Objective Early recurrence (ER) after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) is expected to resolve within the recommended 3-month blanking period, irrespective of the ablation device used. To compare the occurrence and relationship of AF within the blanking period and subsequent late recurrence (LR) with radiofrequency (RF) and cryoballoon (CB) ablation.
Methods A retrospective analysis of 294 patients (mean age=62±9, 70.0% male) undergoing PVI for drug-refractory paroxysmal AF was done. After categorizing the patients into the RF group (n=152) and the CB group (n=142), a group-wise comparison was done to investigate the impact of ER on LR throughout a 2-year follow-up.
Results The groups were similar regarding the occurrence of ER (RF=22.4%, CB=24.6%, p=0.62), while LR was significantly higher in the RF group (p=0.003). ER was associated with LR in the RF group (p<0.01) but not in the CB group (p=0.08), while a significant independent association with an increased LR risk was observed [hazard ratio (HR) 6.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.56-10.51, p<0.01]. RF ablation also significantly increased the risk of LR (HR=2.93; 95% CI=1.64-5.23, p<0.01).
Conclusion A recurrence of atrial arrhythmia is more frequent with RF-PVI than with CB-PVI for patients with paroxysmal AF. ER and RF-ablation are strong predictors for LR after the 3-month blanking period.
Objective Thrombocytosis can occur as a primary event accompanying hematological diseases or as a secondary event. Since the publication of the World Health Organization classification in 2008, thrombocytosis is now generally defined as a platelet count above 450×109/L. Furthermore, the discovery of driver-gene mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) has simplified the diagnostic approach for thrombocytosis. To identify the causes of thrombocytosis using this new definition, we conducted a retrospective study.
Methods We identified outpatients and inpatients aged 20 years or older with platelet counts >450×109/L in a half-year period at a single institute and analyzed the causes of thrombocytosis and associated clinical characteristics.
Results Among 1,202 patients with thrombocytosis, 150 (12.5%) had primary and 999 (83.1%) had secondary thrombocytosis. Of these patients with primary thrombocytosis, 129 (86%) had at least 1 molecular marker indicative of MPNs. The major causes of secondary thrombocytosis were tissue injury (32.2%), infection (17.1%), chronic inflammatory disorders (11.7%) and iron deficiency anemia (11.1%). The median platelet count and the incidence of thrombosis were significantly higher in patients with primary thrombocytosis than in those with secondary thrombocytosis.
Conclusion Thrombocytosis mainly occurs as a secondary event; however, it is important to determine the cause of and prevent thrombosis, particularly in cases of primary thrombocytosis.
Objective Currently, treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma is challenging. Although bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone-cisplatin-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-etoposide (VTD-PACE), a potent combination of a proteasome inhibitor, immunomodulatory drug, and conventional chemotherapeutics, is a widely used regimen, its efficacy and safety are unclear.
Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 35 patients treated with VTD-PACE.
Results The overall response rate was 65.7% (complete response, 5.7%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-15.0] and 20.0 (95% CI, 17.5-22.5) months, respectively. Twenty-two (62.9%) patients developed grade 3-4 infections, and no therapy-related deaths occurred. Sixteen of 25 patients (64%) underwent stem cell harvest successfully with more than 2.0×106/kg of CD34 cells after VTD-PACE. Twenty-two patients underwent autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The response and survival durations were short in patients without SCT after VTD-PACE [median PFS: 4.0 (95% CI, 2.7-5.3) months; OS: 14.0 (6.9-21.0) months]; however, these responses significantly improved with SCT following VTD-PACE. The PFS was 8.0 (NA) months (p=0.024), and the OS was 21.0 (19.1-22.8) months (p=0.019).
Conclusion VTD-PACE is an effective and tolerable salvage regimen and feasible bridging therapy for SCT.
Objective This study aimed to validate the efficacy of the complete lateral position method among elderly patients with severe dysphagia.
Methods We enrolled 103 patients >65 years old who were diagnosed with severe dysphagia via the fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing and were treated with the complete lateral position method at Hida Municipal Hospital between February 1, 2015, and October 31, 2020. Patients treated with the complete lateral position method were included in the lateral position group, and patients treated with conventional methods were included in the control group. The mortality rates were then compared between the lateral position and control groups.
Results All patients had severe dysphagia. However, the complete lateral position method significantly decreased the mortality rate in the lateral position group compared with the control group (64.7% vs. 38.8%; p<0.01). In the lateral position group, approximately 55.6% of patients who were discharged from the hospital were able to safely take food orally again in the sitting position. Furthermore, the complete lateral position method significantly shortened the fasting period and improved the prognosis in patients whose condition had progressed due to senility in the lateral position group compared with the control group (17.3 vs. 8.8 days, p<0.05; 28.4 vs. 67.5 days, p<0.05)
Conclusion The complete lateral position method facilitated safe oral ingestion among elderly patients with severe dysphagia. Furthermore, safe oral ingestion decreased the mortality rate and shortened the fasting period at the end of life. The method is easy to implement and does not require the use of special devices or techniques. It can therefore be a useful approach in the care of elderly patients with severe dysphagia.
A 74-year-old woman with recurrent gastric cancer underwent laparotomy for peritoneal dissemination, and the damaged jejunum formed a jejunocutaneous fistula. Because conservative treatment alone could not cure the fistula, we performed an endoscopic placement of a partially covered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) to cover the fistula. After the procedure, the contrast medium no longer leaked from the intestinal lumen. One month after stent placement, the cutaneous opening had closed. This case report demonstrates the potential for using partially covered SEMS to treat intractable jejunocutaneous fistula in patients with terminal-stage malignant tumors.
Shiitake mushrooms are edible mushrooms popular in East Asian cuisine. We herein report a 69-year-old man with abdominal distension and vomiting after ingesting several pieces of sautéed Shiitake mushrooms. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed ring-shaped and crescent-shaped low-density objects (-100 to -300 Hounsfield units) in the ileum. Based on the specific shapes and CT numbers of the foreign bodies, he was diagnosed with small bowel obstruction due to Shiitake mushrooms. After conservative treatment, he passed four pieces of Shiitake mushrooms. Despite the rarity, the condition can be diagnosed before exploratory surgery by careful and detailed interpretation of CT findings.
The most common sites of breast cancer metastasis include the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, and brain. Gastrointestinal tract metastasis is rarely seen, and hypopharyngeal metastasis is extremely rare. We herein report a case of late distant recurrence of breast cancer and synchronous metastasis to the hypopharynx, stomach, ileum, bones, and lymph nodes almost 24 years after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first case of synchronous metastasis to the hypopharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs, especially after a long interval following primary mastectomy.
An 82-year-old man with fever and back pain was referred to our hospital and was thus found to be thrombocytopenic. A bone marrow biopsy revealed the diffuse infiltration of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Computed tomography revealed a large hepatic mass. Considering the risk of bleeding due to thrombocytopenia, a needle biopsy was not performed. The patient rapidly deteriorated and died 10 days after presentation. An autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of primary hepatic NEC, with diffuse metastasis to the spleen, bone marrow, and systemic lymph nodes. This is an extremely rare case of NEC presenting with thrombocytopenia due to extensive bone marrow and splenic infiltration.
Spontaneous coronary artery rupture (SCAR) is a rare, life-threatening disease, and the diagnosis is often challenging. We herein report a 70-year-old man who suffered sudden cardiac arrest due to SCAR with pericardial fluid. At first, emergent coronary angiography (CAG) failed to detect abnormalities. The emergent operation revealed that the presence of pericardial fluid was caused by bleeding that had spontaneously occurred at the left circumflex artery (LCx). A careful retrospective CAG review showed slight contrast spillage from the distal LCx. SCAR should be suspected in patients with unknown etiology of pericardial effusion, and careful inspection of CAG is necessary.
To our knowledge, there have been no reports of right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) with ventricular free wall vegetation caused by Abiotrophia defectiva. We herein report a case of RSIE caused by A. defectiva with ventricular free wall vegetation in a 27-year-old man with ventricular septal defect (VSD). Computed tomography showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodular shadows. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated right ventricular free wall vegetation at the jet stream. Blood culture revealed A. defectiva. These findings are consistent with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Treatment with ceftriaxone and gentamicin and subsequent surgical VSD closure improved the patient's condition without recurrence.
Primary cardiac lymphomas (PCLs) are extremely rare tumors with a poor prognosis. They usually involve the pericardium and the right side of the heart. PCLs arising from the left side of the heart are relatively rare, with bilateral cases being even rarer. We herein report a case of PCL arising from both the right and left sides of the heart in a 65-year-old man. Multiple imaging modalities clearly demonstrated the tumors at the initial evaluation. The pathological diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare type of endocrine cancer. Recurrence and metastasis are common after surgery, and refractory hypercalcemia often leads to a poor prognosis. However, there are currently no specific strategies for PC recurrence. We herein report a 61-year-old Japanese man with metastatic PC who was treated with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor. In this case, the serum calcium level was under control for 10 months after the initiation of sorafenib. This case suggests that combination therapy with sorafenib, evocalcet, and denosumab may be an alternative, stronger management option for refractory hypercalcemia in recurrent PC.
Cushing's disease causes numerous metabolic disorders, cognitive decline, and sarcopenia, leading to deterioration of the general health in older individuals. Cushing's disease can be treated with transsphenoidal surgery, but thus far, surgery has often been avoided in older patients. We herein report an older woman with Cushing's disease whose cognitive impairment and sarcopenia improved after transsphenoidal surgery. Although cognitive impairment and sarcopenia in most older patients show resistance to treatment, our case indicates that normalization of the cortisol level by transsphenoidal surgery can be effective in improving the cognitive impairment and muscle mass loss caused by Cushing's disease.
A 25-year-old man presented with acute kidney injury (AKI), massive proteinuria and hyperuricemia after epileptic seizures. His AKI improved along with the disappearance of proteinuria after corticosteroid treatment. A kidney biopsy revealed no significant glomerular abnormalities, but varying degrees of tubular injury, such as proximal tubular simplification, mild distal tubular proliferation, and Tamm-Horsfall protein-like material accumulation with extravasation into the interstitium, were noted. A further analysis revealed the intratubular depositions of uric acid crystals, indicating the involvement of acute uric acid nephropathy associated with seizures. Our patient's condition is rare, and the clinicopathological aspects of the diagnostic challenges are discussed.
Anti-asparaginyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase (KS) antibodies, detected in <5% patients with anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibody syndrome, are strongly associated with interstitial pneumonia but not myositis and skin symptoms. A recent report suggested that most patients with interstitial pneumonia and anti-KS antibody (KS-ILD) may present with chronic disease. We herein report a rare case of severe acute respiratory failure in a KS-ILD patient requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO is useful for facilitating not only lung rest until recovery but also the definitive diagnosis and treatment of ILD. KS-ILD can develop acutely with fulminant respiratory failure, as observed in this case.
Chest symptoms and pleural effusion due to serositis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) are occasionally misdiagnosed as acute pneumonia. However, the actual pulmonary involvement of FMF is extremely rare. A 67-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to repeated and transient anterior chest pain. Chest images revealed a moderate amount of pericardial fluid, slight bilateral pleural effusion, and infiltrations in both lower lung lobes. Colchicine treatment without antibiotics rapidly improved these symptoms and findings. Pericarditis, pleurisy and the response to colchicine indicated FMF. FMF should be considered as a causative disease of pulmonary infiltrations, especially if it occurs repeatedly.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are widely used for the treatment of various cancers. However, paradoxical exacerbation of neoplasms, referred to as "hyperprogressive disease," has been reported in a proportion of patients treated with anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) blockade. We herein report a case of acute adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) that developed shortly after the administration of nivolumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, to treat non-small-cell lung cancer. There were no signs of ATL before the administration of nivolumab, and seropositivity for human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) was confirmed after the development of acute ATL. We speculate that nivolumab likely contributed to the development of acute ATL.
A 58-year-old man presented with painful edema of the extremities, and a diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) was confirmed. He also met the criteria for hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), but there were no findings suggestive of malignancies or hematologic neoplasms despite a close examination. He was started on steroid therapy but subsequently developed severe liver dysfunction, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and renal involvement. The diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified was finally established by a bone marrow reexamination and liver biopsy. In cases of eosinophilia, EF, and/or HES, it is important to suspect an intrinsic abnormality, including potential T-cell lymphoma.
A 51-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis. Diffuse cerebral edema appeared after improvement of meningitis with appropriate treatment and worsened for two months. Due to brain herniation, brain tissue leaked through the incision made during the drain insertion in a hydrocephalus surgery. We found pathological evidence of significant neutrophil infiltration with a few lymphocytes without bacterial detection in the degraded brain tissue. The present case indicates that fatal cerebral edema with significant neutrophil infiltration may develop even after appropriate treatment for L. monocytogenes meningitis.
Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Delayed facial palsy (DFP) is a symptom that occurs after other neurological symptoms begin to recover within four weeks from the onset of MFS. As there have been few detailed reports about DFP in MFS cases treated with additional immunotherapy, we investigated three cases of DFP in MFS treated with additional steroid therapies. The duration of facial palsy in our cases was 12-24 days. No severe adverse effects were observed. Although adverse side effects should be carefully monitored, additional steroid therapy might be a treatment option for MFS-DFP.
We herein report a case of cerebral infarct in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection who died of aspiration pneumonia. The postmortem examination of the brain revealed embolic infarct with negative findings on quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) as well as immunohistochemistry to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The systemic examination only revealed low copy numbers of SARS-CoV-2 in the bronchus. This is the first and so far only autopsy case of COVID-19 infection with pathologic and virologic findings of the postmortem brain in Japan.
A 79-year-old woman was evaluated for weakness, dysphagia, and elevated levels of creatinine kinase. Her medical history included stage IIIB cervical cancer eight years previously, which improved after undergoing radiotherapy. Two years later, cancer recurred in the right hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the patient was successfully treated with chemotherapy. Physical examinations showed Gottron's sign, the V sign, the Holster sign, and nailfold erythema. Computed tomography revealed left supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, compatible with cancer recurrence. Anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP2) antibody was found in her sera and a diagnosis of cancer-associated dermatomyositis was thus made. This case suggests that cancer progression over a period of years may have triggered the onset of autoimmunity against NXP2.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since 2019, and mRNA vaccines for the disease have been rapidly delivered to limit the severity of infection. However, while these vaccines are effective in reducing the morbidity and severity of the disease, some patients develop severe adverse drug reactions and new-onset autoimmune phenomena, such as myocarditis, thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, and vasculitis. In addition, some patients develop arthritis following vaccination, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We herein report a case of new-onset seropositive RA following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Although tests for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody had been negative three years before vaccination, the patient developed seropositive RA following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been delivered worldwide to prevent the spread of the disease, and almost all Japanese have received the mRNA vaccines "BNT162b2" (Pfizer-BioNTech) or "mRNA-1273" (Moderna). These vaccines have shown efficacy and safety with only minor adverse drug reactions. However, some patients develop severe adverse drug reactions, including autoimmune reactions. In addition, systemic vasculitis, mainly small-vessel vasculitis, following COVID-19 vaccination, has been reported. However, only a few investigators have reported medium-vessel vasculitis following vaccination. We herein report a case of medium-vessel vasculitis presenting with myalgia as the initial clinical manifestation following COVID-19 Moderna vaccination.
Persistent viral shedding or prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom is one of unresolved problem in immunocompromised individuals. We herein report an HIV/AIDS patient with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and prolonged COVID-19, possibly due to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. His viral shedding and COVID-19 symptoms persisted for 39 days but were promptly resolved following sotrovimab monoclonal antibody therapy. This case suggests that prolonged COVID-19 and persistent viral shedding due to severe cellular immunodeficiency can occur in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron infection and that sotrovimab is effective in the treatment of prolonged COVID-19 caused by omicron/BA.1.