Objective To improve the prognosis of severe acute pancreatitis, preventing infectious complications, particularly infected pancreatic necrosis, is important. The present study evaluated the efficacy of peritoneal lavage for improving the prognosis of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Patients We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 23 consecutive patients with severe acute pancreatitis who were treated with peritoneal lavage. Results Peritoneal lavage was started within 72 hours after the initial onset of symptoms in 20 patients (87%). The duration of peritoneal lavage, which was significantly correlated with the number of prognostic factors according to the revised Japanese criteria, Ranson score and serum C-reactive protein level at the start of peritoneal lavage, was a median of seven (3-22) days. There were no adverse events associated with the peritoneal lavage. Eight patients (35%) concurrently underwent continuous regional arterial infusion. Five days after starting peritoneal lavage, the patients' clinical conditions significantly improved. Overall, the survival rate was 96%. One patient (4%) died due to rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery. Complications occurred in seven patients (30%). Infectious complications were observed in three patients (13%) (one patient developed infected pancreatic necrosis and bacteremia, and two patients developed bacteremia). Pseudocysts and pancreatic fistulas developed in five and one patient, respectively. The incidence of complications was lower in the patients receiving peritoneal lavage within 72 hours from the initial onset of symptoms than in the remaining patients (20% vs. 100%; p=0.005). Conclusion We speculate that peritoneal lavage reduces the mortality and incidence of complications in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.
Objective Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have an increased risk of congestive heart failure (CHF) as well as ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical predictors of CHF in patients with non-valvular AF (NVAF). Methods Three hundred and forty-seven patients (derivation cohort) with NVAF were retrospectively evaluated between 2004 and 2005. The associations between potential risk factors and CHF were tested using a Cox proportional hazards analysis, and a risk score for predicting CHF was created. The model was then validated in 161 patients (validation cohort) enrolled between 2008 and 2010. During the follow-up period, 41 patients in the derivation cohort developed CHF requiring hospitalization due to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV disease. Four independent risk factors were identified, each of which was assigned a number of points as follows: Age ≥72 years (1 point), heart rate ≥80 bpm (1 point), hypertension (1 point), and a previous history of congestive heart failure (2 points). The patients were grouped into one of three risk categories according to the calculated risk score (ARC2H score): low risk (0 points), intermediate risk (1-3 points) and high risk (4-5 points). Result In the derivation cohort, the annual rates of CHF in these risk categories were 0%, 2.5% and 18% per year respectively. In the validation cohort, the corresponding rates were 0.8%, 8% and 35% per year respectively. Conclusion A simple clinical risk score, the ARC2H score, was developed to predict CHF in patients with NVAF and validated in an independent cohort.
Objective Although caloric restriction is a widely used intervention to reduce body weight and insulin resistance, many patients are unable to comply with such dietary therapy for long periods. The clinical effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets was recently described in a position statement of Diabetes UK and a scientific review conducted by the American Diabetes Association. However, randomised trials of dietary interventions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a non-calorie-restricted, low-carbohydrate diet in Japanese patients unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet. Methods The enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive a conventional calorie-restricted diet or low-carbohydrate diet. The patients received consultations every two months from a registered dietician for six months. We compared the effects of the two dietary interventions on glycaemic control and metabolic profiles. Results The HbA1c levels decreased significantly from baseline to six months in the low-carbohydrate diet group (baseline 7.6±0.4%, six months 7.0±0.7%, p=0.03) but not in the calorie-restricted group (baseline 7.7±0.6%, six months 7.5±1.0%, n.s.), (between-group comparison, p=0.03). The patients in the former group also experienced improvements in their triglyceride levels, without experiencing any major adverse effects or a decline in the quality of life. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet is effective in lowering the HbA1c and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet.
Objective Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with neuroaxonal spheroids (HDLS) is an adult-onset white matter disease that presents clinically with cognitive, mental and motor dysfunction. Several autopsy reports have indicated that the corpus callosum (CC), the largest bundle of white matter, is severely affected in patients with HDLS. The aim of this study was to evaluate corpus callosum atrophy (CCA) quantitatively in HDLS patients. Methods We assessed CCA in six genetically-proven HDLS patients (HDLS group), in comparison with that observed in 20 patients with vascular dementia (VaD group) and 24 age-matched patients without organic central nervous system (CNS) disease (non-CNS group). Using midsagittal MR images, five measurements of the CC were obtained: the width of the rostrum (aa'), body (bb') and splenium (cc'), the anterior to posterior length (ab) and the maximum height (cd). Next, the corpus callosum index (CCI) was calculated as (aa' + bb' + cc')/ab. Results All HDLS patients had white matter lesions in the CC and frontoparietal lobes on the initial MRI scans. Compared with that observed in the VaD and age-matched non-CNS groups, the CCI was significantly decreased in the HDLS group (with VaD group, p<0.01; with non-CNS group, p<0.01). Conclusion This study showed significant atrophy of the CC in all HDLS patients on the initial MRI scans obtained 6-36 months after onset. We propose that the early appearance of CCA, frequently accompanied by high-intensity in the genu and/or splenium, on T2 images is an important diagnostic clue to HDLS.
A 70-year-old Japanese man was hospitalized for expanding purpura and chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) caused by decompensated liver cirrhosis. As there are no effective treatments for chronic DIC caused by liver cirrhosis, we decided to administer recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhsTM) after he provided informed consent. The DIC was rapidly improved; however, the purpura and coagulopathy recurred after two months, and repeated rhsTM treatments were required. The rhsTM treatment sufficiently controlled the coagulopathy for two years, without any complications, including bleeding. This is the first report demonstrating that rhsTM can be administered safely and repeatedly to a patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis, and that it appears to be associated with a favorable outcome.
Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare clinical condition defined by the presence of dyspnea and deoxygenation accompanying changing from a supine to an upright position. We experienced the case of a 75-year-old woman who developed severe acute dyspnea after a car accident. Detailed history taking and a physical examination offered important clues that helped to make an accurate diagnosis of POS. The mechanism of onset is unique and rare; however, it is important for clinical cardiologists to keep this possibility in mind when making a differential diagnosis.
We herein report the case of a woman with aniridia and with a heterozygous PAX6 mutation. Pax6 is a transcription factor involved in the development of several organs, including the eye, pancreas and pituitary. The patient had been diagnosed with aniridia in childhood and was found to have impaired glucose tolerance with a heterozygous PAX6 mutation 12 years prior to the current admission. Hormone stimulating tests revealed a slightly impaired pituitary function, including subtle hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and borderline growth hormone (GH) deficiency. The present case is the first report of a slightly impaired pituitary function in an aniridia patient with a heterozygous PAX6 mutation.
We herein report the case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with bilateral upper lobe volume loss and pleural irregularities with hilar retraction. She had undergone allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia nine years earlier. A surgical lung biopsy showed pleural thickening and subpleural alveolar collapse and fibrosis, consistent with a diagnosis of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Antecedent sicca syndrome and the absence of other causes of fibroelastosis suggested that these abnormalities were associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). PPFE as a late, noninfectious complication is rare; however, the present case suggests a new class of BMT-related pulmonary complications associated with cGVHD.
The bacterial species in the Streptococcus anginosus group (S. constellatus, S. anginosus, S. intermedius) are important causative pathogens of bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary abscesses and empyema. However, the bacteria in this group are primarily oral resident bacteria and unable to grow significantly on ordinary aerobic culture media. We experienced a case of pneumonia and empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius detected using a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and pleural effusion, but not sputum. Even when applying the molecular method, sputum samples are occasionally unsuitable for identifying the causative pathogens of lower respiratory tract infections.
We herein describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with anemia and an 8-month history of weight loss. Bone marrow aspiration showed increased myeloblasts. The histopathology findings of biopsy specimens of the right cervical lymph node and intestinal mass indicated B-lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD) with Hodgkin lymphoma-like morphologic features and polymorphous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), respectively. In addition, both types of lymphoma cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA-1. The patient was diagnosed with EBV-associated B-LPD and simultaneous acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This is the first case of a patient diagnosed with simultaneous EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly and AML.
We herein report the case of a 63-year-old woman with an acute spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma who presented with acute hemiparesis and was successfully managed with surgery. Based on a literature review of 50 cases of spontaneous cervical epidural hematomas, we concluded that the relatively high frequency of hemiparesis (12 of 50 cases, 24%) is the result of the fact that epidural hematomas are predominantly distributed dorsolaterally in the region of the mid and lower cervical spine, leading to unilateral cervical cord compression. Clinicians should keep in mind that acute hemiparesis can be caused by spontaneous cervical epidural hematomas for which intravenous thrombolysis is contraindicated.
A 71-year-old woman presented with a high-grade fever, neck pain, anemia and thrombocytopenia. After performing further examinations, we concluded that she had simultaneously developed large vessel vasculitis and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Although glucocorticoid administration improved her clinical symptoms, the MDS transformed into acute myeloid leukemia and she died one year after receiving the diagnosis. The occurrence of immune-mediated disorders in patients with MDS is a well-known phenomenon; however, large vessel vasculitis is a rare complication of MDS. Our case suggests that the association between systemic vasculitis and MDS may result in poor outcomes.
We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces meyeri-induced meningitis that occurred in a patient of advanced age with poor oral hygiene. Although Gram staining of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed Gram-positive rods and a blood culture was positive for the organism, a bacterial culture of the CSF was negative. Anaerobic cultures of CSF specimens are not routinely performed; however, anaerobes are sometimes involved in central nervous system infection. We therefore believe that anaerobic cultures should be considered in high-risk cases, such as those involving necrotizing bowel lesions or poor oral hygiene. A negative result on a CSF culture can result in misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.