Objective Organophosphate compounds are possibly the most widely-used insecticides worldwide. Organophosphate compounds cause poisoning, inhibiting acetylcholinesterase at the cholinergic synapses. Civilian casualties resulted from a terrorist attack with sarin in a Tokyo subway. Recent terrorist activities have also raised concerns that organophosphate or nerve agents may be used as a weapon of terror or mass destruction. Methods In this study, an extraordinary type of mass poisoning was evaluated. Especially by focusing on the way of poisoning, the demographic features and clinical findings of patients were analyzed. Results After eating a wheat bagel, 13 patients with organophosphate poisoning were admitted to our emergency department. Seven were males and 6 were females. The mean age of the patients was 26 ± 13.9. The mean serum acetylcholinesterase level was 2945.1±2648.9 U/L. Nine patients who had supportive treatment and who were given atropine and pralidoxime were hospitalized approximately 6.8±6.5 days. All of the patients recovered after the treatment and no deaths occurred. Conclusion If organophosphate poisoning is not diagnosed and treated in time, it may be fatal. When cases of food poisoning are admitted to the hospital, attention must be taken especially if it is a mass poisoning.
Objective Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) patients occasionally follow a prolonged course despite standard antiviral treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical variables to identify predictors of a prolonged course. Methods A series of 23 HSVE patients treated with acyclovir (ACV) during the acute stage were selected and divided into 2 groups: the non-prolonged group (n = 15), with improvement within 2 weeks after initial ACV treatment; and the prolonged group (n = 8), without improvement within 2 weeks. Differences in clinical variables, including age, duration from onset to initial ACV treatment, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, corticosteroid administration, detection of abnormal lesions on initial cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, detection of periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges on electroencephalogram, and clinical outcome, were compared between the groups. Results There were significant differences in GCS score, clinical outcome, and detection of lesions on CT between the non-prolonged and prolonged groups [p = 0.021, p = 0.041 (Mann-Whitney's U test), respectively, and p = 0.027 (Fisher's exact test)]. Four of the eight patients with a prolonged course had a poor outcome despite treatment with additional drugs. Conclusion A lower GCS and a higher rate of lesions on CT were identified as predictors of a prolonged course for HSVE. These predictors are in accordance with the conventional predictors of poor outcome for HSVE. This study suggests that the initial ACV treatment was insufficient for HSVE patients with these predictors at the acute stage. The initial treatment may need to be modified for such patients.
In a 57-year-old woman who was referred as refractory diastolic heart failure, dobutamine stress echocardiography facilitated the diagnosis of acute worsening of mitral regurgitation accompanied with latent left ventricular outflow tract obstruction as a cause of recurrent flash pulmonary edema. Echocardiography revealed the presence of sigmoid septum and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, being consistent with hypertensive heart disease. Dobutamine induced systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) with massive mitral regurgitation, resulting in sudden hypotension with dyspnea. The class Ia antiarrhythmic drug, cibenzoline, reduced the SAM during a dobutamine stress test, followed by no recurrence of flash pulmonary edema.
A 64-year-old woman was admitted because of leg edema. Fifteen years previously she had been diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Urinary immunoelectrophoresis demonstrated positivity for IgA kappa light chains. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a mild plasmacytosis. Her renal biopsy specimen revealed thickened basement membrane, mesangial cell proliferation and an increase in the mesangial matrix. Immunofluorescence studies showed the deposition of kappa light chains in the capillary wall and nodular lesions. These findings confirmed a diagnosis of light chain deposit disease (LCDD) with MGUS. The development of LCDD in patients with MGUS for fifteen years is very rare.
We report 2 rare cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma accompanied by pulmonary involvement with diffuse ground-glass opacity. Histological examination of the lung revealed a diffuse large B-cell-type lymphoma within the bronchiolar wall and alveolar septum. Although this is a rare occurrence, diffuse large B-cell-type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary diffuse ground-glass opacity in the chest CT scan.
AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) is a serious complication of HIV infection. We performed MEAM (MCNU + etoposide + cytarabine + L-PAM) regimen with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for three patients with refractory or relapsed ARL. All three patients had been treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) during the course of the treatment regimen and ASCT. The regimen was well tolerable, and no uncontrollable infection was noted. All patients are still alive and maintain complete remission at 24, 20 and 9 months after transplantation. ASCT using MEAM regimen as a conditioning regimen was feasible for our patients with refractory or relapsed ARL.
Although 18F-FDG-PET is very sensitive for a variety of malignancies, it can lack specificity. In addition to malignant tissue, any active infectious or inflammatory process can demonstrate FDG avidity. We report 3 patients with different types of cancer who had abnormal 18F-FDG uptake on PET scan caused by tuberculous lymphadenitis. All were found to have incidental multiple lymph adenopathies with increased FDG uptake on PET scan. All three patients were proved to have tuberculosis lymphadenitis by pathologic examination and were successfully treated with anti-tuberculous therapy.