revealed that female teachers significantly exhibited more psychological and physical stress reactions and perceived less job resource availability than did male teachers. Moreover, multiple regression analyses demonstrated that support from family and friends was a larger factor associated with mental health outcomes among female teachers than among male teachers. The impacts of marital status also differed between male and female teachers. Job demands were strongly associated with psychological and physical stress reactions among teachers. Meanwhile, job resources were more strongly associated with positive workplace outcomes, such as workplace engagement and social capital than were job demands. Administrators should consider the distinctive nature of teachers’ occupational stress in addition to its gender specific influence. Organizational support, such as securing teachers’ autonomy, encouraging their career development, and acknowledging diversity should be considered to foster teachers’ work engagement and create a cohesive environment in the school workplace.
This study compared the relative performance of alternative frequency weightings of hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) to predict the extent of cold-induced vasoconstriction in the digital arteries of HTV workers. The cold response of digital arteries was related to measures of daily vibration exposure expressed in terms of r.m.s. acceleration magnitude normalised to an 8-h day, frequency weighted according to either the frequency weighting Wh defined in international standard ISO 5349-1:2001 (Ah(8) in ms–2 r.m.s.) or the hand-arm vascular frequency weighting Wp proposed in the ISO Technical Report 18570:2007 (Ap(8) in ms–2 r.m.s.). The measure of daily vibration exposure constructed with the frequency weighting Wp (Ap(8)) was a better predictor of the cold response of the digital arteries in the HTV workers than the metric derived from the conventional ISO frequency weighting Wh (Ah(8)). This finding suggests that a measure of daily vibration exposure constructed with the vascular weighting Wp, which gives more weight to intermediate- and high-frequency vibration (31.5–250 Hz), performed better for the prediction of cold induced digital arterial hyperresponsiveness than that obtained with the frequency weighting Wh recommended in ISO 5349-1 which gives more importance to lower frequency vibration (≤16 Hz).
Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) can negatively affect patients’ employment and work-life activities with a significant indirect economic impact. The current study aimed to measure unemployment, work productivity, activity impairment, and their associated factors among COPD patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Chest outpatient clinic, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. COPD patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including sociodemographic, occupational data, clinical history, medical research council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, the COPD assessment test (CAT), and work productivity and activity impairment Questionnaire (WPAI-COPD). A total 140 patients were included in the study and 22.1% of them gave up their jobs because of their COPD. Due to COPD, the mean percentage of daily activity impairment was 39.8 among all patients. The mean percentages of absenteeism, presenteeism, and overall work impairment among the 84 working patients were 0.07, 24.4, and 24.5. The CAT score was the significant predictor of all components of WPAI. In conclusion, COPD causes early retirement, high work productivity loss, and impaired daily activities. Higher CAT scores and increased disease severity significantly increase absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work, and activity impairment. Thus, timely diagnosis of COPD with appropriate management can help improve outcomes and lower the disease burden and economic impact.
This study aimed to investigate the circumstances, characteristics, and background factors of mental disorders within the information technology (IT) industry, which is known for the frequent occurrence of mental disorders from overwork and poor psychosocial work environment. The study analyzed 238 cases of mental disorders and suicides in the IT industry from fiscal years 2010 to 2018 on the database constructed by the Japan Research Center for Overwork-Related Disorders. The results showed a higher number of cases among men (n=178, 74.8%) and an increasing number among women. The data for diagnosis of mental diseases indicated a high number of depressive episodes (150 cases, 63.0%). Regarding work-induced psychological burden, 37 cases (15.5%) reported “extremely long working hours” for “special events” and 65 cases (27.3%) reported “constantly long working hours”. For “specific events”, 87 cases (36.6%) reportedly “caused (major) changes in the content and amount of work”. Among women, 13 cases (21.7%) of “sexual harassment” (SH), which showed an increasing trend. Therefore, in the IT industry, the working hours must be properly managed. Mental health measures should also accompany improved psychosocial environment in the workplace, and prohibition of SH at work in particular.
Regulatory guidance materials for fatigue management typically advise that employees be provided with days or weeks of advance notice of schedules/rosters. However, the scientific evidence underpinning this advice is unclear. A systematic search was performed on current peer reviewed literature addressing advance notice periods, which found three relevant studies. A subsequent search of grey literature to determine the quality of evidence for the recommendation for advance notice periods returned 37 relevant documents. This review found that fatigue management guidance materials frequently advocated advance notice for work shifts but did not provide empirical evidence to underpin the advice. Although it is logical to suggest that longer notice periods may result in increased opportunities for pre-work preparations, improved sleep, and reduced worker fatigue, the current guidance appears to be premised on this reasoning rather than empirical evidence. Paradoxically, it is possible that advance notice could be counterproductive, as too much may result in frequent alterations to the schedule, particularly where adjustments to start and end times of the work period are not uncommon (e.g., road transport, rail). To assist organisations in determining the appropriate amount of advance notice to provide, we propose a novel theoretical framework to conceptualise advance notice.
Potential insomnia in healthcare workers is a public health concern as it may degrade the quality of patient care. We examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in healthcare workers and their perceived need for a sleep intervention. Participants were 62 nurses working full-time at a U.S. hospital. These nurses were asked about background characteristics, perceived stress, sleep concerns, and need for a sleep intervention. They also participated in 14-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and actigraphy sleep study. A qualitative analysis showed that the majority (92%) of participants reported at least one sleep concern with insomnia-related concerns being most prevalent (68%). Quantitative analyses indicated that those with insomnia-related concerns had higher perceived stress overall and lower EMA sleep sufficiency and sleep quality. Moreover, participants with insomnia concerns had shorter actigraphy-measured nap duration prior to non-workdays than those without. Nearly all (95%) expressed interest in participating in a sleep intervention; an online format and mindfulness contents were most preferred. Our results suggest a high prevalence of insomnia symptoms and a high interest in a sleep intervention in nurses. Information obtained from this study could be used to deliver a tailored sleep intervention for nurses whose role in public health is essential.
This study evaluated whether cold-induced deterioration in neuromuscular function can be restored by intermittently increasing the workload. We examined the level of muscular strain, agonist-antagonist co-activation, the occurrence of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency in wrist flexor and extensor muscles at 21°C (TN) and 4°C (C10) with a 10%MVC workload. During second exposure to 4°C (C50) the workload was increased every fourth minute to 50%MVC. The results indicated that muscular strain and co-activation was the highest and the amount of EMG gaps and neuromuscular efficiency the lowest at C10. By intermittently increasing the workload at C50 we were able to reduce muscular strain and co-activation (p<0.05) and induce a trend like increase in EMG gaps and enhance neuromuscular efficiency in relation to C10 (NS). It may be concluded that intermittently increasing the workload, i.e. breaking the monotonous work cycle was able to partially restore neuromuscular function.
Leukotrienes (LTs) are involved in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and were increased in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of the patients with pneumoconiosis. However the possible influence of extra-pulmonary disorders on the EBC markers is not known. Therefore in parallel with EBC, LTs’ levels in the plasma and urine were measured in patients with pneumoconiosis (45x asbestos exposure, 37x silica exposure) and in 27 controls. Individual LTs B4, C4, D4 and E4 were measured by liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). In EBC, LT D4 and LT E4 were increased in both groups of patients (p<0.001 and p<0.05), comparing with the controls. Both LT B4 and cysteinyl LTs were elevated in asbestos-exposed subjects (p<0.05). Asbestosis with more severe radiological signs (s1/s2-t3/u2) and lung functions impairment has shown higher cysteinyl LTs and LT C4 in the EBC (p<0.05) than mild asbestosis (s1/s0-s1/s1). In addition, in the subjects with asbestosis, cysteinyl LTs in EBC correlated with TLC (-0.313, p<0.05) and TLCO/Hb (-0.307, p<0.05), and LT C4 with TLC (-0.358, p<0.05). In pneumoconioses, EBC appears the most useful from the 3 fluids studied.
Many work activities include hazards to workers, and among these biological risk is particularly important, mostly because of different types of exposure, contact with highly dangerous agents, lack of limit values able to compare all exposures, presence of workers with defective immune systems and therefore more susceptible to the risk. Bioaerosols and dust are considered important vehicles of microganisms at workplaces and interaction with other occupational agents is assumed. Moreover, biological risk can be significant in countries with increasing economic development or particular habits and some biological agents are also classified as carcinogenic to human. Specific emerging biological risks have been recently pointed out by Risk Observatory of the European Agency for Safety and Health at work, and we must consider the worker’s attitude and behaviour, influenced by his own perception of risk more than his real knowledge, that could over-underestimate the risk itself. Therefore, biological risk at work requires a complex approach in relation to risk assessment and risk management, made more difficult due to the wide variety of biological agents, working environments and working techniques that can determine the exposures.
The mental health problems of employees have become a major occupational health issue in Japan. External employee assistance program providers (EAP) have become important in mental health care for workers, but their activities are poorly documented. This descriptive study was undertaken to clarify the status and future tasks of EAP in Japan. The subjects were all EAP (n=27) registered in the Japanese Chapter of Employee Assistance Professionals Association. The questionnaire survey was conducted in January 2007. We received 13 replies, a response rate of 54.2%. Most EAP provided seminars, stress checks, stress management, counseling, and support for a return to work. The number of EAP contracted with small-scale enterprises was small. EAP communicated infrequently with companies. To promote the use of EAP, their advertising, education and training of staff, accumulation of scientific evidence, development of an official certification system for staff, and improvement of contents of EAP services were cited.
The present study analyzes the effect of work stressors, personal strain and coping resources on burnout among Chinese medical professionals. A total of 2,721 medical professionals were selected using the stratified cluster sampling method. A Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to measure burnout, whereas the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was used to evaluate work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources. The structural equation model (SEM) was established to test the effect of work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources on burnout. Among the predictive factors for burnout, work stressors and personal strain were the primary risk factors, whereas coping resources make up the important protective factor. The result from SEM indicated that work stressors had both direct and indirect effects on burnout, with the indirect effect mediated by both personal strain and coping resources. Coping resources only affected burnout indirectly, as mediated by personal strain, whereas personal strain affected burnout independently. The results suggest that work stressors, personal strain, and coping resources play important roles in burnout among medical professionals. To prevent burnout, such countermeasures as controlling the work stressors, reducing personal strain, and strengthening coping resources are recommended.
This study examines predictors of sickness absence in patients presenting to a health practitioner with acute/subacute low back pain (LBP). Aims of this study were to identify baseline-variables that detect patients with a new LBP episode at risk of sickness absence and to identify prognostic models for sickness absence at different time points after initial presentation. Prospective cohort study investigating 310 patients presenting to a health practitioner with a new episode of LBP at baseline, three-, six-, twelve-week and six-month follow-up, addressing work-related, psychological and biomedical factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify baseline-predictors of sickness absence at different time points. Prognostic models comprised ‘job control’, ‘depression’ and ‘functional limitation’ as predictive baseline-factors of sickness absence at three and six-week follow-up with ‘job control’ being the best single predictor (OR 0.47; 95%CI 0.26–0.87). The six-week model explained 47% of variance of sickness absence at six-week follow-up (p<0.001). The prediction of sickness absence beyond six-weeks is limited, and health practitioners should re-assess patients at six weeks, especially if they have previously been identified as at risk of sickness absence. This would allow timely intervention with measures designed to reduce the likelihood of prolonged sickness absence.
The WBGT heat stress index has been well tested under a variety of climatic conditions and quantitative links have been established between WBGT and the work-rest cycles needed to prevent heat stress effects at the workplace. While there are more specific methods based on individual physiological measurements to determine heat strain in an individual worker, the WBGT index is used in international and national standards to specify workplace heat stress risks. In order to assess time trends of occupational heat exposure at population level weather station records or climate modelling are the most widely available data sources. The prescribed method to measure WBGT requires special equipment which is not used at weather stations. We compared published methods to calculate outdoor and indoor WBGT from standard climate data, such as air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Specific criteria for recommending a method were developed and original measurements were used to evaluate the different methods. We recommend the method of Liljegren et al. (2008) for calculating outdoor WBGT and the method by Bernard et al. (1999) for indoor WBGT when estimating climate change impacts on occupational heat stress at a population level.
This study investigated the distinctiveness between workaholism and work engagement by examining their longitudinal relationships (measurement interval=7 months) with well-being and performance in a sample of 1,967 Japanese employees from various occupations. Based on a previous cross-sectional study (Shimazu & Schaufeli, 2009), we expected that workaholism predicts future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance. T1–T2 changes in ill-health, life satisfaction and job performance were measured as residual scores that were then included in the structural equation model. Results showed that workaholism and work engagement were weakly and positively related to each other. In addition, workaholism was related to an increase in ill-health and to a decrease in life satisfaction. In contrast, work engagement was related to a decrease in ill-health and to increases in both life satisfaction and job performance. These findings suggest that workaholism and work engagement are two different kinds of concepts that are oppositely related to well-being and performance.
29 physicians (A1-Group) and 24 physicians (A2-Group) attending the 1st and 2nd “Asian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconiosis” (AIR Pneumo) training course, respectively, and 22 physicians (B-Group) attending the Brazilian training course took the examination of reading the 60-film set. The objective of the study was firstly to investigate the factor structure of physiciansf proficiency of reading pneumoconiosis chest X-ray, and secondly to examine differences in factor scores between groups. Reading results in terms of the 8-index of all examinees (Examinee Group) were subjected to the exploratory factor analysis. A 4-factor was analyzed to structure the 8-index: the specificity for pneumoconiosis, specificity for large opacities, specificity for pleural plaque and shape differentiation for small opacities loaded on the Factor 1; the sensitivity for pneumoconiosis and sensitivity for large opacities loaded on the Factor 2; the sensitivity for pleural plaque loaded on the Factor 3; the profusion increment consistency loaded on the Factor 4. 4-Factor scores were compared between each other of the three groups. The Factor 2 scores in A1 and A2 groups were significantly higher than in B-Group. Four factors could reflect four aspects of reading proficiency of pneumoconiosis X-ray, and it was suggested that 4-factor scores could also assess the attained skills appropriately.