The information technology to assist the legal affairs, or LegalTech, is growing. Although many kinds of benefits, such as the higher level, efficiency and decrease in costs, are to be expected to be enjoyed, different from lawyers and legal professional corporations, whose quality is guaranteed by the bar exam system, legal training system and etc., there are risks that low-quality LegalTech services are to be provided. Article 72 of Attorney Act prohibits those who are not lawyers or legal professional corporations to engage in the business of provide legal services on legal cases for the purpose of obtaining compensation. This Article is provided to tackle with the similar risks on human non-lawyers. This article analyzes the possibilities of applying Article 72 of Attorney Act to LegalTech and the challenges therefor.
With development in cloud technology, several judicial judgments have been delivered in Japan regarding the extraterritorial data acquisition in the process of criminal investigation. Meanwhile, CLOUD Act have been in force since 2018. This Act permits direct extraterritorial enforcement of data acquisition by the U.S. while permitting qualifying foreign governments to acquire the data in the U.S. under certain conditions. This paper analyzes the details and issues of the CLOUD Act, especially those regarding the reciprocity and violation of data privacy regulations in other countries.
AR (Augmented Reality) is a technology that superimposes virtual information on the real world that does not reach the entire field of view. Pokémon GO exists as a representative application of AR. In Pokémon GO, bases in the game such as “Pokestop” and “Gym” are placed by plotting landmarks in the real world in AR space, and many players’ (trainers’) gathering for Pokestop and Gim, may cause nuisance or trespass of land ownership etc. The owner will try to delete Pokestop and Gim from within AR space, There are two approaches of legal basis for the deletion, but 1) while the land ownership approach seems to be effective, 2) right to privacy approach is considered difficult to exercise in the right way.
Japanese local governments have now enacted personal information protection (PIP) bylaws, but the regulation methods vary, and the regulations are interpreted or applied differently. This problem is known as the P2K Problem, i.e., the problem posed by 2,000 PIP systems. In local governments, these systems are more complicated because they are applied in cases that are beyond the jurisprudence of personal information protection.
In this paper, I check the rules of PIP systems of local governments and discuss the adjustments of them necessary to effectively protect the privacy of individuals from public institutions.
In Japan, the government’s cronyism scandal on Moritomo Gakuen land deal has been attracting public attention. As the parties concerned hide the facts and falsify them to misunderstand the recognition, not only can they not discuss the solution for the fundamental solution, but there is also concern that the purification action of the society may become dysfunctional.
For such problems, the authors have researched from the standpoint that the means of tracing back is important in order to clarify the facts if there is fraud or suspicion. It is because if it can be traced back, it can be a deterrent to fraud.
In this paper, we consider a fact definition, a document management function, and a falsification prevention function. In particular, prime “definition of fact” is the core part including the function of generating facts conveniently and cross-referencing facts, which makes it possible to examine the causality of suspicion or fraud. The second term uses the name of Git in a symbolic sense, and means a model of cross reference for each version, such as updating and deleting such as correction and correction of a document with transparency of Git. The third term uses the name of the block chain in a symbolic sense, and means a model of the document tampering prevention function by the block chain and the original Merkle tree. The document management system can be constructed from the above three functions.
Legal regulations on the use of drones have begun to be established in various countries, and various regulations are currently being considered in order to make utilization of drones possible including delivery by drones.
Japan has been revising the laws regulating drones centering the Civil Aeronautics Law as well. However, the question of what and how to regulate the usage of Drones to reduce risk has not been fully addressed. In particular, it is significant to look at the status of regulations in other countries, as there are common prerequisites for regulating the use of drones, including how to respond to risks in the usage of Drones in the cities. In this paper, the status of laws and regulations related to the utilization of drones in the U.S. and Germany are reviewed, and the current status and issues of legal regulations in conjunction with the situation in Japan are discussed. As a result, it was found that some regulations in Japan need to be improved because there are no special regulations especially on collection of information by the drones.