Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a treat-able and prevent-able inborn error of metabolism which leads to severe mental retardation and neurobehavioral abnormalities. A screening program, especially for early detection, combined with a Phe-restricted therapeutic diet can help to control the process of PKU of most patients. The China government has put more emphasis on newborn screening and treatment against PKU, yet by comparing the situation of newborn screening and treatment against PKU in China and the relatively developed countries ‒ United States, United Kingdom and Japan, the newborn screening and treatment against PKU in China is relatively weak and many deficiencies are found. More studies concerning multi-stage target blood Phe concentration criteria, a policy that requires newborn screening has to be taken, better financial support for newborn screening, publicity for newborn screening, and national guidelines for treatment of PKU may be prospects in China and may provide some support for better development of newborn screening and treatment against PKU in China.
Apert syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic and congenital disease characterized by craniosynostosis and syndactly of hands and feet. AS patients generally require lifelong management, however there are still no effective treatment methods except surgery. In recent years, research has made great progress in the pathogenesis of AS. FGFR2 mediates extracellular signals into cells and the mutations in the FGFR2 gene cause AS occurrence. Activated FGFs/FGFR2 signaling disrupt the balance of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis via its downstream signal pathways. However, how the pathways transform the balance is not well understood and contradictions have occurred in different studies. In this review, we'll focus on these problems to get a better understanding of AS pathogenesis.
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder, resulting from lack of gene expression on the paternally inherited chromosome 15. It is important to determine diagnostic methods for PWS for early treatment. In this study, we report a newborn with Praderwilli syndrome. We further summarized the genetic testing results in the Chinese literature and the relevance of high resolution chromosome and genome-wide copy number variation analysis. There is a heterozygosis deletion of a 5 Mb region in the paternal chromosome 15q11.3-q13.3 by genome-wide copy number variation analysis. However, there is no abnormality in high resolution chromosome karyotype analysis. In conclusion, genomewide copy number variation analysis is an effective and specific diagnosis method, which will provide scientific evidence for the clinical diagnosis and early treatment of PWS.
The term soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) embraces more than 50 different sub-types that are often associated with poor prognosis. Only a very limited number of agents are active against STS. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide are widely accepted as the most effective compounds. However, their low response rates and poor impact on the overall survival of the patients illustrate the need for new treatment options. Among them, leiomyosarcomas are one of the most frequently occurring subtypes. In spite of the relatively high incidence of leiomyosarcomas, the overall effectiveness of the currently available systemic treatments is still poor. The heterogeneity of its biological origin, clinical behavior and responsiveness to chemotherapy, together with the scarcity of successful clinical trials, makes the treatment of leiomyosarcoma especially challenging. In addition, the evidencebased treatment for leiomyosarcoma comes from trials in which, in the majority of cases, no distinctions have been made among the different STS sub-types. As a result, every therapeutic decision should be made on an individual basis in collaboration with the patient. The results of new specific histology-designed clinical trials should aid decision making in this complex field.
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare mitochondrial retinopathy, caused by mutations in subunits of complex I of the respiratory chain, which leads to elevated levels of oxidative stress and an insufficient energy supply. This molecular pathology is thought to be responsible for the dysfunction and eventual apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells in the eye, which ultimately results in blindness. Many strategies, ranging from neuroprotectants, antioxidants, anti-apoptotic- and anti-inflammatory compounds have been tested with mixed results. Currently, the most promising compounds are shortchain quinones that have been shown to protect the vision of LHON patients during the early stages of the disease. This commentary gives a brief overview on the current status of tested therapeutics and also addresses future developments such as the use of gene therapy that hopefully will provide safe and efficient therapy options for all LHON patients.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Survival time for an AD patient is generally 4 to 6 years after diagnosis, however, survival time can be as long as 20 years from the detection of initial symptoms, which can surface in the 30s, 40s, and beyond. This window of opportunity suggests that many people can prolong their life with life-changing choices related to diet, exercise, nutritional supplements, and nutraceuticals. This was emphasized in many recent studies and was described in detail in the book "Minimizing the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease" published in the USA in 2012.
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