Background: The diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE) was published by the Japanese Circulation Society. But in Japan, there has been no report on how to improve the pre-test probability in APTE-suspected cases, to determine a practically available diagnostic strategy, nor has been a report that compares diagnostic methods and therapies for APTE by decision analysis. Methods and Results: APTE was found in 66.7% before using diagnostic imaging techniques. Compared with the absence of APTE, prolonged immobilization, cancer, tachycardia, unilateral leg swelling and inverted T-wave in V1-3 were found more often in the presence of APTE. The rate of obtaining the result on the day of ordering the examination test was 100% with arterial blood gas analysis, trans-thoracic echocardiography and computed tomography (CT), 78.2% in D-dimer, 85.5% in pulmonary angiography, and 54.5% in perfusion lung scan. Decision analysis showed that the highest expected utility was anticoagulant over 0.51 in pre-test probability, with CT between 0.13 and 0.51. Conclusions: The pre-test probability of APTE has already been high before using specific diagnostic imaging techniques in Japan. Our results showed that the diagnostic strategy for APTE made by the Japanese Circulation Society was available in most hospitals in Japan.
Objective: The present study aims to overcome problems associated with the early diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) using the current criteria. Patients and Methods: Clinical features including radiographic findings from 10 patients with definitive ABPM based on the diagnostic criteria of Rosenberg-Patterson were compared with those from 9 patients with ABPM clinically diagnosed by respiratory allergy specialists. Results: ABPM should be considered in patients with peripheral blood eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltration and/or central bronchiectasis when serum total IgE is elevated. Complication by bronchial asthma suggested ABPM, but was not essential. The expectoration of sputum containing solid components was a critical factor in patients with a history in ABPM. Evaluation of sputum cultures, serum specific IgE antibodies, skin tests and precipitating antibodies were required to establish a diagnosis, but the positive rate of these tests remained low. Conclusions: Even when a definitive diagnosis cannot be established, systemic corticosteroid therapy should be initiated for clinically diagnosed ABPM to prevent irreversible pulmonary dysfunction.
We report a case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) causing acute myocardial infarction, which was complicated by vasospastic angina (VA). The patient received intravenous administration of t-PA. Emergency coronary angiography demonstrated narrowing of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) due to SCAD. During hospitalization, the patient suffered chest pain, and ECG showed ST elevation in the inferior leads. Sublingual administration of nitroglycerin provided temporary remission. Coronary stent implantation was performed electively using intravascular ultrasound imaging. This is the first reported case of SCAD associated with vasospasm in a non-culprit coronary artery during the hospitalization.
Background: Conventional treatments for symptomatic enlargement of a nonfunctional hydronephrotic kidney caused by obstructive uropathy include surgical treatments. Methods: Patients included a 67-year-old woman whose obstruction was caused by a lower urinary tract stone complicating spinal tuberculosis (patient 1); a 52-year-old man with compressive complete congenital obstruction crossing the ureteropelvic junction from an abberant renal artery (patient 2); and a 19-year-old woman with essentially complete idiopathic congenital obstruction at the ureteropelvic junction (patient 3), who required antibiotics for pyelonephritis before embolization. The renal artery was embolized using platinum microcoils. Results: Although the sensation of abdominal fullness diminished within approximately two week after TAE, it took one to two yeaes until the embolized kidney size shrank from 1377±634 cm3 (range, 829 to 2072) to 43±46 cm3 (42 to 94) by the evaluation of computed tomography. Fever after embolization persisted for 5 days in patient 1, 3 in patient 2, and 9 in patient 3. Flank pain resolved within 5 days in all. Pyelonephritis and complications of treatment have not occurred. Conclusion: Embolization for this indication was safe and effective.
Kimura's disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder that occurs mainly in Asian patients. Most imaging studies focus on the loco-regional involvement of this disorder. Images of the whole body fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) scan have not been reported in the literature before. The possibility of lymphoid clonality is also discussed frequently despite its clinically benign course. We present a patient of Kimura's disease initially assessed by whole body 18F-FDG PET study and proved by pathologic findings. 18F-FDG-PET scan showed diffusely intense uptake in the neck, axillary, pelvic and inguinal nodal regions bilaterally, as well as in the mediastinal, celiac region. The flow cytometric analysis of lymph node tissue confirmed the absence of clonality. The image of 18F-FDG-PET in Kimura's disease can closely resemble that seen in neoplastic disorders such as lymphoma or metastatic lymphadenopathy. It should be taken into consideration as a differential diagnosis for a generalized lymphadenopathy.
We report a 16-year-old woman with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, presenting polymorphonuclear pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neurological manifestation similar to meningoencephalitis. VKH disease, which has severe neurological manifestations including numerous CSF polymorphonuclear pleocytosis, should be considered as a differential diagnosis from infectious meningoencephalitis.
We report a rare case of fulminating adult-onset measles encephalitis. A 34-year-old man developed a comatous state after measles eruptions and ultimately akinetic mutism. Titers of anti-measles IgM antibodies were elevated in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3 months after onset revealed widespread hyperintense lesions in the periventricular white matter and marginal hyperintense lesions in the brainstem on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted images. The marginal lesions in the brainstem are similar to subpial demyelinating lesions seen in postinfectious encephalomyelitis. This case of encephalitis may be related to an autoimmune-mediated process triggered by measles infection.
A 68-year-old woman with Parkinson disease (PD) presented with acute monoplegia of her left upper extremity after the neck and limb immobilization for several hours. Her sensory function was normal, and the chest X-ray showed left phrenic nerve palsy. Electrophysiological studies showed multi-segment muscle involvement (C3 to T1) including denervation potentials and reduced interference of motor units in needle electromyography. M wave amplitude in peripheral nerve stimulation was preserved except for the ulnar nerve, suggesting both axonal injury and conduction block at the anterior spinal roots. The patient showed fair recovery in several months, suggesting sufficient reinnervation and recovery of conduction block. Incomplete root avulsion was thought to be the pathomechanism of acute cervical motor radiculopathy.
We have studied the serology of 6 patients with palindromic rheumatism. None of the patients fulfilled the classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis at the entry; however, 4 out of the 6 patients were seropositive for IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) at entry. Sequential serological study was performed in 4 patients; IgM-RF changed from seronegative to seropositive in one patient, and the titer increased in another patient. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP Ab) at the entry was detected in only one of the 6 patients; that patient later developed RA. Although follow-up is necessary, the present study may suggest the importance of serological examination, especially anti-CCP Ab, in patients with palindromic rheumatism.