This paper surveys empirical analyses of offshoring (offshore sourcing) based on Japanese firm-level data. Before the literature review, the background of recent active research on this topic is briefly overviewed by referring to increasing availability of microdata and the development of firm heterogeneity trade theory. The research topics covered in this paper include the relation with firm’s productivity, inter-firm networking, boundaries of firms, and the impact on employment. The data source used by each study is explained with special emphasis on Japanese unique data. The directions for future research is also suggested. JEL classifications:F14, F23, D22
In this paper, we investigate the effect of fiscal transfers in a fiscal union in relation to a Capital Markets Union (CMU) for the euro area using Keynesian and Kaldorian two-country models with a monetary union and imperfect capital mobility. We find that an increase in capital mobility between countries in a CMU is a destabilizing factor, whereas an increase in fiscal transfers between such countries is a stabilizing factor. Fiscal transfers mitigate both the instability caused by an austerity policy and an increase in capital mobility in the spending and recipient countries in the fiscal transfer mechanism.
In this paper we followed Fisman and Wei’s (2004) approach to estimate the effects of import tariff rates on import tariff evasion. We focus on East Asian countries import of machinery products and our main objective is to test if the trade realized inside production networks (intra-regional) is less prone to import tariff evasion than imports from countries outside it (inter-regional). In this study we considered the differences in tariff evasion between intra and inter-regional imports;parts and components and final products;and the heterogeneity between electric machinery and transport equipment. The data provide evidences that intra-regional imports are less prone to tariff evasion than inter-regional imports.Besides this, we identify differences in the channels employed to evade tariff. The results suggest that underreport of quantities was the main channel employed in intra-regional imports tariff evasion, while inter-regional import tariffs were evaded through unit price misreport. JEL:F14, K42, H26
Theoretical analyses of self-enforcing international environmental agreements (IEAs) have adopted the assumption of identical countries. In this paper, we assume that each country is endowed with country-specific pollution abatement technology, and show that the asymmetry of abatement technology across countries plays an important role in IEA formation. Our welfare analysis presents that under an asymmetry of technology, larger size of IEA could result in a welfare loss. We also find that abatement technology transfer among countries could lead to a welfare loss by unstabilizing self-enforcing IEA.