The study revisited the largely accepted idea to deal with sprawl by replacing cul-de-sac/curve-linear street with the traditional checkerboard system in community design. Recent discussions suggest that a neighborhood with cul-de sac street pattern can promote accessibility and street connectivity, if it is designed integrated with open space and pedestrian paths, while creating safe and quiet residential environments. A good example is the discarded old wisdom, the Radburn. To date, the past researchers did not acknowledge the potential of the cul-de-sac neighborhoods in achieving the benefits New Urbansits strive to accomplish. This study tried to fill this gap by comparing a conventional suburban neighborhood, a neighborhood with creative cul-de-sac street pattern, and the grid street neighborhood.
The study of population changes has always been at the centre of public policy and planning. People’s movements, interactions and behaviors will inevitably have an important impact on the society and environment that they are living in. At the same time, such changes will also lead to an evolution of the population itself over time. Advances in technologies and new tools often bring new visions to such studies. To facilitate strategic decision making and to plan developments for a more sustainable future, it is vital to study and understand the changes in our population. This paper introduces Moses, an individual based model that simulates the UK population through discrete demographic processes at a fine spatial scale for 30 years from 2001 to 2031. The modeling method is grounded in a dynamic spatial MicroSimulation Model (MSM), but also introduced Agent Based Model (ABM) insights to strengthen the modeling of movements, interactions and behaviors of distinctively different sub-populations. The MSM can not only produce projections of baseline population with rich information on individuals to facilitate various studies, it can be also useful in providing an assessment of multiple scenarios for different planning applications. In this paper, we will demonstrate three spatial planning applications in the areas of residential land use planning, public health planning and public transport planning. Whilst the demonstrations are deliberately made simple, the contribution of intelligent agents in the modeling of interaction, behavior and the impact of personal histories on demographic changes is clearly shown. Within this framework, it enables researchers to effectively model the heterogeneous decision making units on a large scale, as well as provide the flexibility to introduce different modeling techniques to strengthen various aspects of the model.
The heat island effect influences most of the major cities around the world. This urban phenomenon occurs because air temperatures in densely built urban areas are higher than the temperatures of the surrounding rural countryside. In tropical cities, the exterior environment is already extremely warm due to high air temperatures, especially during dry seasons. However careful planning and development of exterior spaces can reduce the adverse impact of these temperatures. This paper investigates the effect of landscaping on the thermal performance of housing in a hot-humid tropical climate. The climatic parameters, physical characteristics of building construction, and landscape design of three private houses in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia were measured and surveyed. The study focuses on the potential impact of shade trees and different types of foliage on the thermal performance of houses of different ages. Sets of instrument were placed in several outdoor and indoor locations around the houses. Result show that the outdoor air temperatures of the well-landscaped houses were usually lower compared to the minimally landscaped house. The main findings show that well-designed landscaping around single-family houses could potentially reduce heat build-up by shading, evapotranspiration, and wind channelling by as much as 3°C.
Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion offers a sustainable method of producing electricity to maintain and improve the standard of living within cities. Planning for large-scale adoption of PV in cities, however, provides a challenge to urban planners because of the distributed nature of PV. This paper develops a new methodology to determine a city's PV potential by analysis of solar PV generation potential by distribution feeder given the solar exposure and orientation of rooftops serviced by a specific feeder within the city. The methodology is applied to an example feeder, and then can be scaled to apply to the network of any city. The method comprises the following steps: (i) rooftop extraction from aerial photos; (ii) service parcel and territory matching based on geographical information system (GIS) data; (iii) simulation of the solar exposure of the customers connected to distribution feeders based on local meteorological conditions and the general roof orientation of the customers serviced by the feeder; and (iv) sensitivity analyses of electricity yield as a function of PV module efficiency. Experience from the case study such as trade offs between time consumption and data quality is discussed to highlight a need for connectivity between demographic information, electrical engineering schematics and GIS. Finally conclusions are developed to provide final methodology with the most and useful information from the highest constrained sources and can be adapted anywhere in the world.